Shaking up the Salt Myth: The Human Need for Salt

In the first part of my series on salt, I discussed the historical significance of salt and its role in the evolution of humanity. Salt has been a highly prized substance for thousands of years across all cultures and continents. Yet over the past few decades, excess salt and sodium intake has been blamed for a variety of serious health conditions plaguing our country, such as heart disease, hypertension, and stroke.

Much debate has centered around determining the level of dietary salt required to maintain optimal health, but over the years the suggested upper limit has continued to shrink. According to the CDC, the average intake of sodium for American adults is about 3,300 mg of sodium a day, which is well above the standard recommendations. (1) The USDA urges Americans to consume less than 2,300 mg of sodium per day, and the American Heart Association (AHA) has an even more strict guideline of consuming less than 1,500 mg a day for general health and disease prevention. (23)

It has been theorized that dietary salt consumption was extremely low in the Paleolithic diet – approximately 768 mg of sodium daily – and that inland hunter-gatherers added little or no salt to their food on a regular basis. (4) We know these hunter-gatherer diets did not lead to the chronic, Western diseases we see today. The question is, does low salt intake by our distant ancestors mean that adding salt to our food is necessarily harmful? Should we adhere to the AHA sodium guidelines of 1,500 mg or less per day? Or is there a healthy range of salt consumption that can not only support but optimize our health?

Physiological roles of salt in the human body

Despite its recent bad press, there is no doubt that an adequate intake of salt in the human diet is required to maintain good health. The Institute of Medicine recommends that healthy adults consume 1500 mg of sodium, or 3.8 grams of salt, to replace the amount lost daily on average through sweat and urination. (5) (Ironically, this recommendation is almost double the amount theoretically consumed by Paleolithic man.) The minimum physiological requirement of sodium simply to sustain life has been estimated to be 500 mg of sodium per day. (6)

Sodium is a vital nutrient. It’s a major component of extracellular fluid, and is essential for maintaining the volume of the plasma to allow adequate tissue perfusion and normal cellular metabolism. (7) Because sodium is used as an extracellular cation, it is typically found in the blood and lymph fluid. The maintenance of extracellular fluid volume is an important physiologic function of the sodium in the body, particularly in regards to cardiovascular health.

Besides helping to maintain fluid balance and cardiovascular function, sodium and chloride ions also play an important role in the nervous system. Changes in the concentrations of these ions allow neurons to send signals to other neurons and cells, allowing for nerve transmission as well as mechanical movement. Chloride ions provided by salt are secreted in the gastric juice as hydrochloric acid (HCL).  And HCL is vital to the digestion of food and the destruction of food-borne pathogens in the stomach. (8)

If a true sodium deficiency occurs, mammals experience symptoms of hyponatremia such as brain swelling, coma, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular collapse following acute blood loss, and impaired sympathetic cardiovascular adjustments to stress. (9) Animals in a truly sodium-deficient state will seek out salty food and often consume far more sodium than needed to restore homeostasis. (10) These behavioral changes in response to inadequate salt intake further demonstrate the biological importance of dietary salt.

Regulation of plasma sodium levels by the kidney

The kidney, when healthy, regulates sodium and water excretion using hemodynamic, neural, and hormonal inputs.  This allows it to respond appropriately to a wide range of dietary sodium intake. Aldosterone, a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, helps regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in the body.

An abrupt increase in dietary salt can cause a redistribution of fluid from the intra- to the extracellular space.  But after a few days, the kidney is able to compensate with extra sodium excretion to match the dietary intake. Therefore, healthy people are generally able to adapt to a wide range of salt intakes without a significant change in blood pressure. (11)

If sodium intake drops too low, our metabolism shifts into a sodium-sparing mode.  This stimulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone hormonal system, which in turn maintains osmotic balance and adequate blood pressure. (12) A significant increase in renin and aldosterone is a symptom of sodium insufficiency, and has been shown to occur as salt intake drops below 1.5 teaspoons per day. (13) Interestingly enough, the recommendation for 2,300 mg of sodium equates to approximately one teaspoon of salt. An intake this low is associated with an even more rapid rise in renin.

