Throw Away Your Multivitamins and Antioxidants! | Chris Kresser

Throw Away Your Multivitamins and Antioxidants!


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If you’ve been reading this blog for a while, you’ll know I’m not a big fan of supplements. I’ve always believed that it’s preferable to get the nutrients we need from whole foods, as they’re found in nature, rather than from isolated, synthetic sources like calcium supplements.

Unfortunately, modern medicine is obsessed with isolated, synthetic nutrients and has convinced itself that they have the same beneficial properties as nutrients found in whole foods.

A gigantic dietary supplement industry has arisen from this misguided belief. A 2006 National Institute of Health (NIH) conference (PDF) revealed that 20-30% of Americans use a multivitamin daily, forking over $23 billion a year to supplement manufacturers for the privilege. Many more Americans effectively take a multivitamin by eating fortified grain products, like Shredded Wheat cereal and Wonder Bread.

Most Supplements Don’t Work

With these statistics in mind, you might be surprised (or even shocked) to learn that clinical trials have shown that most of these supplements not only don’t work as intended, they actually make things worse.

The NIH conference examined the efficacy of 13 vitamins and 15 essential minerals as reported in long-term, randomized clinical trials.

First the positive results:

  • A combo of calcium and vitamin D was shown to increase bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk in postmenopausal women.
  • There was some evidence that selenium reduces risk of certain cancers.
  • Vitamin E may decrease cardiovascular deaths in women and prostate cancer deaths in male smokers.
  • Vitamin D showed some cardiovascular benefit.

Um, not too impressive considering the near universal faith considering how many people are popping these pills on a daily basis.

Now for the negative results:

  • Trials of niacin (B3), folate, riboflavin (B2), and vitamins B6 and B12 showed no positive effect on chronic disease occurrence in the general population
  • There was no evidence to recommend beta-carotene and some evidence that it may cause harm in smokers.
  • High-dose vitamin E supplementation increased the risk of death from all causes.

Then there’s the now infamous JAMA meta-analysis on antioxidants. They looked at 68 trials with over 230,000 participants. Here’s what they found:

Treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality. The potential roles of vitamin C and selenium on mortality need further study.


(Re)-Introducing the Concept of Food Synergy

It’s crazy to me that so many health care practitioners – both conventional and alternative – tell their patients to take multivitamins and antioxidants when their is little support for that position in the medical literature.

That’s why I was so happy to come across a study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition addressing this issue. It’s called “Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition” and it’s one of the most encouraging pieces of research I’ve seen in a while. I’m relieved to learn that their are researchers working in the nutrition field that don’t buy into the synthetic nutrient hype, and understand the importance of whole food.

Since it’s such a great article, I’m going to quote from it and riff off of a few passages.

A person or animal eating a diet consisting solely of purified nutrients in their Dietary Reference Intake amounts, without benefit of the coordination inherent in food, may not thrive and probably would not have optimal health. This review argues for the primacy of food over supplements in meeting nutritional requirements of the population.

This is the crux of the authors’ argument, which I’m 100% behind. They congratulate science on the discovery of fundamental nutrients such as vitamin C, and clarifying their role in health and disease. The realization that scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency has saved a lot of lives. But, the approach to nutrition that is fundamentally guided by nutrients has a dark side:

The aspect of science that reduces to fundamental principles, however, can lead to oversimplification and ultimately stifle understanding and progress.

Translation: reductionistic thinking can get us in trouble if we’re not careful.

The concept of food synergy is based on the proposition that the interrelations between constituents in foods are significant. This significance is dependent on the balance between constituents within the food, how well the constituents survive digestion, and the extent to which they appear biologically active at the cellular level.

Yes! It makes me so happy to see this in a major, peer-reviewed journal. The authors go on to define several aspects of food synergy:

  • A buffer effect, i.e. the effect of a large intake of a particular nutrient may vary depending on if it is taken in concentrated form or as part of a whole food.
  • Nutrients can affect each other’s absorption, such as copper-zinc and magnanese-iron. These interdependent nutrients tend to appear together in foods, but not necessarily in isolated supplements.
  • It matters whether the nutrients have been produced by technologic or biological processes. Trans fat produced in ruminant animals (such as conjugated linoleic acids in dairy products) are beneficial to health, whereas trans fats produced in the processing of industrial seed oils are highly toxic.

