Your Personal Paleo Code Book Notes | Chris Kresser
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Your Personal Paleo Code Book Notes

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Chapter 20

Chapter 1

21: “He argued that hunter-gatherers…” Diamond, J. (1999). The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Retrieved from http://discovermagazine.com/1987/may/02-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race

22: “After agriculture was adopted…” Diamond, J. (1999). The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Retrieved from http://discovermagazine.com/1987/may/02-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race

22: “Their life expectancy at birth…” Diamond, J. (1999). The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Retrieved from http://discovermagazine.com/1987/may/02-the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race

23: “Their hunter-gatherer ancestors…” Cochran, G., & Harpending, H. (2009). The 10,000 Year Explosion. New York: Basic Books. p. 76

23: “Their farming descendants…” Guyenet, S. (2009). Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/03/paleopathology-at-origins-of.html

23: “Hunter-gatherer populations…” Kaplan, H., & Gurven, M. (2007). Longevity Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural Examination. Population and Development Review, 33(2), 321–365.

24: “Recent research that…” Eaton, S. B., Cordain, L., & Lindeberg, S. (2002). Evolutionary health promotion: a consideration of common counterarguments. Prev Med.,34(2), 119–123. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11817904
24: “Recent research that…” Kaplan, H., & Gurven, M. (2007). Longevity Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural Examination. Population and Development Review, 33(2), 321–365.

25: “Stronger bones” Carrera-Bastos, P., et al. (2011). The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology, 2011(2), 15–35. Retrieved from http://www.dovepress.com/the-western-diet-and-lifestyle-and-diseases-of-civilization-peer-reviewed-article-RRCC-MVP

25: “According to Dr. Staffan Lindeberg…” Lindeberg, S. (2010). Food and Western Disease: Health and Nutrition From an Evolutionary Perspective. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 58

26: “Low levels of each…” Lindeberg, S. (2010). Food and Western Disease: Health and Nutrition From an Evolutionary Perspective. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 115

26: “The elderly residents of Kitava…” Lindeberg, S. (2010). Food and Western Disease: Health and Nutrition From an Evolutionary Perspective. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 62

27: “He noted that the Inuit were…” Guyenet, S. (2008). The Inuit: Lessons from the Arctic. Retrieved from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/07/inuit-lessons-from-arctic.html

27: “He praised the Inuit’s “magnificent dental development”…” Price, W. A. (2006). Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. La Mesa, CA: Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation. p. 59

28: “A study published in 1991…” O’Dea, K. (1991). Cardiovascular disease risk factors in Australian aborigines. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol., 18(2), 85–88. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/2022081

28: “Studies show that children…” Dagnelie, P. C., et al. (1990). High prevalence of rickets in infants on macrobiotic diets. Am J Clin Nutr., 51(2), 202–208. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/2154918

28: “Breast-fed babies of macrobiotic mothers…” Dagnelie, P. C., et al. (1990). High prevalence of rickets in infants on macrobiotic diets. Am J Clin Nutr., 51(2), 202–208. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/2154918

29: “Cultures that are heavily dependent…” Kuming, B. S., & Politzer, W. M. (1967). Xerophthalmia and protein malnutrition in Bantu children. Br J Ophthalmol., 51(10), 649–666. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/6054898

29: “Dr. Mellanby discovered that…” Guyenet, S. (2012). Beyond Ötzi: European Evolutionary History and its Relevance to Diet. Part III. Retrieved from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2012/05/beyond-otzi-european-evolutionary_17.html

30: “The answer is that…” Fonseca-Azevedo, K., & Herculano-Houzel, S. (2012). Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 109(45), 18571–18576. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23090991

31: “With falling prices…” Carrera-Bastos, P., et al. (2011). The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology, 2011(2), 15–35. Retrieved from http://www.dovepress.com/the-western-diet-and-lifestyle-and-diseases-of-civilization-peer-reviewed-article-RRCC-MVP

31: “For example, the Alyawarra tribe…” Henry, C. (2012). How much food does man require? New insights. Nutrition Bulletin, 37(3), 241–246. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2012.01979.x/abstract

32: “In Papua New Guinea…” World Health Rankings. (2011). Coronary Heart Disease in Uganda. Retrieved from http://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/uganda-coronary-heart-disease

32: “Today, the rate of heart attacks…” ABC News. (2009). PNG to ban lamb meat amid heart disease spike. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-03-16/png-to-ban-lamb-meat-amid-heart-disease-spike/1620648

32: “Today, the rate of heart attacks…” Right Diagnosis. Statistics by Country for Heart Disease. Retrieved from http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/h/heart_disease/stats-country.htm

32: “Thirty years later…” Lindeberg, S. (2010). Food and Western Disease: Health and Nutrition From an Evolutionary Perspective. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 104

32: “Today, half of all…” The Pima Indians. (n.d.). Obesity Associated with High Rates of Diabetes in the Pima Indians. Retrieved from http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/pima/obesity/obesity.htm