Another important dietary determinant of this renin-angiotensin-aldosterone hormonal system is potassium intake. Our biological machinery (which developed in the Paleolithic era) evolved in conjunction with a diet not only very low in sodium, but also very high in potassium-rich plant foods. (14) Unlike our Paleolithic ancestors, Americans are consuming very low amounts of potassium: approximately 3,200 mg per day in men and 2,400 mg per day in women. (15) The adequate intake as defined by the IOM is 4,700 mg per day, and preagricultural humans are estimated to have consumed fully 10,500 mg of potassium each day.(16)

This modern reversal of electrolyte consumption is another important consideration in determining the population-wide increase in rates of hypertension. Dietary potassium has been demonstrated to dose-dependently counter the pathophysiological effects associated with modern dietary excess of salt, including salt-sensitivity, a likely precursor of hypertension. Therefore, dietary potassium intake, in addition to the sodium to potassium ratio, may play a crucial role in the development of those diseases typically associated with a simple excess of sodium in the modern diet.

Evidence about human salt consumption

The human body has adapted complex physiological mechanisms in order to prevent blood pressure fluctuations in response to these variations in sodium intake. Not surprisingly, epidemiological data has revealed an average sodium intake range of 2400 mg to 5175 mg of sodium per day in developed cultures. (17) Certain isolated groups in areas such as Brazil, Papua New Guinea, and rural African communities have been found to live on sodium intakes of as little as 1150 mg per day. However, despite finding generally low blood pressure in these remote communities, the little evidence that exists on these low salt societies suggests shorter life expectancy and higher mortality rates.

An example from the Intersalt Study, which examined the impact of population-wide salt consumption on blood pressure, is the Yanomami Indians of the Brazillian rainforest, who are known for having far lower average blood pressure than that of Western populations. (1819) Their lifelong low blood pressure has been attributed to their extremely low consumption of salt, and this has been used as evidence to further support the effort to restrict salt from the American diet.

A major problem that arises from using the Yanomami as an example of the salt-hypertension hypothesis is the wide variety of confounding variables that may also affect their blood pressure. The Intersalt Study researchers admit that:

“In addition to low Na+ intake and high K+ intake, other factors that may contribute to the absence of hypertension and lack of blood pressure increase with age among the Yanomami Indians are as follows: their low body mass index and the almost nonexistence of obesity, no alcohol ingestion, low ingestion of saturated fat, high ingestion of fibers, relatively high physical activity, and the several cultural consequences of living in an isolated community without the psychosocial stress of civilization and without a monetary system or dependence on a job.” (20)

This data suggest there are many reasons the Yanomami have such low blood pressure.  These include high potassium intake, high physical activity, low stress levels, and complete lack of alcohol consumption. Furthermore, although the Yanomami have low blood pressure and nearly nonexistent rates of cardiovascular disease, their overall health outcomes are less than stellar. (21) They are described in ethnographic literature as having small stature, high mortality and a low life expectancy ranging between 29 and 46 years. (22) Despite these high mortality rates and confounding lifestyle factors, the Yanomami people are still used as a prime example in support of the salt-hypertension hypothesis.

The results of the Intersalt Study did not indicate any clear pattern between the level of salt intake and blood pressure in those countries studied. (23) And when average life expectancy is plotted against the countries’ average salt intake, the trend shows that higher salt consumption is actually correlated with longer life expectancy. While this correlation does not imply causation, it is interesting to note the compatibility of a high salt diet with a long life expectancy.

As we can see, there is an enormous range in the daily dietary sodium intake of various cultures around the world, ranging from quite low (1150 mg) to fairly high (5175 mg). Additionally, we know that the healthy kidney is capable of adjusting to fluctuating levels of sodium in the diet in order to maintain fluid homeostasis. Finally, we know that hunter-gatherer and Paleolithic diets were very low in sodium, and that salt was rarely, if ever, added to food. Therefore, it would seem that limiting salt in the diet to those levels recommended by the AHA and USDA would not have any significant consequences, and would be an ideal dietary choice when mimicking the diet of our ancestors. However, evidence is mounting to the contrary: a low-salt diet may actually lead to serious health consequences and higher overall mortality, particularly in conditions like heart disease and diabetes.

In my next article in this series, I will discuss the contradictory evidence regarding the dietary guidelines for salt reduction, as well as the potential risks of consuming a diet too low in salt.

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  1. Brian says

    I think there’s a research study that solidified the notion that high salt intake is detrimental to health where rats were given massive amounts of salt compared to their body weights and had negative outcomes. That would translate to incredible amounts of salt intake in humans to the point where it might be impossible to eat that much. I’m sure Chris will address this study if I remember it correctly.