Then they provide evidence that whole foods are more effective than supplements in meeting nutrient needs:

  • Tomato consumption has a greater effect on human prostrate tissue than an equivalent amount of lycopene.
  • Whole pomegranates and broccoli had greater antiproliferative and in vitro chemical effects than did some of their individual constituents.
  • Free radicals were reduced by consumption of brassica vegetables, independent of micronutrient mix.

Note: In the supplement world, the idea is that “a nutrient is a nutrient, a molecule is a molecule” regardless of what source it comes from. These folks claim that it doesn’t matter whether a nutrient comes from a whole food complex or a laboratory.

Did you know that most vitamin B1 supplements are made from derivatives of coal tar? That ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is made by reacting high-fructose corn syrup with sulfuric acid? That many iron supplements are made from rusty nails? I don’t know about you, but I’d rather eat some meat and vegetables to get those nutrients.

Should we all take a daily multivitamin as “insurance” against nutrient deficiencies? Here’s how the authors respond to that question:

In our view, the better “insurance” would be to eat food with a broad coverage of nutrients and take no supplements at all, unless they are deemed necessary to fix a specific medical problem.

Hallelujah! I’d like to buy these researchers a beer.

Okay, Not All Supplements Are Bad

Now that I’ve made my point (or at least I hope I have), I need to add a qualifier or two.

There are a few supplements that I do recommend – in certain situations.

Vitamin D may be necessary for those who live in northern latitudes, especially during the winter months. Low vitamin D is associated with so many diseases that it’s probably a good idea to keep levels up. The first choice would be to do this by eating seafood, but that’s not always practical or desirable for a number of reasons. Cod liver oil is my second choice for maintaining D levels. But note that this is more of a whole food than it is a supplement. In some cases when people are very deficient, i.e. under 25 ng/ml, I may suggest adding a D3 supplement in addition to the cod liver oil.

Fish oil has been shown to provide great benefit for cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory conditions. My preference here is that people reduce their intake of omega-6 fats and simply eat cold-water, oily fish a couple times a week to meet their omega-3 needs. Unfortunately, people have been scared away (unnecessarily, which is a topic for a future post) from eating fish, or perhaps it’s difficult for them to find or afford wild fish on a regular basis. In this situation I may recommend a fish oil. I recommend Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil from Rosita as my preferred cod liver oil product. It is real Norwegian cod liver oil that is fresh, raw & handcrafted from wild livers using a very rare ancient extraction technique which uses nature to separate the oil from its liver. No chemicals, solvents and mechanical devices are ever used during the extraction process, and it is free of heavy metals, dioxins, PCBs, and other contaminants (verified by independent testing on Rosita’s website).

Magnesium is one of the most crucial nutrients in our diet, and many people are deficient. It protects against nearly every modern disease, and can be therapeutic for difficult to treat inflammatory conditions such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, arthritis, etc. Seaweed and various nuts and seeds are high in magnesium, but occasionally supplementation may be useful. I suggest using a highly-absorbable form such as magnesium glycinate.

Vitamin K2 has recently been revealed as an important nutrient in protecting against heart disease. It does this by telling the body to put calcium in the bones and teeth where it belongs, and not in the arteries and soft tissue. K2 is found in the fat of grass-fed animals and certain fermented foods like natto and hard cheese. I recognize that not everyone eats these foods for various reasons, so if someone has heart disease or is at risk for it I may recommend either Cod Liver / Butter Oil, and/or an MK-4 supplement. For more on vitamin K, see my post Vitamin K2: The Missing Nutrient.

But even in these cases, I only suggest that people take these if they need them, and if they can’t (or won’t) get the nutrients from foods.


Join the conversation

  1. I think it reductionist as you put it to state throw away your antioxidants and multivitamins. The studies you refer to which “discredit” multivitamin use surely aren’t using bioavailable nutrients and I’d bet they don’t include vit k2 in the formulation, nor choline, nor alpha linolenic acid nor linoleic acid. When I’d have to eat 3 lbs of sardines to get the rda for vit b6 it’s clear to me we should be supporting proper multivitamin use not no multivitamin use. It may be we need to readjust the reccommended daily intake system to account for synergies though clearly the food of today is lacking in the quantity of nutrients deemed necessary for health. Give me a job I’ll tell everyone what’s what. A nutrition rant section

    • Agee with this statement, vitamins can also play an important role in individuals who have sibo and are not synthesizing vitamins properly such as; b12 and vit k2… Astaxanthin is also a powerful antioxidant and can actually be used to stabilize excess alpha tocopherol ingestion … Antioxidants are particularly important in supplement form for reducing inflammation to cell membranes, the primary offender in chronic inflammation.