33: “When some of the South Pacific…” Guyenet, S. (2009). The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: Diabetes. Retrieved from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/01/tokelau-island-migrant-study-diabetes.html

33: “Evolutionary biologist Scott Williamson…” Williamson, S. H., et al. (2007). Localizing recent adaptive evolution in the human genome. PLoS Genet., 3(6), e90. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17542651

34: “In fact, archaeological evidence…” Cochran, G., & Harpending, H. (2009). The 10,000 Year Explosion. New York: Basic Books. p. 83

34: “In some Northern European…” Cochran, G., & Harpending, H. (2009). The 10,000 Year Explosion. New York: Basic Books. p. 77

35: “Populations with historically high…” Perry, G. H., et al. (2007). Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation. Nat Genet., 39(10), 1256–1260. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17828263

35: “These mutations appear…” Cochran, G., & Harpending, H. (2009). The 10,000 Year Explosion. New York: Basic Books. p. 79

35: “Changes in the expression…” Hancock, A. M., et al. (2010). Colloquium paper: human adaptations to diet, subsistence, and ecoregion are due to subtle shifts in allele frequency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 107(Suppl 2), 8924–8930. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20445095

35: “Researchers have identified…” Hehemann, J. H., et al. (2010). Transfer of carbohydrate-active enzymes from marine bacteria to Japanese gut microbiota. Nature.464(7290), 908–912. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20376150

35: “And some studies suggest…” He, T., et al. (2008). Effects of yogurt and bifidobacteria supplementation on the colonic microbiota in lactose-intolerant subjects. J Appl Microbiol., 104(2), 595–604. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17927751

Chapter 2

48: “A large review of studies…” Micha, R., Wallace, S. K., & Mozaffarian, D. (2010). Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation., 121(21), 2271–2283. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20479151

49: “They found that vegetarians…” Key, T. J., et al. (1996). Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17 year follow up. BMJ., 313(7060), 775–779. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8842068

Chapter 3

63: “Your body needs about forty…” Ames, B. N. (1999). Micronutrient deficiencies. A major cause of DNA damage. Ann N Y Acad Sci., 889, 87–106. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10668486

64: “Vegetable oils and sugar…” Cordain, L., et al. (2005). Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr., 81(2), 341–354. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15699220

64: “In many cases…” Ames, B. N., & Wakimoto, P. (2002). Are vitamin and mineral deficiencies a major cancer risk? Nat Rev Cancer., 2(9), 694–704. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12209158

65: “Simply put, nutrient deficiency…” Ames, B. N. (2006). Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 103(47), 17589–17594. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17101959

65: “For example, magnesium…” Rylander, R. (1996). Environmental magnesium deficiency as a cardiovascular risk factor. J Cardiovasc Risk., 3(1), 4–10. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8783025

65: “For example, magnesium…” He, K., et al. (2006). Magnesium intake and the metabolic syndrome: epidemiologic evidence to date. J Cardiometab Syndr., 1(5), 351–355. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17679786

65: “Vitamin K2 deficiency…” Geleijnse, J. M., et al. (2004). Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr.,134(11), 3100–3105. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15514282

65: “Deficiency of folate…” Ng, T. P., et al. (2012). Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and physical function in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study. Am J Clin Nutr., 96(6), 1362–1368. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23134883

65: “Folate deficiency also…” Duthie, S. J. (1999). Folic acid deficiency and cancer: mechanisms of DNA instability. Br Med Bull., 55(3), 578–592. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10746348

65: “You might be thinking…” Jacobs, Jr, D. R., Gross, M. D., & Tapsell, L. C. (2009). Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr., 89(5), 1543S–1548S. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19279083

66: “This may explain why…” U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2003). Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease: recommendations and rationale. Ann Intern Med., 139(1), 51–55. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12834319

67: “Only about 2 to 20 percent…” National Institutes of Health. (2007). Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron. Retrieved from http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-HealthProfessional/

67: “For example, beta-carotene…” Holmberg, S., Thelin, A., & Stiernström, E. L. (2009). Food choices and coronary heart disease: a population based cohort study of rural Swedish men with 12 years of follow-up. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 6(10), 2626–2638. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20054459

68: “Vitamin C also…” Teucher, B., Olivares, M., & Cori, H. (2004). Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 74(6), 403–419. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15743017

70: “In order to address…” LaLonde, M. (2012). Nutrient Density: Sticking To The Essentials. Presented at the Ancestral Health Symposium, Harvard University, MA.

70: [chart] “Qualifying Nutrients…” LaLonde, M. (2012). Nutrient Density: Sticking To The Essentials. Presented at the Ancestral Health Symposium, Harvard University, MA.

70: [chart] “Average Nutrient-Density…” LaLonde, M. (2012). Nutrient Density: Sticking To The Essentials. Presented at the Ancestral Health Symposium, Harvard University, MA.