  2. Deanna says

    It is true that the Yanomami live shorter life expectancies than us, but perhaps that is bc they don’t have as much of a high/easy access to BP-lowering medication, or other overall healthcare. If we had the same healthcare as they do, perhaps our life expectancies would be lower. and maybe not healthcare maybe something else. I guess I think that there could be a lot of confounding variables, and no study can hold all of them constant. so yeah maybe a diet of high salt content may be *compatible* with a longer life, but that’s maybe because of something else that we’re doing that’s making up for it (ex- healthcare) – maybe we could have an even longer lifestyle if we lowered our salt intake more. the high salt intake could still be lowering our life expectancy.

    my prof who taught hypertension said that most hypertension is not salt-sensitive; however few people are hurt by the lower salt intake, so that’s the rationale behind the diet. I guess I didn’t dig the literature, but I feel like that makes sense.

    • Mac says

      Deanna is close in pointing out the flaw in using the high mortality rate of the Yanomami. What the study needs to do is eliminate deaths due to accident/trauma, injury, infection, etc – in order to get to the “expected” mortality rate. If you get a serious infection from a cut out in the jungle, you’re toast. That has nothing to do with salt intake. However, analyzing the mortality rate of those who died “natural” deaths would be much more revealing.

    • Kay says

      Deanna, you mention that perhaps their short life expectancies, the Yanomami, is because they don’t have as much of a high/easy acces to BP lowering medication. You missed the part in the article that states they have low blood pressure. They don’t need BP lowering medication.

      • Rob says

        “You missed the part in the article that states they have low blood pressure. They don’t need BP lowering medication.”

        Yes, I too was baffled by that statement. lol

  3. Barb says

    Can I say, what an odd and inappropriate comment to make on a posting about salt intake? Perhaps your thoughts on skin color and what “real” people look like would be better addressed in a personal email?

  4. Ed says

    “Finally, we know that hunter-gatherer and Paleolithic diets were very low in sodium, and that salt was rarely, if ever, added to food”– via time traveling ethnographers? How do we know that? I thought salt was prized and sought after….

  5. Andrew says

    Wow.. If I’m reading this correctly, you just indicated that Paleo man might have had some nutritional behavior that wasn’t optimal. Shocking! ;) I’m very curious how Paleo man survived electrolyte balance with such a low-sodium intake however. Strenuous activity and walking seems to be in everyone’s mind when they think about Paleolithic life. Certainly sweating was a daily event. I’ve always thought sodium to be the most important electrolyte needed for replacement. Could it actually be potassium? It would make more sense since potassium was more available than sodium at the time. Haven’t researched it… The K to NA ratio was like 20:1!

  6. says

    @Ed That was the first thing that popped into my head when I read that as well. Did early man seek out sources of salt like we know animals do? If for no other reason than natural salt licks are a great place to hunt? Or are scientists able to estimate sodium averages based on bone composition?

    Personally, I feel terrible when I eat a low sodium but it sounds like that may have much more to do with the ratio of electrolytes (e.g. too little potassium) than the absolute amount of any individual element. Maybe I should start tracking how much potassium I am getting from diet + supplements and see how I compare… :-)

    • Kay says

      If you go by Biblical historical data, the first humans were located near the great rivers of the Mid-East and if I’m correct many of them had high salt contents. The types of salt obtained near the pyramids are also pure salts. So salt was a large part of their lives and a way of preserving foods, as they didn’t have freezers, glass canning jars, etc. I suspect they got much more salt than we would think, and those higher in trace minerals as well. I think you also hit the nail on the head, perhaps we should be tracking our potassium instead.

  7. Stan says

    you can eat more salt if it is included in prepared foods where it is masked with sugar, if your add salt yourself it would be harder to overconsume

      • Brad says

        OK, thanks Chris. I have actually been feeling some odd symptoms since eating strict paleo: cold hands and feet, some moodiness, etc…Made me think of a thyroid issue, but since I cut out salt, that might make sense since salt has an effect on the thyroid.

        Its always a work in progress, haha. I am sure you know this first hand.


  8. says

    Hm, I think I don’t seem to get it. If I have the choice between a product with 100% salt, or one with 70% salt + 20% potassium chloride + 10% Magnesiumcitrate, what is the better choice?

  9. caban says

    I probably meet daily requirements of sodium intake, but the same doesn’t go with potassium ( probably less then 3000 mg/day ). Could this be the reason of regular bowel dysregulations ( hard to exactly explain what is happenning to me, but I feel some kind of blockage in my bowels and I know that at that moment I can’t eat anything more, unless I want to amplify this feeling and get tired/weak )?
    Anyone has any ideas maybe for some really rich potassium foods?