      • Yes.. it’s irresponsible for an author not to consider those who absolutely need them. I’ve akeays liked Chris — but every so often he is completely out of touch.

        These articles are written far too “idealistic” This isn’t reality for most!

  2. I had thyroid removed in 2000 for Pap Cancer. I was on Armour for 15 years and just recently started on Erfa thyroid The Armour stopped working for me since made by Actavis. I supplement the Erfa with Vit C Vit E by Metagenics and Calcium with Vit D I chew it for better absorption. I take Cinnamon for lowering blood sugar and take garlic and low dose aspirin for lowering blood pressure. If it doesn t come down I take 10mg vasotec. Also tale Adrenal Complex and 10mg Dhea time release. Heart beats funny lately and noticed when I take Magnesium it feels stronger. Take Fish oil and B12 and B Complex in evening. Does this sound like a good program Take another Erfa around 4-5 pm. 60mg. Sometimes another Erfa in evening if feeling weak. So overwhelmimg. Some days take Zinc 10 mg in morning and selenium in afternoon if feeling sluggish. Alive multivitamin in afternon. Vit D3 in afternoon if I remember. Erfa makes me feel good no headaches or brain fog just not sure on dose. Took 90-120 mg of Armour before changes and now not sure about 3rd dose of Erfa

    • Hi Chris, we have conversed slot. I found functional Dr. Which I cannot afford infusions right now. I was the person with many multiple problems. Your suggestion was to go to functional Dr. Well I found out that I cannot eat yeast or flour of any kind. I just started taking vitamins complex because of Malenaorption , malnutrition, I’ not sure it what I have besides slot of course infections, malfunction of thyroid, I had bio meridian done you wouldn’t believe all of the things I have. I do watch what I take I am a slow oxidiser mthfr homogynousc c677t and many things possibly Britonorrelosis. I am the one that is trying to quit smoking and drinking Pepsi. Although I am not completely over my additions I do somewhat know my body. I am blessed. The beta Carstene I am lacking because of my vision , even though I eat carrots .so I have to take a supplement until corrected. But I watch my intake. Haven’t started that yet, I also have high neurotransmitters and I was bitten by spider went systemic and much more, I take probiotics and sometimes enzymes for leaky gut. I also have dyabosis, I am drinking more water now but being honest still addicted and praying. I am eating a little more I also have l enviromental illness and steely, and vascular. So I use essential oils for my skin. There is alot more, herpes virus simplex and maybe more. Need prayers and I also want to see my family again in case I am infectious. Starting a little at a time liposomal glutathione. Wish me well as I do for you and your staff. Love, Becki Hattem

      • drinking coke and pepsi killed my sister She had cancer and drank 2 litres of this shit every day!

  3. Good article but what about whole food organic multivitamins? Are those organic multivitamins (like Garden of Life, New Chapter etc.) safe to take?

    • I would not ask any one person if any supplement is safe or not. All the research that everyone and anyone sites as their source of data, and twists in in one fashion or another, usually in favor of their views, is available to us all on the Internet, including all studies, both big and small, helpful and ridiculous. I’m guessing that the stance with this website is geared towards the idealistic view that we all can eat 100% correctly ALL THE TIME, nutrition wise, and can all afford to do so, I’d be leaning to the author saying what? I look at supplements as a cheap “insurance plan” for our health. (I picked up this term from Dr. Dean Ornish). Also, a GREAT resource for vitamin and mineral supplements is the Linus Pauling institute at Oregon State University. Mr Pauling was known for pioneering mega high dose vitamin c research, for cancer patients, and others starting in the 1970’s. The link:

      Fact: Even with the current sea of knowledge that we know about the human body, it’s still a grain of sand compared to what we don’t know yet.

      Use what we do know as a guideline.
      Work with your medical providers.
      Listen to your body.
      And research the hell out of anything that has to do with your body, and discuss with your doctor/medical professionals/Naturopath… Let’s work WITH the people who want to help us, not let them drive our bus 100% of the time.

      Oh, and take your vitamins! 🙂

      Cheers everyone!

    • I got sick on Garden of Life, but I have stomach issues, had to stop that. But it was highly recommended to me to try. You might try and see if it helps.

