Three eggs a day keep the doctor away!


The persistent myth that cholesterol causes heart disease has scared many of us away from eating eggs on a regular basis. But there is absolutely no research that links egg consumption to heart disease.

A recent review of the scientific literature published in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care clearly indicates that egg consumption has no discernible impact on blood cholesterol levels in 70% of the population. In the other 30% of the population (termed “hyperresponders”), eggs do increase both circulating LDL and HDL cholesterol.

You’ve probably been conditioned to believe that anything that raises LDL cholesterol (so-called “bad” cholesterol) should be avoided like the plague. But recent research suggests that it’s not the amount of cholesterol in an LDL particle (a.k.a. LDL cholesterol, or LDL-C) that drives heart disease risk, but instead the number of LDL particles in the bloodstream.

If anything, egg consumption is likely to protect against heart disease because it increases the proportion of large, buoyant LDL particles. Larger LDL particles can carry more cholesterol, which means fewer particles are needed overall. In other words, egg consumption may decrease LDL particle concentration, which is the most significant risk factor for heart disease.

Eggs one of the most nutrient-dense foods available. One egg provides 13 essential nutrients, all in the yolk (contrary to popular belief, the yolk is far higher in nutrients than the white).

Eggs are an excellent source of B vitamins, which are needed for vital functions in the body, and also provide good quantities of vitamin A, essential for normal growth and development.

The vitamin E in eggs protects against heart disease and some cancers; eggs also contain vitamin D, which promotes mineral absorption and good bone health.

Eggs are rich in iodine, for making thyroid hormones, and phosphorus, essential for healthy bones and teeth.

Eggs are also good sources of antioxidants known to protect the eye. Therefore, increased plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in individuals consuming eggs are also of interest, especially in those populations susceptible to developing macular degeneration and eye cataracts.

There’s absolutely no reason to limit your consumption of eggs to three to four per week, as recommended by “heart-healthy” nutritional guidelines. In fact, consuming two to three eggs per day would provide a better boost to your health and protection against disease than a multivitamin supplement. Eggs truly are one of nature’s superfoods.

It’s important, however, to make sure that you buy organic, pasture-raised eggs. Studies show that commercially-raised eggs are up to 19 times higher in pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids. Unfortunately, almost all eggs sold in supermarkets – even the organic eggs sold at chains such as Whole Foods and Wild Oats – are not truly pasture-raised. To find these eggs, check your local farmer’s market or visit the Eat Wild website to locate a source in your area.

To read more about heart disease and cholesterol, check out the special report page.

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Comments Join the Conversation

  1. Anonymous820 says

    One egg, two eggs, 3 eggs, 4. I like eggs so please give me some more!! lol

    No matter what topic it is everything has it’s pros and cons. Do what you feel is best for you. I eat eggs every day. I eat 2-3 hard boiled eggs daily and I am just fine.

  2. Jordan Perttu says

    Of course three eggs a day will keep the doctor away, because you’ll be in the grave. I mean what’s the point of checking the cholesterol of a corpse? Three eggs a day, land in the grave, thanks Chris! Glad to kill a few more brain cells reading your stuff.

    • Sunny Sky says

      I eat three eggs a day and quite alive and well! :)

      I know this is an old article, but I couldn’t resist. I hope we’ve all learned that cholesterol foods do not give us cholesterol problems.

      • Jordan Perttu says

        Yea and cigarettes don’t cause lung cancer, Hitler didn’t kill Jews, and Carthage won the Punic Wars. Forget those “experts” from the Canadian Heart Association, British Medical Society, American Heart Association, Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic, WHO who’ve all claimed through scientific tests and reasoning that dietary cholesterol is bad for you. Can I buy drugs from you? Just because you’re alive doesn’t mean you’re alive and well. An alcoholic is alive but isn’t healthy and neither is a chain smoker or paraplegic.

      • Joni says

        Good for you! My cholesterol labs are super, as well, with a daily egg AND bacon breakfast.

        Those disagreeing with Chris must be upset because they have a deficiency–llikely from omitting certain food groups. Tsk-tsk.

        • Jordan Perttu says

          Good for me indeed! I rarely have eaten eggs (haven’t eaten any in a decade) and my lung capacity, IQ, cholesterol, vitamin and mineral levels, amongst other things are better than normal. But keep eating those eggs so you can get an early grave. By the way eggs are a food, not a food group, although if one wants to increase acne problems and other things than they should consume eggs and dairy products. Cigarettes are healthy right?

          • Erika Tanaka says

            “…my lung capacity, IQ, cholesterol, vitamin and mineral levels, amongst other things are better than normal.”
            Good for you; but how about ‘attitude,’ good Sir?

          • Patricia says

            You are just like the people who go on the “Tattooed Women” website and talk about how bad they all look and will look when they are older. If you are against eating eggs go ahead and enjoy your egg-free life. Why get so angry? Maybe if you gave in and enjoyed a nice meal with eggs you wouldn’t be so cranky.