    • Emma says

      Dark green veggies! They are all very high in potassium (and a lot of other good things!) You can also get potassium from: bananas, various beans, mushrooms, avocados, potatoes and sweet potatoes, tomatoes… a lot of healthy fruits and vegetables!

      • Robert says

        Without my V8 juice (low sodium version) I probably wouldn’t meet the 4700mg RDA. I take in about 2400 calories per day so I could never meet the RDA target by eating solid food alone. A cup of V8 provides 850mg of potassium. I top up my cup right to the brim which probably brings the potassium total to 1000mg. Potatoes and spinach are two excellent sources but I wonder what the effect of over consuming dark leafy greens would be. That’s a lot of oxalic acid. On the other hand, I don’t hear many health professionals recommend against eating lots of leafy greens.

    • Pete says

      Not really a diet tip, but a big problem in the west is the idea that bowel movements should be a once-a-day occurrence. Most animals defecate shortly after eating since the new food intake stimulates movement throughout the system. Ignoring the urge trains the body to become constipated, which might be your problem. You could try getting into the habit of going 1/2 hour after each meal. If you sit and nothing happens, then wait until after the next meal and try again.

      Also, try squatting with your feet on the toilet seat (yes, this does mean taking your pants off). This changes the angle of the final “delivery” and makes it easier and cleaner to fully empty yourself.

      • Craig says

        The assumption that our bodies are tuned to paleo diet seems dubious; for example lactose tolerance in cow milk drinking ethnic groups developed in the past 10,000 years.

        • Jayjay says

          Or perhaps in a way, lactose tolerance helps illustrate the point- that there are foods eaten in large quantities that a large number of people can not tolerate. Also, just because lactase regulation developed quickly in some populations doesn’t mean every other dietary adaptation could or did. And at the very least it represents a plausible alternate diet for someone to *try* if the mainstream recommendations don’t seem to be working.

  10. Dean says

    No way preagriultural humans consumed >10g potassium a day on average. That would require ungodly amounts of food, not to mention plants.

    • Justin says

      Wow wow wow now. We used to bake all our meat in or around a fire, commonly right in the ashes. The meat used to be covered in the stuff.

  11. Justin says

    1)The Yanomami are an uncommonly aggressive tribe. They are actually quite crazy. They are always trying to start wars with their neighboring tribe. (Not to mention their close relatives to the north west (the head shirkers) who the government is even afraid to get close too.) 2) These tribes are extremely marginalized. If they are not killing each other the government is killing them. They need to get everything they live on from their environment. 3) Who said that the Paleolithic man had a much higher life expectancy than 30 – 40 years? The Yanomami are a great example of what life was probably like.

  12. steve says

    I have severe pains in my knees and hips and recently get cramps in fingers and calves, could this be a lack of salt as I sauna almost every day and lose salt from sweating. DR. no good, need some advice please. steve

  13. says

    About 3 years ago my cardiologist told me I had an extra heart beat. He suggested that I use beta blockers. After doing a Google search I found that it can be caused by kidney problems or potassium.
    So I went back to the doctor and asked why he did not test my kidneys and potassium level? I am amazed that he gets paid big $$$ and I have to do his job for him. The test indicated nothing wrong. I did not tell him that I had started using 2000 mg of potassium daily. That stopped my symptoms. I can tell when my potassium level is low. Now I take 2-3000 mg per day. Then I found a salt expert. WOW. He is using salt and restructured water and able to reduce blood sugar levels in diabetics 50-60 points in about 1 hour. This is Real Salt that has about 80 minerals in it. Anyway he uses about 1 teaspoon of Real Salt everyday. I remembered when I played high school football in 1964-1965 we were given salt tablets everyday. I have always perspired a lot my whole life. I found that if I use 1/4 teaspoon of Real Salt my perspiration virtually stops. So now I use about 1 teaspoon of Real Salt each day too. I think the salt helps to conserve the water in my body. My blood pressure is 110-130/70-80.
    My wife has had back pain for about 10 years from a fall. She has had one back surgery and the doctors say she may need another one. She was in the hospital for 3 days with pain. All 3 days she was given sodium and potassium intravenously. After 3 days her back pain and swelling were completely gone. We have found that she needs more Real Salt to keep her back pain down. We have also used a magnetic device that helps too. So could it be that pain may be associated with to little salt in our diet. I am not referring to tablet salt either.
    If this is true how many people could be saved from drug addiction and the damage that drugs do to us.
    I have read that Roman Soldiers were paid in salt.
    I am not a doctor and this is not medical advise.
    If anyone would like more information please send me an e-mail
    Thank you,
    Terry Riney