  4. I absolutely agree that it would be great to obtain all of our nutrition through our food. Unfortunately, soil-depletion, genetic-modification, and more have decreased the amount of nutrition in our foods. I eat well but know I cannot obtain everything I need from our food. Finally, more than a year ago, I found a customized supplementation which is individualized to me based on over 7500 peer-reviewed journals. I have never felt this good in years. Love to talk to anyone who might want to take a look at this too. Feel free to text or call me: 215-859-6496 — Jim

    • Jim, can’t call you, I’m in Brisbane and its the middle of the night for you…but I’m curious what you have found that works.

      I’m so frustrated by the food industry…every day I hear another fact, that may or may not be true…”don’t eat meat!”, “You must eat meat!” “supplement or die!” “supplements don’t work” “you must only eat organic” “organic is a joke…it’s all the same” It’s enough to drive a person nuts. Is it too much to ask for the truth? Perhaps we don’t know.

  5. I am all about natural dietary supplements, and am quite happy with the results of the Lady Soma Detox. I have taken other supplements in the past, but the Lady Soma is one of my favorites. I’ve only been taking them for about a week, but I already feel less bloated, more energized and my appetite isn’t as voracious.

  6. I agree and disagree. That is, I’d prefer to get all of my minerals and vitamins through food alone. And yet that seems near impossible. I tried the google; she found nothing. So I used the USDA Super Tracker and tried to formulate a day’s food intake, and you’d have to eat an insane amount to get your RDI. Never mind the fact that local, organic, fresh food is difficult for some people to find, let alone afford, and some other things, even conventional, are pretty expensive. In a perfect world we could all just eat, drink, and be merry, but unfortunately the world is a pile of fuck. (Though I could be doing it wrong. Do you have any guides/daily meal plans that get you 100% of your RDI? I’m not being snarky, I am seriously asking. The only ones I have found only have “some” 100% RDI, that is, they don’t have copper, magnesium, selenium, and others)
    And, as others have said, there’s a big difference between supplements made of coal tar and whole food supplements that are actually just that — whole foods in powder or liquid form. I think a more appropriate article would be that people need to carefully research what they’re buying, and also evaluate their own diet and if they really need supplementation. But I guess you were going for an alarmist title to get views?
    Also, vitamin D shouldn’t be supplemented. Which is funny, because most places that say “DON’T TAKE ANY SUPPLEMENTS!!!” always follow it up with “EXCEPT VITAMIN D!!” Honestly, this whole “supplements are useless” craze reminds me of the “eggs are bad!” “no, eggs are good!” “no, the yolks are bad but the whites are good!” shit. Supplement industry is booming? Journalism 101 says there’s no better time to tell everyone it’s all lies!

    • Check out
      They have a nice diet tracking program: You enter a list of foods, hit “save and analyze” and it tells you how much of the various RDAs those foods total up to. It is extremely easy to meet all the RDAs in under 2000 calories by eating perfectly reasonable foods.
      The people who say you would have to eat 5000 calories of food X to get enough of nutrient Y have usually picked a “food X” which is not notably high in nutrient Y. It is, yes, true that you’d have to eat 14,000 calories worth of ground beef to get the RDA of calcium. It’s also irrelevant.
      Caveats: The search feature is terrible (use google), they do not have all nutrients listed for some foods (try looking at something more generic – almonds instead of almond butter, etc), and they do not list iodine or chromium.
      But it is actually a rather fun way to spend time (if you are a nutrition weenie, anyway). How few calories can I “eat” to meet all the RDAs (I think it was 800), can I get to the RDA on zinc and choline on a vegan diet (yes, but it took 4 cups of beans and 1.5 lbs cruciferous veggies), etc.
      I find it is hard to get to 100% thiamine without pork and/or legumes, or to 100% pantothenic acid without some mushrooms. This last makes me wonder about the accuracy of the RDA and/or the accuracy of their data, since most humans who have ever lived have hardly been eating mushrooms every day!

      • You proved our point. It is difficult to get what you need through diet alone. If you have to work really hard piecing it together with just the right foods and amounts of foods and plan it with software and eat four cups of beans. Who the hell is going to do that all the time? The rigidity would drive all but the most anal and OCD people nuts.

        I find it odd that a natural health proponent would grab hold of big pharma studies intended to discredit nutritional supplementation and use them to tout the recommendation to throw away supplements.

        Many people from Abram Hoffer to Linus Pauling to the docs at the life extension foundation to Andrew Saul of have analyzed these studies and found all kinds of fatal flaws: using synthetic forms, not using high enough dosages to work etc etc. One problem is that nutrients work along with cofactors synergistically so it’s not effective to test them in isolation, but that is what mainstream medicine does is focus on isolated nutrients. Chris slams supplements saying we shouldn’t be taking isolated nutrients but experts in nutritional supplementation don’t recommend doing it that way.