[In Dr. LaLonde’s formula, nutrient-density is equal to essential nutrients per 100 gram serving divided by the Recommended Daily Allowance.]

73: “Yet one serving of beef…” Self Nutrition Data. Retrieved from http://nutritiondata.com

73: “Studies have shown…” Zheng, J. J., et al. (1993). Measurement of zinc bioavailability from beef and a ready-to-eat high-fiber breakfast cereal in humans: application of a whole-gut lavage technique. Am J Clin Nutr, 58(6), 902–907. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8249876

76: “This is significant because 85 percent…” Cordain, L., et al. (2005). Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr, 81(2), 341–354. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15699220

Chapter 4

80: “In the United States…” Carrera-Bastos, P., et al. (2011). The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology, 2011(2), 15–35. Retrieved from http://www.dovepress.com/the-western-diet-and-lifestyle-and-diseases-of-civilization-peer-reviewed-article-RRCC-MVP

81: “That didn’t become clear…” Yan, D., & Holt, P. R. (2009). Willem Dicke. Brilliant clinical observer and translational investigator. Discoverer of the toxic cause of celiac disease. Clin Transl Sci, 2(6), 446–448. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20443939

81: “But CD can also manifest…” Fasano, A. (2009). Surprises from celiac disease. Sci Am, 301(2), 54–61. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19634568

81: “According to a study…” Rubio-Tapia, A., et al. (2009). Increased prevalence and mortality in undiagnosed celiac disease. Gastroenterology, 137(1), 88–93. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19362553

81: “Today, official statistics…” Rubio-Tapia, A., et al. (2012). The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol, 107(10), 1538–1544. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22850429

82: “One in two new patients…” Fasano, A., & Catassi, C. (2001). Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease: an evolving spectrum. Gastroenterology, 120(3), 636–651. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11179241

82: “For every diagnosed case…” Catassi, C., et al. (1995). High prevalence of undiagnosed coeliac disease in 5280 Italian students screened by antigliadin antibodies. Acta Paediatr, 84(6), 672–676. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/7670254

82: “This silent form…” Rubio-Tapia, A., et al. (2009). Increased prevalence and mortality in undiagnosed celiac disease. Gastroenterology, 137(1), 88–93. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19362553

82: “Type 1 diabetes” Greco, D., et al. (2013). Celiac disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prevalence study in western Sicily (Italy). Endocrine, 43(1), 108–111. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22707396

82: “Multiple sclerosis” Rodrigo, L., et al. (2011). Prevalence of celiac disease in multiple sclerosis. BMC Neurol., 11, 31. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21385364

82: “Dermatitis herpetiformis” Garioch, J. J., et al. (1994). 25 years’ experience of a gluten-free diet in the treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis. Br J Dermatol., 131(4), 541–545. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/7947207

82: “Autoimmune thyroid disease” Collin, P., et al. (2002). Endocrinological disorders and celiac disease. Endocr Rev., 23(4), 464–483. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12202461

82: “Osteoporosis” Rastogi, A., et al. (2012). Celiac disease: A missed cause of metabolic bone disease. Indian J Endocrinol Metab., 16(5), 780–785. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23087864

82: “Heart failure” Emilsson, L., et al. (2011). Increased risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with coeliac disease: a nationwide cohort study. Eur Heart J., 32(19), 2430–2437. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21653560

82: “Depression” Häuser, W., et al. (2010). Anxiety and depression in adult patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet. World J Gastroenterol., 16(22), 2780–2787. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20533598

82: “ADHD” Niederhofer, H. (2011). Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and celiac disease: a brief report. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord., 13(3), pii. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21977364

82: “Arthritis” Lubrano, E., et al. (1996). The arthritis of coeliac disease: prevalence and pattern in 200 adult patients. Br J Rheumatol., 35(12), 1314–1318. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9010064

82: “Migraine” Dimitrova, A. K., et al. (2013). Prevalence of migraine in patients with celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Headache., 53(2), 344–355. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23126519

82: “Allergies” Massari, S., et al. (2011). Occurrence of nonceliac gluten sensitivity in patients with allergic disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol., 155(4), 389–394. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21346369

82: “Asthma” Ludvigsson, J. F., et al. (2011). Celiac disease confers a 1.6-fold increased risk of asthma: a nationwide population-based cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol., 127(4), 1071–1073. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21315431

82: “Obesity” Kabbani, T. A., et al. (2012). Body mass index and the risk of obesity in coeliac disease treated with the gluten-free diet. Aliment Pharmacol Ther., 35(6), 723–729. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22316503

83: “I also explained…” Valentino, R., et al. (2002). Markers of potential coeliac disease in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Eur J Endocrinol., 146(4), 479–483. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11916614

83: “I also explained…” Akçay, M. N., & Akçay, G. (2003). The presence of the antigliadin antibodies in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Hepatogastroenterology., 50(Suppl 2), cclxxix–cclxxx. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15244201