      • Cindy says

        I’m not sure what Terry’s comment means about restructured water either, but it is true that the water we drink today has added chemicals if it is from tap, and the bottled source water is not much better either, since it is bottled in plastic, and does not guarantee the mineral content which pure source water would normally have. The majority of the water sold in stores has zero mineral content.
        As far as salt, using salt without the use of other minerals does not sound like a healthy choice. Unprocessed salt should contain many minerals to help us balance our diet and our health, which might be why sodium and potassium helped his friend. It’s the balance of minerals which matters. Table salt is typically processed to eliminate minerals and has added chemicals to prevent clumping. Natural salt does not look white either. Unfortunately, salt is often used to add weight to packaging. Watch out for the labels on “natural” fruit juice for example, as they contain a lot of salt, and of course added sugar, but that’s another story.

  14. Rob says

    How they ever came up with the 10g of potassium per day figure for Paleolithic people is beyond me. Do you realize how much food is required to obtain that amount? Unless they consumed a lot of fruit, leafy greens and tubers there’s absolutely no way they would have the time to forage and consume that amount of food. I get between 4000 and 5000g per day but I have to work at it. I include spinach, potatoes, bananas and low-sodium V8 juice (850g of potassium per 1 cup serving) to ensure I meet my daily target. I also drink a cup of beet root juice per day (650g per cup). Without the juices it would be very difficult to meet the 4700g/day target.

    • Cindy says

      Why would you want to drink processed juice when you have access to fresh greens and fruit?
      The best way to drink a juice is freshly pressed, just buy yourself a juicer. Nutritional value goes down after it is canned or bottled, unless it is preserved in some way. Whatever they put in these bottles or cans, you can do yourself, and at least be sure of the quality of your drink.
      If you still need the extra potassium, just buy a supplement at a health food store, or simply try to better balance your diet.

      • Rob says

        I don’t know how it is in the USA but here where I live you can’t just simply walk into any pharmacy and buy potassium. I had to ask the pharmacist for it. He talked about the possible problems one can experience if they are not careful with it. I could try throwing some bananas into a blender with some other fruits. Btw, the beet root juice I buy is a quality organic juice.

      • Rob says

        I had mentioned in an earlier post that my caloric intake is 2400/day. Any more than that is excessive. I’m not a young pup anymore. If I had to rely on solid food alone for potassium I’d never come close to the RDA of 4700mg. That’s why I need a low calorie source that yields a high amount of potassium. V8 gives me 850mg/cup.

  15. adair says

    Very interesting article.I get terrible muscle cramps(all over my body) and take a magnesium supplement.I realised that alone was not helping.I increased my salt,potassium and water intake and it seems to have done the trick.

  16. Samara says

    So, I have increased my daily salt intake without increasing my calories and I am losing weight. About 5 pounds a week. Why would this be?

  17. Ann says

    I wonder if hunter gathers living near the ocean, and eating salty ocean fish and seaweed obtained the right amount of salt. If you lived inland, you did not get enough salt. Perhaps humans were meant to get salt through the ocean and live near coastines.

  18. Megan says

    Hi everyone. In this article Chris mentions that sodium deficiency “can lead to impaired sympathetic cardiovascular adjustments to stress” Something I definitely wanted to dig deeper for a richer understanding. But unfortunately, the link that points to his citation is dead. Anyone know what study Chris was alluding to? Running a pubmed and google scholar search came up empty. If anyone can point me in the right direction, it would be a great help.

      • leo says

        yes it sure does I had to visit the emergency hosp when I was feeling weak and throwing up they said my salt reading was 105 should be 135 to 145 and they gave me sodium drip for a week now ok and have a monthly blood test to watch my sodium and potassium levels

  19. Christopher Hereford says

    Hi Chris,

    I think your article was very informative. You have laid out your thoughts so well, that everything you said actually made a lot of sense to me!

    I hate it when people tell me not to each too much salt. I eat adequately, take care to get enough physical exercise, fresh air and clean water, and I have never visited a doctor in over 36 years. I feel that too much of anything is bad, and everything in moderation can give you an extremely satisfying life! (Although a healthy salt intake can actually be good for you!)

    Thank you for your time in enlightening us with your study!