  3. Reza says

    In order to tell the difference if egg is bad or good for any individual is simply to go on a diet which contain eggs for 2 weeks or more while avoiding other food that contains bad cholesterol. i mean to be realistic…how do you know which food you consume is raising the bad cholesterol….i found out the easy way which was adopt a vegan lifestyle for month while taking only eggs as my protein source.but before doing it i had my blood drawn and know what the result were so to compare after consuming eggs daily a minimum of 4. my ldl was lower than the margin at 2.3. and to answer some of the previous post, vegan have about the same mortality rate as non vegan. what was missing is omega 3 it their diet….there is a vid on YouTube about it. and if conclusion states that eating eggs daily is safe and opposite than what was known…breakfast would be easier cheaper and natural…compared to drinking protein drink and bars. especially if you’re an athlete or involve in sports.

    • Jordan Perttu says

      Uh right lets listen to youtube about “factual evidence” while we’re at it lets listen to an oil company executive about the existence of climate change. Also, there have been countless studies showing that non-vegans have higher mortality rates than non-vegans. Also, the more vegan a country is the higher expectancy they have (WHO, CIA, etc.).

      • Simon cave says

        Jordan ,
        , if you don’t agree , I find it somewhat odd that you are on here ,
        Or like a lot of narsassistic negative, big mouthed people , do you find a deep seated need to climb upon any soapbox , where there is a crowed gatherd and put forward “your” opinion , but not only put it forward actuall “push” your opinion onto people who truth be told , skip right over your rant the moment they see your name,

  4. ian says


    Im 6.6ft in height .. im 80kg’s, and Look too lean for my height. I want to putton weight .. so i started working out . and eating 6eggs a day… is this safe ? i feel good about my eggs in my deit as it make me fell full.

    please suggest… if this is the wrigh way to consume eggs… im doing 6 a day now …. boiled some time raw

      • says

        TDDFT_4_lyf: Rude. Not everyone speaks English as their 1st language. Ian was asking a reasonable question. Try to be a semi-decent human being and not such a schmuck.

        Ian: Many have used multiple eggs a day to add muscle. As the article states at the end, make sure your eggs are truly organic and pastured, so you get the full health benefits. Local eggs from reputable neighbors is often a good source, or, if you can, have some fun and get 2 or 3 chickens yourself for your backyard. They take up very little space and are a fun and easy hobby.

    • Reza says

      Yes i have been taking 4-6 eggs a day and i drink green tea daily…i just had my blood work done and my bad cholesterol was 2.3 which is good. but i don’t eat beef burgers or steaks…mainly fish and chicken…to know if its safe for a week eat eggs but skip the usual suspects that would elevate you bad cholesterol…and have a blood work done before you start(so that you know its not the eggs) and after a week or 2(to see if eating eggs makes your lld high)….if you have high bad cholesterol…drink green tea and take oats regularly.

    • says

      I used to eat 5 a day, raw, now I eat 4, but added 2 bananas and ice yogurt, great blend, and great for Arthritis as well, I just wash em off toss em in shell and all, get the benefits of the best most digestable calcium with the most Nutritious food on the planet !

  5. Dan says

    You totally Failed on the post comparing Vegan vs Protein and foods in USA vs say Laos, while everything on the chart is correct ( the one thing that is not on the chart is the fact that here in the US we live nearly 20 years longer, thus failing that any Vegan diet’s can possibly warrent merit’s,
    Challange post a list of Vegan’s that are not sick from some form of collagnetic condition, that have been Vegan for 15 years or longer, if they are still alive ?

  6. Dan says

    I could type on the benefits of eating Raw Whole Shell and all Egg’s all day long and the benefits of them but I will give you something better
    1st, FDA CFR 2010 finalized Aug 2012, on egg’s look it up, commercial eggs are as good as any other, in fact organic-free range might have open doors to the barn but the chickens are standing in lines to get to the food and watering troughs,
    2nd, the calcium carbonate in egg’s shells contain 27 nutrients that help your blood transport needed calcium, (as you need it not liquified acid calciums)
    3rd nothing older than Aug 2012 is of any benefits on egg contaminations due to FDA intervention, more contaminations take place by the people fondeling the eggs and using dirty hands and utinsiles or counter tops, Eggs are sterile, (we buy them in shrink wrapped cases to no be exposed to dirty fondleing hands of other shoppers)
    4-Egg’s are the nutritional super food by which All other foods are judged by, – period
    lastly I eat 6 raw whole eggs a day, I wash the shells off toss in blender with bananas and ice, suit to taste, be careful of adding junk like ice cream, carmel, espcially vanalla or coconut this makes the whole drink just taste way to good and you might want 3 more,
    5- final note, the Egg’s shell inner membrane contains collagen type 1, lesser 3,4,5,&10 collagen types, but this will help you in the inflamation catigory and you just might see your skin and over all health improver if your are over 30, as we slow way down on collagen production as we age, complex to state (could write a book on it ) but we replicat collagen from the egg’s shell membrane in our pryors patch’in our gut, amazing, (this is why athletes quit by age 40 or so ) here is final note and it is a link for any with auto immune conditions and it helps a LOT !!!