84: “Another way of defining it…” Lundin, K. E., & Alaedini, A. (2012). Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am., 22(4), 723–734. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23083989

84: “Even with these limitations…” Rostami, K., & Hogg-Kollars, S. (2012). A Patient’s Journey. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. BMJ., 345, e7982. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23204003

84: “The authors concluded…” Carroccio, A., et al. (2012). Non-celiac wheat sensitivity diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge: exploring a new clinical entity. Am J Gastroenterol., 107(12), 1898–1906. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22825366

84: “The list of documented signs…” Volta, U., & De Giorgio, R. (2012). New understanding of gluten sensitivity. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol., 9(5), 295–299. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22371218

85: “For example, studies suggest…” Dickerson, F., et al. (2010). Markers of gluten sensitivity and celiac disease in recent-onset psychosis and multi-episode schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry., 68(1), 100–104. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20471632

85: “For example, studies suggest…” Cascella, N. G., et al. (2011). Prevalence of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity in the United States clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness study population. Schizophr Bull., 37(1), 94–100. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19494248

85: “For example, studies suggest…” Bürk, K. et al. (2001). Sporadic cerebellar ataxia associated with gluten sensitivity. Brain., 124(Pt 5), 1013-1019. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11335703

85: “Dr. Alessio Fasano…” Catassi, C., & Fasano, A. (2010). Celiac disease diagnosis: simple rules are better than complicated algorithms. Am J Med., 123(8), 691–693. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20670718

86: “Moreover, about 50 percent…” Kristjánsson, G., Venge, P., & Hällgren, R. (2007). Mucosal reactivity to cow’s milk protein in coeliac disease. Clin Exp Immunol., 147(3), 449–455. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17302893

86: “Moreover, about 50 percent…” Green, P. H., & Cellier, C. (2007). Celiac disease. N Engl J Med., 357(17), 1731–1743. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17960014

86: “Researchers believe that…” Sollid, L. M., & Lie, B. A. (2005). Celiac disease genetics: current concepts and practical applications. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol., 3(9), 843–851. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16234020

86: “Researchers believe that…” Lundin, K. E., & Alaedini, A. (2012). Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am., 22(4), 723–734. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23083989

88: “Nor do grains…” Cordain, L. (1999). Cereal grains: humanity’s double-edged sword. World Rev Nutr Diet., 84, 19–73. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10489816

89: “For example, intake of soybean oil…” Blasbalg, T. L., et al. (2011). Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century. Am J Clin Nutr., 93(5), 950–962. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21367944

89: “However, the actual requirement…” Innis, S. M. (1991). Essential fatty acids in growth and development. Prog Lipid Res., 30(1), 39–103. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/1771170

89: “Studies show that…” Rett, B., & Whelan, J. (2011). Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: a systematic review. Nutr Metab., 8(36). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3132704/

90: “In contrast, most traditional…” Kuipers, R. S., et al. (2010). Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet. Br J Nutr., 104(11), 1666–1687. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20860883

90: “It promotes the formation…” Ramsden, C. E., et al. (2012). Lowering dietary linoleic acid reduces bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids., 87(4-5), 135–141. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22959954

90: “Oxidized linoleic acid…” Staprans, I., et al. (2005). The role of dietary oxidized cholesterol and oxidized fatty acids in the development of atherosclerosis. Mol Nutr Food Res., 49(11), 1075–1082. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16270280

90: “Oxidized linoleic acid…” Ramsden, C. E., et al. (2013). Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis. BMJ., 346, e8707. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23386268

90: “Reducing linoleic acid…” Ramsden, C. E., et al. (2012). Lowering dietary linoleic acid reduces bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids., 87(4-5), 135–141. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22959954

91: “One study demonstrated…” Ramsden, C. E., et al. (2013). Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis. BMJ., 346, e8707. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23386268

91: “An analysis of other randomized…” Ramsden, C. E., et al. (2010). n-6 Fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr., 104(11), 1586–1600. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21118617

91: “Studies going back…” Meyer, B. J. et al. (1971). Some physiological effects of a mainly fruit diet in man. S Afr Med J., 45(8), 191–195. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/4928686

91: “Yet they are…” Marlowe, F. W., & Berbesque, J. C. (2009). Tubers as fallback foods and their impact on Hadza hunter-gatherers. Am J Phys Anthropol., 140(4), 751–758. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19350623

91: “Yet they are…” McCullough, M. L., et al. (2006). Hypertension, the Kuna, and the epidemiology of flavanols. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol., 47(Suppl2), S103–109. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16794446

92: “Most people fail to reduce…” Mattes, R. D. (1996). Dietary compensation by humans for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids. Physiol Behav.,59 (1), 179–187. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8848479

92: “For example, a study…” De Castro, J. M. (1993). The effects of the spontaneous ingestion of particular foods or beverages on the meal pattern and overall nutrient intake of humans. Physiol Behav., 53(6), 1133–1144. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8346296