  20. says

    I’ve been on a no salt diet for over 2 months, and this is the 3rd time i’ve chosen to do so. It’s effects on consciousness are astounding, so much so, that I firmly believe via personal experience that salt is an addiction and toxin to the body. If you wish to inquire more or address this concern in your body and empower your authentic self so that you feel and think radiantly, let me know. If you wish to continue to feel and function less than exquisitely, less than brilliantly, here I am to activate you.

  21. Andrew says

    It is a shame that the word salt will be manifestly confusing when entering discussions such as this. Though sodium and chlorine as other “salts” are essential, the poison that is industrialised table salt has only a detrimental effect on the body, given you are eating some fruit and vegetables daily.
    Admittedly if for some reason you manage to deplete your body of all “salts” (Pottasium, Magnesium etc.) highly unlikely on any diet) then you will become very sick and probably die. If you never touch sodium chloride in the form of industrialised table salt, you will automatically be healthier, as all the sodium required is fruits and veggies. I have proved it I never touch table salt, am 63 go logging, gardening, cycling, mountain climbing, swimming and tree climbing etc etc. I eat and drink nothing from a tin or can or packet or bottle and have now cured my asthma having been told by professionals that my asthma was incurable.

  22. James Harrison says

    I just came back from 12 days at the Pritikin Longevity Center in Miami, FL. My personal result made me a believer in Low Salt (No Salt) diets. My Blood Pressure dropped 19 points on the systolic pressure in the first week.

    This a a quote from there website:
    In 2005, a meta-analysis of 1,117 hypertensives who came to Pritikin reported that systolic blood pressure fell on average 9%. Diastolic pressure fell 9%. Of those on blood pressure drugs, 55% returned home free of their drugs, their blood pressures in the normal range. Many of the remaining 45% left Pritikin with their dosages substantially reduced.

    I never knew of a person that died or even a 911 call from lack of salt. I do know of millions that have died from Hi Salt diets.

  23. says

    Sodium deficiency for me manifested itself as cardiac arrhythmia and audible palpitation before falling asleep. I started adding salt to my water and the problem suddenly vanished.

  24. Andrew says

    Serge Alex Gagnon said

    “Sodium deficiency for me manifested itself as cardiac arrhythmia and audible palpitation before falling asleep. I started adding salt to my water and the problem suddenly vanished”

    It’s a shame that we don’t know what you mean by salt.
    The industrialised toxin, that is table salt, full of anti caking agents and bleached? Sea salt? Rock salt?

    Confusion reigns when the word salt is used, as if it has only one meaning. What salts are you referring to?

  25. lewis brooks says

    Dr. put me on no-salt diet 2 weeks ago. Now feel tired all the time and since then have double vision and trouble reading even with glasses. Maybe the brain is affected ?

    • Andrew says

      A “no salt diet” ? What does that mean? You cannot eat anything at all that is totally devoid of all “SALTS”

      Do you mean he advised you to stop eating table salt?

      If so the body now has chance to dump all the industrial pollutants from table salt into your bloodstream, possibly resulting in your symptoms.

      • says

        Andrew, I think what Lewis and the article is referring to by “salt” is the molecule NaCl.

        The quantity in which it is consumed affects the body in ways a lot more powerful and significant than the toxic pollutant additives you’re bringing up.

        • Andrew says

          I agree that ingesting unnecessary table salt is seriously damaging to health. However I don’t agree that table salt has a more “powerful and significant” affect on the body, than decades of ingesting table salt’s metabolic pollutants of aluminates, fluoride, anti-caking agents, toxic amounts of potassium iodide and aluminium derivatives linked to brain disease.

    • Andrew says

      It is truly wonderful that your cardiac arrhythmia and audible palpitation has gone using sea salt.

      You say that table salt would have corrected your heart’s faulty behaviour just fine, tho’ you didn’t use table salt, presumably because it is full of toxic anti caking agents, aluminum hydroxide, an alloy linked to brain disease, bleached, and oh yes, just a touch of ferro cyanide for good measure.

      Wise choice to stay away from industrialised, chemically adulterated, toxic sodium chloride products.

  26. Food Scientist says

    Human physiology developed more than 50 million years ago in tropical rainforests.

    Our ape ancestors had negligible sodium intake and a massive potassium intake.

    Experiments on chimpanzees show that a sodium intake over 800mg/day causes hypertension. Intakes over 10g/day cause severe hypertension (>30mmHg increase in systolic BP.)

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