    5 egg’s a day as my HS coach said, he was in his 60’s then and could out pace us! enjoy !! meal in a shell, used to eat em at the farm when collecting them and off to school

    • Reza says

      i’m 40 and i too have been eating an average of 4 eggs(breakfast) a day since 2009. but 1 thing i have to point out the egg white has to be cooked or is not absorbed by the body 100%. Do some reading on this

    • Jeremy says


      I’m afraid your comment towards me is the only one that’s off topic.

      My original comments contain a number of points about health. I also examined the biological plausibility of eating the period of another species, an important step in deciding the health effects of what we eat. ‘Fff’ took issue with this, so it warranted further clarification.

      It seems you’re quite bothered by what an egg really is. If this is the case, perhaps you should reconsider eating them.

  7. D Seeve says

    A lot of studies being cited here, and as is usually the case the studies are conducted poorly with little to no information on food consumption combinations, such as animal protein and simple sugars.
    Simply test any food on yourself, within 60 days you should be able to tell if it is detrimental to your health.
    I eat six eggs every day and I’m perfectly healthy, but I should point out that I do not consume any type of refined (man made or altered) sugar, sweetener, or condiment. Also, I consume about three cups per day of plants. For me, this works very well. I rarely if ever get sick, and along with daily exercise keep the body fat level around 10%.
    Instead of bickering over random incomplete studies, try it for yourself and have your physician test your blood a few times per year, this coupled with the way you feel, day in and day out is an excellent gauge of what will work for you.

  8. J says

    Do these egg benefits apply to seniors? For example, can we recommend to parents/relatives in their sixties that they add eggs to their diet (assuming normal health)? Not sure if, at this age, our body begins to handle cholesterol-rich foods differently from our younger years. Thanks!

    • Dan says

      Un fortunatlly for those of us past our 40’s we need to eat more raw egg’s as the shell’s membrane really only contains about 50mg of collagens we need, so yes need to watch that age ticking by and increase accordingly or face the plastic surgen or worse

  9. Joann says

    I have been told that if you break the yolk during cooking you loose all the health benefits of eating the egg.
    Is this a valid assumption?

  10. BB says

    May I ask, is it still beneficial to eat eggs from supermarkets dispite it has 19 times more omega 6 than pasture-raised eggs?

    Where I live is very hard to find pasture-raised eggs… thanks

    • James says

      this is the best research information I could find to illustrate the significance of getting Phosphatidylcholine from eggs.
      I believe if you can find the time to watch this short video you will be amazed with the properties of egg-PC…. Yet, if you see my pervious comments to Jeremy, I think cooking destroys the benefits of egg-PC.
      Chris I have only recently begun to read your information. Thanks for doing such a great job…

    • Jeremy says

      Thanks for the link Steve. A great summary of the other side of this discussion. What stood out to me was that:

      “The collective analysis of forty-four studies, separated over 400,000 participants into groups who consumed less than 3, 3-5, or greater than 5 eggs per week. …For colon cancer specifically, the less than 3 and 3-5 eggs per week groups had similar increases in risk—about 15 percent—and the group eating more than 5 eggs per week had a 42 percent increase in risk.”

      Even if you don’t have faith in Dr. Fuhrman as you put it, the other 16 sources he cited, plus the aggregate analysis of 44 studies is hard to ignore. I’d be nervous about 3 eggs a week let alone 3 eggs a day as Chris recommends.

      For me the risk associated with eggs far exceeds the benefit of the nutrients they provide. Besides, there’s nothing eggs provide that can’t be equally if not better provided from other (Ideally plant-based) sources.

      If anyone can think of nutrients we have to get from eggs that makes the risk worth taking I’m all ears 😉

      • James says

        Perhaps eggs can only be eaten raw since “possibly” protein and fats are changed in the cooking process. Plus, I don’t eat the whites since anti nutrients are within the whites. If you cook the whites the biological properties of Avidin are incapacitated. Hmm, if this is true about this protein it would only make sense that other protein lose their biological activity as well…the egg yolk seems so malleable prior to cooking. Yet, it becomes a brick with no plasticity and is no longer water soluble. Just a few observations…

      • Jade says

        Hi Jeremy – Iodine that’s what I eat 3 egg yolks a day for and not the whites because I suspect leaky gut, Jade

        • Jeremy says

          Hi Jade,

          Thank you for your comment.

          I agree iodine is important, but there are plenty of other sources to get it. For example, 1/4 of a gram of dried seaweed gives 100% of your daily allotment, as does 2 grams of fortified salt. Iodine is in a lot of the foods we eat every day.