        As far as the lab synthesized vs derived from food debate there is a lot of misinformation. Natural vitamins that are chemically identical to those in nature can be made in a lab just like lots of other elements can. I read a statement by Saly Fallon of The Weston Price Foundation that real food cures beri beri and or pellagra but that synthetic vitamins did not when used in epidemics. Well my bs meter went off so I went a researching. I could find nothing to substantiate her claim and scads to contradict it. I found multiple reports of treatment of people in epidemic outbreaks and the documentation said that the people who had high dose b vitamin supplementation got well much faster than those on foods high in b vitamins only.

        There are a lot of earthy crunchy alternative type folks ( think chiros, accupuncturists, naturopaths etc) who are not very scientific and base what they believe more on their feelings and bro science.

        • Your a smart lady, Lisa Truitt, and the people you spoke about Abram Hoffer, Linus Pauling, Saul, Klenner ,…. are the True Giants of Health. They have Proven their results by the Health they have in themselves and their families.
          My grandfather was a old world horticulturalist and my grandmother new Herbs for their medicinal nature. They taught me that the soil was being depleted and what we used to get from our soil, our health and well being was no longer possible unless we gave back to the soil what it has given us, Life.
          Soil is but Dirt without Permaculture, the lost art of Soil replenishment. Composting is so easy to learn and even the worst compost is a better amendment than any Salt based NKP, bcause it allows the soil to Hold onto Nutrients and Breath. Store bought fertilizers drive away the Worm(don’t laugh) an animal that can double the nutrients it consumes. The worm poop has more nutrients than it consumed because of the enzymes used to digest the Humus it eats.
          Humus is just Organic matter, in this case, leaves for their Carbon, grass clipping for their Nitrogen(before you put the weed and feed down), food scraps, anything that will revert back to its original form, egg shells for calcium…..etc. Don’t throw nature away, put it back and it will give back to you. God bless you Lisa, for the lovely insight into your Heart.
          By the way, I’m in my 60s, i do over 60 pushups a day,20 chin ups(with a 45 lb. weight), I juice a lot of greens, grow my own organic garden and love life and those that will Help others, like you. You seem to give back to those that gave to You, that s Replenishment. Gods Speed

  7. Thanks for this article, Chris. I wish I had this knowledge years ago when I had multiple cauterizations and even a very invasive and painful Septoplasty to try and resolve my frequent nosebleeds. It wasn’t until I STOPPED taking the cheap synthetic multivitamin I was using that my nosebleeds completely vanished. For me specifically, I pinned it down to the Ascorbic Acid within these low-grade products I was buying at the local drug store and how they reacted with my body.

    I wanted to post this to encourage you in your journey and others that may benefit. I’m sure it is difficult at times in the face of ridicule but I’m confident that the benefits outweigh their intended detriment.

    ..praying for you and your continued success as you use the knowledge God has given you for healing and for hope.

  8. Also, can anyone give me some advice on when is the best time to take b-complex vitamins and magnesium. I have them as separate supplements. I have heard it is best to take magnesium at night time after dinner / before bed.

    • liposomal vitamin c is 2nd only to intravenous for curing cancer. Linus Pauling cured cancer with mega doses of intravenous vitamin c and Oxygen at 2.5 times atmospheric pressure in a Hyperbaric chamber. He used 30 to 100 gr. intravenous every other day. It worked 60+ times til they took him to court cause he wasn’t a M.D. What a shame!

  9. I have had my amalgam fillings for more than a decade and it was only until recently that I’ve done research on mercury poisoning and how it may have a role in my declining health (I.e. chronic fatigue, arrythmias, heart attack, constant anxiety, hypokalemia, among a host of other issues). I used to be very active and engaged in outdoor sports and life in general. I have been reading up on what supplements to take in preparation for and detox afterwards amalgam removal. Literature and anecdotal evidence has been very confusing, nevertheless, I came up with a list of to-dos and supplements to help deal with my mercury problem. What’s your take on Vit C, Zeolite powder, probiotics, and a good whole food multi (which I have yet to find, suggestions are welcome)? There’s a lot of talk about milk thistle, glutathione, magnesium, selenium, iodine, B-complex, garlic, fish oil that gets me even more confused.