92: “Another study showed…” Mattes, R. D. (1996). Dietary compensation by humans for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids. Physiol Behav.,59 (1), 179–187. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8848479

92: “Added sugar causes weight gain…” Sievenpiper, J. L., et al. (2012). Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med.,156(4), 291–304. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22351714

92: “Studies consistently show…” Erdmann, J. (2008)., et al. Development of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance during the early stage of weight gain. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab., 294(3), E568–575. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18171910

92: “Studies consistently show…” Sims, E. A., & Horton, E. S. (1968). Endocrine and metabolic adaptation to obesity and starvation. Am J Clin Nutr., 21(12), 1455–1470. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/4881681

92: “Excess fructose may be…” Beyer, P. L., Caviar, E. M., & McCallum, R. W. (2005). Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults. J Am Diet Assoc., 105(10), 1559–1566. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16183355

92: “Here’s just a small…” Appleton, N., & Jacobs, G. N. 141 Reasons Sugar Ruins Your Health. Retrieved from http://nancyappleton.com/141-reasons-sugar-ruins-your-health/

Chapter 5

96: “In other words…” Jaminet, P. (2012). Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight By Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat. New York: Scribner. p. 136

96: “In fact, it leaves…” Jaminet, P. (2012). Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight By Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat. New York: Scribner. p. 136

96: “Play an important role…” McDonald, R. E., & Min, D. B. (1996). Food Lipids and Health. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. p. 101

96: “Protect the liver…” Nanji, A. A., et al. (1995). Dietary saturated fatty acids: a novel treatment for alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology109(2), 547–554. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/7615205

96: “Have beneficial effects…” Clevidence, B. A., et al. (1997). Plasma lipoprotein (a) levels in men and women consuming diets enriched in saturated, cis-, or trans-monounsaturated fatty acids. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol., 17(9), 1657–1661. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9327759

96: “Have beneficial effects…” Santos, F. L., et al. (2012). Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Obes Rev, 13(11), 1048–1066. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22905670

96: “Have beneficial effects…” Yamagishi, K., et al. (2010). Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC) Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 92(4), 759–765. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20685950

96: “Support healthy immune…” Venkatraman, J. T., Leddy, J., & Pendergast, D. (2000). Dietary fats and immune status in athletes: clinical implications. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32(Suppl 7), S389–395. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10910295

96: “Regulate the availability…” Dabadie, H., et al. (2005). Moderate intake of myristic acid in sn-2 position has beneficial lipidic effects and enhances DHA of cholesteryl esters in an interventional study. J Nutr Biochem, 16(6), 375–382. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15936650

97: [chart] “Foods and Oils…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2013). Interactive Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply. Retrieved from http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/USFoodsupply.htm

98: “It’s true that…” Mensink, R. P., et al. (2003). Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr, 77(5), 1146–1155. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12716665

98: “In fact, of all…” Guyenet, S. (2011). Does Dietary Saturated Fat Increase Blood Cholesterol? An Informal Review of Observational Studies. Retrieved from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2011/01/does-dietary-saturated-fat-increase.html

98: “A large review…” Siri-Tarino, P. W., et al. (2010). Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr, 91(3), 535–546. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20071648

98: “They’re high in lauric acid…” Nakatsuji, T., et al. (2009). Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol, 129(10), 2480–2488. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19387482

98: “They’re high in lauric acid…” Homung, B., Amtmann, E., & Sauer, G. (1994). Lauric acid inhibits the maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus. J Gen Virol, 75(Pt 2), 353–361. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8113756

98: “They have a lower…” Baba, N., Bracco, E. F., & Hashim, S. A. (1982). Enhanced thermogenesis and diminished deposition of fat in response to overfeeding with diet containing medium chain triglyceride. Am J Clin Nutr, 35(4), 678–682. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/7072620

98: “Ketones and…” Gasior, M., Rogawsk, M. A., & Hartman, A. L. (2006). Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behav Pharmacol, 17(5-6), 431–439. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16940764

99: “A study at the…” Chavarro, J. E., et al. (2007). A prospective study of dairy foods intake and anovulatory infertility. Hum Reprod, 22(5), 1340–1347. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17329264

100: “They reduce LDL…” Houston, M. C., et al. (2009). Nonpharmacologic treatment of dyslipidemia. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 52(2), 61–94. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19732602

100: “Some studies also suggest…” Yaqoob, P. (1998). Monounsaturated fats and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc, 57(4), 511–520. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10096110

100: [chart] “Dietary Sources…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2013). Interactive Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply. Retrieved from http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/USFoodsupply.htm

101: “CLA is inversely…” Gebauer, S. K., et al. (2011). Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Adv Nutr, 2(4), 332–354. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22332075