          Eating eggs doesn’t just give you iodine. It gives you heart disease and stroke causing saturated fat as well as cancer causing cholesterol. Personally I’ll take my seaweed and salt, etc for my source of iodine 😉

          There’s simply no nutrient we need to eat eggs in order to get. Eggs cause more harm than good to us, not to mention the hundreds of millions of male chicks that are killed within 3 days of birth each year just because they are unable to produce profit for the egg industry.

          Best of luck in your pursuit of health.


          • Simon cave says

            So it’s actually about the male chicks , well here in NZ we send the males to farms to become meat so all good yeh , wast not want not :)

      • Dan says

        Since Egg’s are the Food the USA’s FDA and EU bases all other food’s nutritional values against (thus putting eggs as the most nutritious food you can eat) What would you suggest swapping to somthing worse than the best ?

      • Dan says

        we blend 6 egg’s raw, and whole shell’s and all 3 for breakfast and 3 at bedtime with 1-2 bannanas and cup of ice, the egg is the #1 food by which all other foods are compaired to and nutritional values are established by, 3 a week, body builders will down a carton a day – best protien -period, I would not recommend starting at that many, start with 1 in am and 1 at bed time, increase ever few weeks, you naturlly make cholestrol, it is needed , and as you increase the eggs in your diet you will make less, body adjusting and the such,

  11. Anirudh says

    Thanks all for u r comments, but I m scared. I m of 6 feet height n i m weighing 62kg. To increase my body mass I m drinking 24 raw eggs with milk everyday. Please guide me.

  12. Jeremy says

    Discarding scientific evidence as “myth” is highly misleading. Here’s a chart showing the relationship between animal protein (Eggs) and disease. (

    More specifically, The American Heart Association challenged a similar statement in a 1971 lawsuit. The end result after the egg industry spent as much as they could on lawyers was Judge Ernest G. Barnes ruling:

    “There exists a substantial body of competent and reliable scientific evidence that eating eggs increases the risk of heart attacks or heart disease… This evidence is systematic, consistent, strong and congruent. (

    Please don’t do the egg industry’s work for them and tell people to eat more of something that’s killing us.

  13. Richard says

    Ridiculous how comments focus on the cholesterol in eggs when it has been known for a long time that is not the problem.
    If there is a problem with eggs it is animal protein and choline.
    Maybe like meat it is creating bad bacteria in the colon vs the good bacteria formed by consuming vegetables.
    What is needed is more research but meanwhile you should limit egg consumption to no more than two per week according to some studies.

  14. says

    So, in essence, you can lose weight without exercising ‘ but it’s kind of a waste of time. Leptopril is an OTC v3 diet pill that can be purchased from most drug stores along with Wal-Mart.

  15. MANGO says

    Hi there,

    I was consulted to take 2-3 eggs before hitting gym. But i’m worried about one thing, since eggs are laid by female chickens, taking eggs with estrogen as daily routine wouldn’t effect anything in males(human)? Such as decrease in testosterone productivity or unusual changes for future entity from same family.

    Waiting for your response. Thank you.


  16. John L says

    How can we check the PUFA or MUFA profile of certain eggs so we know which to get? I looked at so many different brands (at the regular supermarket and at health food places), and I could NOT find one brand that listed the PUFA or MUFA content or ratio. They only list the total fat content and saturated fat content? Is it sufficient enough to just pick an organic brand that is pasture-raised and assume that they have a 4:1 MUFA to PUFA ratio?

  17. Corrine says

    Good information on heart disease ruined by recommendation to eat eggs. I’ve done leading edge cardiovascular testing, measuring heart rate variability and ANS function with pulse wave analysis (accelerated photoplethysmography) on hundred of people of all ages in both the US and Finland. My undocumented observation is that the big egg eaters do not test well. My documented before and after screenings show that when we take them off eggs they test better. A minuscule amount of people in the developed world has access to “clean eggs”. Chicken and egg farming is gross Biz. Poor advice on an otherwise useful series of articles. Why are you not teaching people about the endothelium? And how to keep it healthy? That’s the leading edge of cardiovascular care. Not eggs!

  18. mango says

    Hi there,

    I was consulted to take 2-3 eggs before hitting gym. But i’m worried about one thing, since eggs are laid by female chickens, taking eggs with estrogen as daily routine wouldn’t effect anything in males(human)? Such as decrease in testosterone productivity or unusual changes for future entity from same family.

    Waiting for your response. Thank you.


  19. David says

    Yeah, the quality of this science is neatly epitomized by the statement that eggs are a good source of lutein. Eggs are a minuscule source of lutein–and what they have comes from feeding laying chickens lutein-rich plants like marigolds specifically in order to get some lutein into eggs, in order to enable the egg industry and naive advocates like Kresser to say that eggs are a great source of lutein. They’re not; a few leafs of spinach, or virtually any green, has more than half a dozen eggs.