    • fish oil really isnt as good for you as people think, if anything krill oil is better. though hemp seed oil has the best ratio of omega 3, 6’s

  10. I/m allergic to fish/shellfish, so I can’t take Vitamin A in the form of Cod Liver oil. What do you recommend? I do have 2 TBS or so of Kerrygold butter, a day….
    I was using Livercaps from Dr. Ron’s.
    Anything else? Vitamin A is so crucial.

    • Because allergies are to the proteins in food, and fish/cod liver oil will not have significant protein, many people who have fish allergies can take fish oil. Talk to your allergist.

  11. I can usually tell, when Big Pharma, has their hooks into someone—–that someone “isn’t a big fan of supplements”.
    Well, even the people WHO TAKE SUPPLEMENTS are not a big fan of supplements—-but they take them, only because they are FORCED to. The soil in the USA, is devoid of the 72 trace elements, except for a hand full. Yes, eating ORGANIC is helpful, but half the time, you don’t know, what THEIR VERSION of organic really means. Plus, if you really believe, all the human body needs is 60 mg of vitamin C, you’re nuts. The same goes for 400 units of vitamin D, and so on. You’re coo-coo if you believe in those tiny amounts. AND with all the toxic garbage, that industry, corporations and the government, have all over the place, do you really think, what you get, even in the best food, is nearly enough, to protect you, from all that mess? I have to laugh, every time I hear someone say: “I’m not a big fan of supplements”. Big Pharma is proud of you.

    • I concur. So many of us are victims of this big anti-vitamin scam brought on by the insatiable greed of big harma. If it weren’t for my naturopath, I would be at death’s front door. I got tremors that almost became permanent from celexa. Of course, the doc tried to prescribe something to alleciate the side effects instead of taking me off the meds. I fired him and never looked back. My vitamin regimen saved me from so much anguish. The only vitamin I can’t take is B6 due to my inability to absorb it properly. But this is uncommon.

  12. Wow, that is very dangerous advice to give to people.

    On the contrary, people NEED to take multivitamins and antioxydants and too many don’t eat right, don’t consume their 10 portions of veggies and fruits ie have a really bad diet including yours truly.

    Throw away your multivitamins and antioxydants? REALLY? For a dude that is into natural healing? REALLY?

    You should really consult Andrew Saul, a respected colleague of yours.

    • A good middle ground is to use whole food supplements, liver and brewers yeast for the b vits, camu camu for c, vit e- tocopherols from wheat germ oil, tocotrienols from rice bran oil etc etc

  13. Per my integrative dr. to correct some imbalances I as given:
    Iso D3
    Magnesium Glycinate

    A compounded Methyl- B12 nasal spray..
    Levels have improved.

    I wanted to use a more “Whole Food Supplement”
    Trying Garden of LIfe and MegaFood probiotic.
    I have looked into Touchstone Essentials

    With all the differing findings and opinions I am more confused than ever. And what to believe.
    Seems GOL uses a standard ‘lambs wool’ D3 then activates it in a yeast medium and says it is more usable by the body.
    Is this true that taking a synthetic vitamin and immersing it in a yeast medium makes if more bioavailable?

    Has anyone used Touchstone Essentials?
    They claim to not use a yeast medium and that the ingredients are whole foods dried and packed in a pill.

    Thank you for listening.

    • According to Dr. Caroline Dean an expert on Magnesium, Magnesium Citrate is one of the best forms.

  14. The word “antioxidants” doesn’t necessarily refer to supplements. When I use the term, I am referring to food sources (notably fruits and vegetables). So, to me, your title “throw away your antioxidants” translates to “throw away your fruits and vegetables”.

  15. Hi Chris What are your thoughts about emulsufied Vit D drops? Are they better then the tablets? I heard the drops are absorbed better then tablets.

  16. Trying my best to increase my family’s consumption of local, pesticide-free or organic foods. Costly! The kale my husband grows for us is unfortunately decorative in terms of my kids actually eating it.

    I’ve had better luck putting spinach in smoothies for them. Picked up a Garden of Life protein powder sample. Impressive list of ingredients, but no information regarding the source of their original foods. Nothing on the website.

    The founder is maligned on a few websites as having e-mail degrees. The foods themselves are ones I want to increase eating, but GoL is accused of importing foods, not inspecting his sources, and misusing the organic label.

    The LAST thing I want to do is inadvertently increase my intake of Chinese pesticides. And how bioavailable is a powder?

    Back to kale. Sigh.

    Thanks for any insight you can provide.