102: “CLA may help…” Ryder, J. W., et al. (2001). Isomer-specific antidiabetic properties of conjugated linoleic acid. Improved glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle insulin action, and UCP-2 gene expression. Diabetes, 50(5), 1149–1157. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11334420

102: “CLA may help…” Castro-Webb, N., Ruiz-Narváez, E. A., & Campos, H. (2012). Cross-sectional study of conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr, 96(1), 175–181. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22648724

102: “CLA has been shown…” Belury, M. A., et al. (2002). Conjugated linoleic acid is an activator and ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). Nutrition Research, 22(7), 817–824. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531702003937

102: “CLA has been shown…” Ochoa, J. J., et al. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) decrease prostate cancer cell proliferation: different molecular mechanisms for cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers. Carcinogenesis, 25(7), 1185–1191. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/14976130

102: “Some research suggests…” Gaullier, J. M., et al. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr, 79(6), 1118–1125. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15159244

102: “But these minor differences…” Gebauer, S. K., et al. (2011). Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Adv Nutr, 2(4), 332–354. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22332075

102: “While natural trans fats…” Gerberding, J. L. (2009). Safer fats for healthier hearts: the case for eliminating dietary artificial trans fat intake. Ann Intern Med, 151(2), 137–138. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19620167

102: “They promote inflammation…” Costa, A. G., Bressan, J., & Sabarense, C. M. (2006). Trans fatty acids: foods and effects on health. Arch Latinoam Nutr, 56(1), 12–21. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16786729

102: “They promote inflammation…” Gerberding, J. L. (2009). Safer fats for healthier hearts: the case for eliminating dietary artificial trans fat intake. Ann Intern Med, 151(2), 137–138. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19620167

102: “In fact, products from…” Dhiman, T. R., et al. (1999). Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J Dairy Sci, 82(10), 2146–2156. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10531600

103: [chart] “Foods High In Naturally…” Yurawecz, M. P., et al. (2003). Advances in conjugated linoleic acid research. Amer Oil Chemists Society, 2, 103–111.

103: [chart] “Foods High In Artificial…” Center For Public in the Public Interest. Artificial Trans Fat Still in Supermarkets Despite Heart Risks. Retrieved from http://cspinet.org/new/pdf/trans-fat-product-list.pdf

104: “Furthermore, CLA supplements…” Stanton, J. (2011). Trans Fat Is Good For You, But Only If It’s From Meat and Butter: Vaccenic Acid and the Conjugated Linoleic Acids. Retrieved from http://www.gnolls.org/2619/trans-fat-is-good-for-you-but-only-if-its-from-meat-and-butter-vaccenic-acid-and-the-conjugated-linoleic-acids/

106: “It is necessary for…” Trappe, T. A., et al. (2001). Skeletal muscle PGF(2)(alpha) and PGE(2) in response to eccentric resistance exercise: influence of ibuprofen acetaminophen. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 86(10), 5067–5070. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11600586

106: “It is necessary for…” Crawford, M. A., & Sinclair, A. J. (1971). Nutritional influences in the evolution of mammalian brain. In: lipids, malnutrition & the developing brain. Ciba Found Symp, 267–292. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/4949878

107: “While it’s true that…” Node, K., et al. (1999). Anti-inflammatory properties of cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-derived eicosanoids. Science, 285(5431), 1276–1279. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10455056

107: “Moreover, it’s now clear that…” Serhan, C. N. (2007). Resolution phase of inflammation: novel endogenous anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators and pathways. Annu Rev Immunol, 25, 101–137. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17090225

107: “ARA is needed…” Serhan, C. N. (2009). Systems approach to inflammation resolution: identification of novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators. J Thromb Haemost, 7(Suppl 1), 44–48. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19630766

107: “In epidemiological studies…” Ferrucci, L., et al. (2006). Relationship of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids to circulating inflammatory markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 91(2), 439–446. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16234304

107: “In epidemiological studies…” Pischon, T., et al. (2003). Habitual dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in relation to inflammatory markers among US men and women. Circulation,108(2), 155–160. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12821543

107: “And clinical studies have found…” Kelley, D. S., et al. (1998). Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances synthesis of eicosanoids without suppressing immune functions in young healthy men. Lipids, 33(2), 125–130. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9507233

108: [chart] “Industrial Seed Oils…” Self Nutrition Data. Retrieved from http://nutritiondata.com

108: [chart] “Foods With High…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2013). Interactive Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply. Retrieved from http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/USFoodsupply.htm

109: “Since this conversion depends…” Ames, B. N., & Wakimoto, P. (2002). Are vitamin and mineral deficiencies a major cancer risk? Nat Rev Cancer., 2(9), 694–704. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12209158

109: “Since this conversion depends…” Plourde, M., & Cunnane, S. C. (2007). Extremely limited synthesis of long chain polyunsaturates in adults: implications for their dietary essentiality and use as supplements. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab., 32(4), 619–634. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17622276