  20. Michael says

    Is there concern that eating eggs (especially whites) can contribute to inflammation for those with leaky gut? Something I’m very interested in as I exhibit autoimmune symptoms (skin conditions, low grade inflammation, constantly running nose/watery eyes) but I love my eggs.

    Is it worth cutting them out to see if some of the autoimmune symptoms improve?

    • says

      I’d love to hear others responses about this too. In the last few months, I’ve added back eggs (had previously avoided them for years)..They’re organic and from pastured hens.. I upped them to two/day for two weeks… One week ago, I developed a hip problem that feels inflammatory. I’ve now stopped the eggs totally to see if there’s any shift… I am very cautious with inflammatory foods in general…. no grains, soaking and dehydrating nuts and seeds, fermented veggies, no added sugar, lots of dark greens… everything pretty much organic… perhaps too many nuts and seeds.. don’t know…. hoping it was the going from one egg to two.

    • Denis says

      Yes it is worth trying to cut them out to see if they stop, I cut them out for a month and now when I eat them I notice that I get an itchy throat.

  21. Cory says

    Gosh!! And if most of American GI’s that had autopsies done during Vietnam and Korean wars and were between ages of 19-24. Yikes all with advanced ATHERSCLEROCIS. I mere blood lipid test only tells what’s floating in your arteries at that moment. The GI’s all had advanced heart disease yes at 19!!
    So if you can convinnce mankind to the actual condition and health of ones arteries ie: diseased say by the age of 45—- convince to eat 3-6 eggs a day? If you had heart disease can you arrest and reverse it eating like this?? I would love the knowledge to know. I was eating grass fed eggs 3 a day and coconut oil lots of veggies and fruit— no simple carbs, sugar etc and my blood pressure and cholesterol levels went up through the roof! Stopped doing it and everything is normal with blood pressure at 110 / 70 and feel so much better and NO I do not use oils in my diet as most are rancid and treated with hexane gas.
    Please– any comments.

  22. Mary says

    Hi, Chris. I eat eggs from pastured hens almost every day for breakfast. I love them! But I recently read a older post on MDA, in which Sisson warns against eating eggs so regularly. He people who eat eggs every day run the risk of developing an allergy to them. Do you agree?

    • Dan says

      No, allergies to egg’s are mostly from cooking them, people that are allergic knowingly so, should avoid – obviously but some reports have shown that while allergic to cooked they were not allergic to raw, cooking anything changes its structures, put a flame to a sheet of paper if you have any doubts

  23. Tara Brodersen says

    I am wondering if you agree it is safe to feed a 1yr old child a 3-1/2 minute cooked egg yolk? Is there much risk of salmonella or other contamination?
    I also read your article on the safety of raw milk. Do you believe raw milk is safe for young toddlers (1-2yrs old), or best fed only to older children?

  24. Anonymous says

    I am curious if you recommend eating eggs raw or cooked for the most nutritional value. I have read differing opinions on the bioavailabilty of cooked vs. raw egg protein, in particular.

  25. John says

    I don’t see how it’s practical at all to get eggs for most folks at anywhere but the grocery store. In my case, where I don’t really have the time to make dozens of trips all over my region to get food, would it be better just to avoid eggs all together then?

  26. Sean says

    I eat 3 eggs with my breakfast and was wondering if this were harmful so I decided to look and see. What I have learned explains why I seek them. See I am a school bus driver and need to maintain good vision, most especially I need the b vitamins since the job admittly comes with it’s share of stress. I find that getting 30 min of exercize each day helps most with stress and cardio vascular health.

  27. evyatar says

    i am eating 6 eggs a day its part of the bodybuilding program i was intorduced to, im 17 . is that a problem?

    • Richard says

      Not a problem if you do not care about your health. You do not need as much protein as you might think if you would get good protein from avocado, nuts, seeds, beans and vegetables.

      • Chris says

        People need to be very careful about eating certain legumes, grains, nuts, seeds, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and other plants that are improperly prepared by not being soaked, sprouted, fermented and/or cooked first. The various techniques all depend on the type of food source and the types of Anti-nutrients contained in each.

        These techniques are done to drastically reduce toxins that are naturally produced within the plant, which came about in the plant’s evolution to assist themselves in proper germination as well as to ward off any persistent predators.

        Cooking alone does not always reduce several Anti-nutrients to any meaningful degree. They can then go on to hinder reproductive health, exacerbate cancers and inflammatory conditions, slowly poison the body with harmful substances and create other auto-immune responses that ensures the plants remain intact long enough to procreate without being eaten to extinction.

        While legumes, grains, nuts, seeds, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and other plants can be particularly nutrient-dense and store highly beneficial nutritional content, Anti-nutrient substances like Phytates, Lectins, Saponins, Haemagglutinates, Oxalic Acid and a wide combination of other toxins within them can be very dangerous to our various bodily systems when eaten to excess, unless they have been properly prepared beforehand. The bad effects can accumulate over time and they are very difficult for the body to assimilate or remove if the offending foods keep being eaten.

        Raw/underprepared grains and legumes contain some of the highest concentrations of Anti-nutrients in the plant food family. Don’t just take my word for it – Science can demonstrate repeatedly the adverse workings of these humble foods that we can take for granted. Some Anti-nutrients are noted to have a beneficial effect on the body in small doses and a large proportion of indigenous and many old Western peoples had an innate understanding of how to prepare certain raw foods prior to eating them.

        Nowadays, industrially-produced food typically can simply forsake preparation for other perceived gains, despite the deleterious effect on population health and well-being. This means that many manufactured foods, even ones touted as “Healthy” or a “Superfood”, are usually feeding people with excess Anti-nutrients and are implicated in particular chronic health problems the world over. If your diet includes a high amount of grains or legumes, be especially careful. Legumes include peas, beans, soybeans and peanuts among others, while grains include wheat, corn, rice, oats and barley among others.

        Certain animals can instinctively avoid them, as the naturally-occurring chemical defences are known to have a dangerous effect on the health of those eating them. Some Anti-nutrients will steal or block the essential elements, trace elements & minerals required for healthy metabolism. Others will shut down, mimic or damage cellular processes that can affect the muscles, bones, organs (including brain), blood and skin… My own body has indicated to me on numerous occasions that certain edible plants are to be left alone or at least enjoyed in minimal quantities.

        Our bodies are very capable of letting us know what hurts them or if they encounter deficiencies in our health, but we are often so busy in our outside lives that we often ignore both the subtle and the glaringly obvious inside of us. Knowledge is power and it is your best defence against keeping you safe from the multitude of dangers out there, even in your foods. Viewing the research and having a basic understanding of the biology behind it, that is why I am now a former Vegan and reverting back to a more healthful Vegetarianism.

        By the way, eggs are brilliant. Free-roaming, pasture-fed, organic eggs are even better. Chickens are supposed to eat small animals (especially insects), grasses, certain fruits/vegetables and a small number of grains that make their unfertilised eggs a wonderful addition to the human diet. Instead, our food industries give them a heavy diet of grains, legumes or even other chickens ground up into their meal. As I speak, there are no eggs for sale at my local supermarket that are exclusively free range, pasture-fed and organic… yet. And the ones that come close normally command a great premium too.

        I would happily eat three a day, as long as I know that the animals they come from are not being mistreated, neglected or made ill just because I’m hungry.

        • Jeremy says

          First I applaud your pursuit to find the most healthy and ethical diet you can.

          Continuing with that spirit, I would like to share my perspective with a few of your claims. Specifically:

          Chris: “I would happily eat three a day, as long as I know that the animals they come from are not being mistreated, neglected or made ill just because I’m hungry.”

          Jeremy: As you acknowledged, this is extremely difficult when you said, “There are no eggs for sale at my local supermarket that are exclusively free range, pasture-fed and organic.”

          Eggs from happy well cared for animals simply do not exist. Specific examples include:

          –> How male chicks are treated. These non-egg laying bi-products of the industry are tossed into the trash or ground up in rendering machines while they are still alive calling out for their mothers.
          –> Females have the tips of their beaks cut off while they are fully conscious.
          –> When females stop producing eggs after 1-2 years they are sent to slaughter, even though they would live to be 15-20 years old.

          Free range eggs do not change this cycle of violence.

          From a health perspective eating eggs, from any source, still contains animal protein. It has been evidenced extensively that animal protein is one of the primary causes to being overweight or dying from heart disease, cancer, etc. There’s no such thing as healthy meat, dairy and eggs, just like there’s no such thing as healthy cigarettes.

          Chris: “…that is why I am now a former Vegan and reverting back to a more healthful Vegetarianism.”

          Jeremy: Vegetarianism is neither more healthful or more ethical than veganism. The dairy industry is part of the same machine that produces meat. Specific examples include:

          –> Male calfs. Similar to male chicks on an egg farm, male calves are considered useless as they cannot produce milk. As a result they are turned into veal, one of the most horrific practices in existence. This industry would not exist without the dairy industry. Female cows have to give birth to produce milk and their calves don’t simply disappear.
          –> Female Cows only produce milk for 3-7 years. After this they are sent to slaughter, which contributes to 90% of the hamburger meat, even though they could live from 18-25 years. The consumption of dairy products supports this cycle.
          –> Conditions in modern dairy farms aren’t dissimilar to those in factory farms. I’m happy to provide video evidence to further substantiate this if need be.

          These animals live horrific lives, regardless of what trigger word such as “free range” or “organic” is put on the packaging. Additionally, there are no nutrients that animal protein provides (Including dairy and eggs) that isn’t sufficiently if not better provided by plant-based protein.

          Getting a bit more literal, milk and cheese is the lactic discharge from another species. Eggs are the discharge from a hen’s period which comes straight from their backside. (That’s right, only one hole) There’s nothing natural, necessary, or justifiable about vegetarianism over veganism. I welcome your comments to the contrary.