109: “During the Paleolithic era…” Kuipers, R. S., et al. (2010). Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet. Br J Nutr., 104(11), 1666–1687. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20860883

110: “Anthropological research suggests…” Kuipers, R. S., et al. (2010). Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet. Br J Nutr., 104(11), 1666–1687. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20860883

110: “These changes have shifted…” Blasbalg, T. L., et al. (2011). Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century. Am J Clin Nutr., 93(5), 950–962. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21367944

110: “Many scientists believe…” Ramsden, C. E., et al. (2012). Lowering dietary linoleic acid reduces bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids., 87(4-5), 135–141. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22959954

110: “Many scientists believe…” Liou, Y. A., et al. (2007). Decreasing linoleic acid with constant alpha-linolenic acid in dietary fats increases (n-3) eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma phospholipids in healthy men. J Nutr, 137(4), 945–952. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17374659

110: “Many scientists believe…” Ramsden, C. E., et al. (2010). n-6 Fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr., 104(11), 1586–1600. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21118617

111: “Even modest consumption…” Baigent, C., et al. (2005). Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet, 366(9493), 1267–1278. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16214597

111: “Low levels of DHA…” Novak, E. M., Dyer, R. A., & Innis, S. M. (2008). High dietary omega-6 fatty acids contribute to reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the developing brain and inhibit secondary neurite growth. Brain Res, 1237, 136–145. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18710653

111: “Low levels of DHA…” Harris, W. S., et al. (2009). Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. J Nutr, 139(4), 804S–819S. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19244379

111: “Regular consumption of fish…” Houston, M. C., et al. (2009). Nonpharmacologic treatment of dyslipidemia. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 52(2), 61–94. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19732602

113: [chart] “Foods Highest In…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2005). The Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Appendix G2: Original Food Guide Pyramid Patterns and Description of USDA Analyses. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report/html/table_g2_adda2.htm

114: “Be aware that…” Cao, J., et al. (2006). Incorporation and clearance of omega-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and plasma phospholipids. Clin Chem, 52(12), 2265–2272. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17053155

114: “Be aware that…” Leaf, A., et al. (1994). Do fish oils prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty? Circulation, 90(5), 2248–2257. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/7955181

114: “A randomized trial showed…” Allard, J. P., et al. (1997). Lipid peroxidation during n-3 fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation in humans. Lipids, 32(5), 535–541. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9168460

Chapter 6

119: “While glucose from fruits…” Kanarek, R. B., & Orthen-Gambill, N. (1982). Differential effects of sucrose, fructose and glucose on carbohydrate-induced obesity in rats. J Nutr, 112(8), 1546–1554. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/7047694

119: “The remainder is burned…” Tappy, L., & Lê, K. A. (2010). Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiol Rev, 90(1), 23–46. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20086073

120: “It’s also true that…” Guyenet, S. (2012). How Bad is Fructose? David Despain Interviews Dr. John Sievenpiper. Retrieved from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2012/05/how-bad-is-fructose-david-despain.html

120: “There’s nothing fattening or toxic…” Sievenpiper, J. L., de Souza, R. J., & Jenkins, D. J. (2012). Sugar: fruit fructose is still healthy. Nature, 482(7386), 470. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22358823

120: “Studies overall suggest…” Cooper, A. J., et al. (2012). A prospective study of the association between quantity and variety of fruit and vegetable intake and incident type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 35(6), 1293–1300. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22474042

121: “It has anti-inflammatory effects…” Wong, J. M., et al. (2006). Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids. J Clin Gastroenterol, 40(3), 235–243. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16633129

121: “Soluble fiber binds cholesterol…” Houston, M. C., et al. (2009). Nonpharmacologic treatment of dyslipidemia. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 52(2), 61–94. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19732602

121: “By contrast, most insoluble fibers…” Tungland, B. C., & Meyer, D. (2002). Nondigestible Oligo- and Polysaccharides (Dietary Fiber): Their Physiology and Role in Human Health and Food. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 1(3), 90–109. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2002.tb00009.x/abstract

122: “What’s more, excess insoluble fiber…” Torre, M., Rodriguez, A. R., & Saura-Calixto, F. (1991). Effects of dietary fiber and phytic acid on mineral availability. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 30(1), 1–22. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/1657026

122: “In one study involving…” Burr, M. L., et al. (1989). Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet, 2(8666), 757–761. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/2571009

122: “But unlike other types…” Bird, A. R., Brown, I. L., & Topping, D. L. (2000). Starches, resistant starches, the gut microflora and human health. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol, 1(1), 25–37. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11709851

122: “Resistant starch has…” Brown, I. L. (2004). Applications and uses of resistant starch. J AOAC Int, 87(3), 727–732. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15287672; Hat tip to Richard Nikoley: http://freetheanimal.com/2013/06/ resistant-starch-an-overall-primer-with-references.html

123: “Newer, better-designed…” Tan, K. Y., & Seow-Choen, F. (2007). Fiber and colorectal diseases: separating fact from fiction. World J Gastroenterol, 13(31), 4161–4167. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17696243