          I encourage you to keep up the fight of being a vegan. I think you’ll find it’s more in line with the values you mentioned in your post and not as hard to thrive on as some may think.

  28. Bruce says

    Here’s the study Chris M told me about, I think. He wasn’t sure it was the right one. However, it’s by the same key author and university. They found that the low-PUFA eggs were practically identical to a low-egg diet in their effect on LDL oxidation, while high-PUFA eggs increased oxidation of LDL particles. I’ve seen a lot of other studies like this that show anti-oxidants are over-rated and it’s better to simply minimize the consumption of foods that cause (per)oxidation.

  29. Bruce says

    I wanted to bring up this study. Scientists found that normal eggs caused increased LDL oxidation, as did eggs enriched with omega-3 and Vitamin E. But when they developed a low-PUFA egg with a higher ratio of MUFAs to PUFAs, the LDL oxidation did not increase at all.

    Chris Masterjohn mentioned a similar study, which is what led me to this. The study he mentioned is a different one, however. Making eggs with a higher MUFA:PUFA ratio gave a strong protection against LDL oxidation, whereas making eggs with more anti-oxidants or omega-3 fats had no benefits. I believe that a high ratio of MUFA:PUFA and SFA:PUFA is ideal.

    The regular eggs had a 2:1 MUFA:PUFA ratio, while the high MUFA:PUFA eggs had a 4:1 ratio of oleic acid (18:1 n-9) to linoleic acid (18:2 n-6). I use eggs with a 4:1 MUFA-PUFA ratio (2g of MUFA, 0.5g of PUFA). They have a 3:1 ratio of SFA to PUFA (1.5g of SFA). A lot of eggs have twice as much PUFAs, based on nutritional data (accurate to 0.5g of fat). I would look for eggs with the least PUFAs (pref 0.5g).

    The push for omega-3 eggs is dangerous. Even Mercola stopped advising people to eat omega-3 eggs, because they spoil faster and the sources of omega-3 fats are frequently toxic. People would be a lot healthier if farms focused on minimizing the PUFA content of meat, eggs, dairy, etc. Rather than feeding foods like soy that increase it vastly.

    • says

      where do you find these kinds of eggs w/ 4:1 MUFA-PUFA ratio? What brands have low PUFA? I only see regular eggs and omega-3 eggs around most stores.

      • gwong says

        Whole Foods offer pasture raised chickens and eggs.

        Also the farmer’s markets have vendors that sell pastured eggs, but make sure they are not free ranged, but pastured. Pastured chickens are allow to roam on grass and shrubs and have the choice to forage for worms and bugs, shrubs etc., their natural diet that they would find out out in nature and they have a choice also to eat the feed left out for them. Free ranged mean they are allow to roam on cement yards and the only food is the feed that is given to them, so the quality of the eggs that they produce is different, depending on the feed that they get and if they can forage in their home environment.

    • says

      Great post Chris, and awesome comment Bruce. For some reason, I instinctually stay away from any eggs labeled “omega-3 enhanced” or the likes. I am glad to see my preconceived notions were sound!

      I am going to try and buy eggs from local farmer’s markets exclusively this spring/summer. I would really love to build my own chicken coop eventually (and perhaps get a milking cow).

  30. admin says


    I completely agree with you about the harmful effects of PUFA and the lack of awareness on this issue in the mainstream health and medical world. The research is clear that PUFA are far more dangerous than saturated fat and cholesterol – which actually turn out to be innocent.

    Regarding eggs: while it’s true that there’s no evidence linking egg consumption specifically to heart disease, I do believe that supermarket eggs (which contain up to 19x more omega-6 fatty acids than pasture-raised eggs) should be avoided for numerous reasons. While the amount of PUFA in an egg is relatively low, most of it will be the pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid in a commercial egg. Eggs from pasture-raised chickens have 2/3 more vitamin A and 7 times the amount of beta-carotene than battery-raised eggs. They are also higher in B12, folic acid and vitamin E.

    Then of course there are the more obvious health risks that come with battery-raised eggs, such as exposure to the antibiotics and hormones the animals are treated with and increased chances of salmonella and other diseases due to overcrowding.


  31. Bruce says

    Eggs only have about 0.7g of PUFA, give or take. They are not where people are getting the overload of omega-6 fatty aicds. Soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, and sunflower oil oil are vastly more dangerous. The amount of omega-6 in half a dozen eggs is less than a serving of potato chips or other junk food or an ounce of peanuts. Those are the foods people should be told to avoid, not the eggs.

    The high-carb and high-PUFA diet most people eat today causes cancer and many other diseases, including heart disease. I don’t understand this article completely. You start by saying “there is absolutely no research” linking egg consumption with heart disease. Then you say that 99% of the eggs people are eating are pro-inflammatory. This is speculation, IMO.

    • Richard says

      There is research linking animal protein with cancer and heart disease. Please validate your article with the name of one person that reversed heart disease while consuming three eggs a day…

  32. says

    I think it depends mostly on what kind of eggs you’re eating Supermarket eggs are much higher in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) than pasture-raised (free-range) eggs. As Bruce mentioned above, studies have shown that high-PUFA eggs increase oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which in turn increases risk of heart disease and other diseases. So, if you’re eating 6 eggs/day from a local farmer or farmer’s market, I’d say that’s okay. If you’re eating 6 eggs a day from a supermarket, I’d say no.

  33. says

    I think it depends mostly on what kind of eggs you’re eating Supermarket eggs are much higher in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) than pasture-raised (free-range) eggs. As Bruce mentioned above, studies have shown that high-PUFA eggs increase oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which in turn increases risk of heart disease and other diseases. So, if you’re eating 6 eggs/day from a local farmer or farmer’s market, I’d say that’s okay. If you’re eating 6 eggs a day from a supermarket, I’d say no.

  34. Richard says

    6 eggs a day, no matter what the source, is too much animal protein. There are too many studies indicating the benefit of plant protein to be taking the chance with six eggs a day!

  35. says

    Richard – Really? Or is that just some saying you crafted? Your response thoroughly reflects the idea that: a multitude of similarly outcome’d studies can’t be wrong, negates the very clear and emerging understanding that a whole host of those very studies you nebulously reference were wrong, or to put it more accurate: little to no correlation between saturated fat intake, dietary cholesterol intake, and CHD has been found.

    I would try researching the idea that all cause mortality increases with decreases in cholesterol. Oh – and your comment wreaks of vegetarian dogma. I can dig up 20 + peer reviewed studies that refute the idea that egg consumption is unhealthy. So, does that make me right? Should I now go and create the vague statement: “Pshhh.. yea.. there are too many studies indicating the benefit of egg consumption to ever take a chance eating vegetable protein!” – No, because I’d be scientifically and laymen-ly ridiculous. The world of nutrition, and especially the world of saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and CHD, are far more complex. Far more. FAR FAR MORE.

  36. Jeremy Hess says

    Hi Ryan,

    At a minimum, if it can be agreed that eggs are a gray area nutritionally, why put something in your body you’re unsure of – especially a hen’s period? As previously discussed, there’s not a single nutrient in eggs that can’t be provided by another source.

    Also, please provide one of the peer reviewed studies you referred to which states plant protein is dangerous. All I’ve seen is evidence that a diet with increased levels of unrefined plant food is linked to dramatic reductions in degenerative diseases. Otherwise I fail to see where you’re coming from.

    You can do a google search to find out what Richard was referring to. For instance, search for ‘Unrefined Plant Food Consumption vs. The Killer Diseases’ and the first chart that comes up is a great start.


  37. Fff says

    An egg is not a ‘chicken period’, crazy vegan. Complete incorrect disingenuous nonsense meant to gross people out. It is the product of a chicken’s OVULATION. Chickens do not menstruate; there is zero blood present in an unfertilized egg.

    Why do vegan trolls hang out in the paleo blogosphere comment sections anyway? Do you really think you’re going to convince anyone here? Or do you just like being annoying? There’s plenty of other sites on the internet where your faulty interpretations of health science are embraced. Go spread propaganda elsewhere. Sincerely, a happy ex-vegan.

  38. Jeremy says


    I’m afraid this isn’t propaganda. Saying ‘an egg is a fetus’ is propaganda. Stating that it is an unfertilized egg is simply stating a fact.

    You seem to be stuck on defining a period by human standards. Both a hen’s eggs and a women’s eggs are bi-products of an unfertilized reproductive cycle.

    So what you’re saying is you’re ok eating a Chicken’s ‘ovuation’, but not her ‘menstration?’ If it’s blood you’re worried about it’s not impossible to crack open an egg and find blood inside. (,

    Besides, hens only have one hole where everything comes out of. Do you really want to eat what comes from a hen’s ass? And I’m the ‘crazy’ one as you put it?

    What about the rest of my comment? You say I’m the troll, but you failed to respond to the majority of my comment referring to nutrition – the primary purpose of this discussion.

    Happy ex-vegan? Me thinks thou protest too much.

  39. jeff says

    “Both a hen’s eggs and a women’s eggs are bi-products of an unfertilized reproductive cycle”. False, the egg is produced and exits the body regardless of fertilization in a chicken. Chickens aren’t even mammals and thus have very little in common reproductively with humans. Your comments are silly and uneducated and I would advise you to do some reading before typing something silly again.

  40. Jeremy says

    Hi Jeff,

    I’m afraid I’m not sure what you’re getting at. Are you implying fertilization is required for a woman to release an egg? If this is the case I suggest you read up on what a women’s menstrual cycle is.

    I also never claimed chickens were mammals.

    Please clarify what part of my comment you disagree with as right now it’s unclear.

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