123: “Long-term longitudinal studies…” Tan, K. Y., & Seow-Choen, F. (2007). Fiber and colorectal diseases: separating fact from fiction. World J Gastroenterol, 13(31), 4161–4167. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17696243

123: “Finally, an analysis…” Asano, T., & McLeod, R. S. (2002). Dietary fibre for the prevention of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2), CD003430. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12076480

124: “What’s more, some evidence…” Jaminet, P. (2012). Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight By Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat. New York: Scribner. p. 103

125: [chart] “Carbohydrate Content…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2012). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. Retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

126: [chart] “Carbohydrate Content…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2012). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. Retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

129: [chart] “Carbohydrate Content…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2012). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. Retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

129: “To make it safe…” FAO. (1990). Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition:  Toxic substances and antinutritional factors. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0207e/T0207E08.htm

Chapter 7

133: “To address these shortcomings…” Schaafsma, G. (2000). The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score. J Nutr, 130(7), 1865S–1867S. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10867064

133: “The table below…” Sarwar, G., & McDonough, F. E. (1990). Evaluation of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method for assessing protein quality of foods. J Assoc Off Anal Chem, 73(3), 347–356. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/2198245

133: “The table below…” FAO/WHO. (1991). Protein Quality Evaluation: Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 51. Rome: FAO.

133: “The table below…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2012). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. Retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

133: “The table below…” Suárez López, M. M., Kizlansky, A., & López, L. B. (2006). Assessment of protein quality in foods by calculating the amino acids score corrected by digestibility. Nutr Hosp, 21(1), 47–51. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16562812

133: “The table below…” Hoffman, J. R., & Falvo, M. J. (2004). Protein – which is best? Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 3(3), 118–130. Retrieved from http://www.jssm.org/vol3/n3/2/v3n3-2pdf.pdf

133: “The table below…” Schaafsma, G. (2000). The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score. J Nutr, 130(7), 1865S–1867S. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10867064

134: “Soy contains substances…” Salgado, P., et al. (2002). Legume grains enhance ileal losses of specific endogenous serine-protease proteins in weaned pigs. J Nutr, 132(7), 1913–1920. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12097670

134: “These anti nutrients…” Gilani, G. S., Cockell, K. A., & Sepehr, E. (2005). Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods. J AOAC Int, 88(3), 967–987. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16001874

135: [chart] “Protein Content…” U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2012). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. Retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

Chapter 8

140: “A study in 2011…” Csáki, K. F. (2011). Synthetic surfactant food additives can cause intestinal barrier dysfunction. Med Hypotheses, 76(5), 676–681. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21300443

140: “Another study showed…” Gardener, H., et al. (2012). Diet soft drink consumption is associated with an increased risk of vascular events in the Northern Manhattan Study. J Gen Intern Med, 27(9), 1120–1126. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22282311

140: “High intake of phosphoric acid…” Shutto, Y., et al. (2011). Lack of awareness among future medical professionals about the risk of consuming hidden phosphate-containing processed food and drinks. PLoS One, 6(12), e29105. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22220204

140: “In particular, they tend…” Benbrook, C., et al. (2008). New Evidence Confirms the Nutritional Superiority of Plant-Based Organic Foods. State of Science Review: Nutritional Superiority of Organic Foods. Retrieved from http://www.organic-center.org/reportfiles/5367_Nutrient_Content_SSR_FINAL_V2.pdf

141: “For example, total vitamin C…” Lee, S. K., & Kader, A. A. (2000). preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin c content of horticultural crops. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 20, 207–220. Retrieved from http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/datastore/234-17.pdf

141: “The vitamin C content…” Wunderlich, S. M., et al. (2008). Nutritional quality of organic, conventional, and seasonally grown broccoli using vitamin C as a marker. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 59(1), 34–45. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17852499

141: “For example, a study…” Pandrangi, S., & LaBorde, L. F. (2004). Retention of Folate, Carotenoids, and Other Quality Characteristics in Commercially Packaged Fresh Spinach. Journal of Food Science, 69(9), C702–C707. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb09919.x/abstract

142: “A study published in…” Bouchard, M. F. (2010). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and urinary metabolites of organophosphate pesticides. Pediatrics, 125(6), e1270–1277. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20478945

142: “Their report stated that…” Reuben, S. H. (2010). Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk: What We Can Do Now. Retrieved from http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/pcp/annualReports/pcp08-09rpt/PCP_Report_08-09_508.pdf

142: “Each year, the Environmental…” Environmental Working Group. (2013). Executive Summary: EWG’s 2013 Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce. Retrieved from http://www.ewg.org/foodnews/summary.php

143-144: “These were summarized well…” Cornell Cooperative Extension. (1996). Northeast Regional Food Guide. Retrieved from http://www.human.cornell.edu/dns/extension/upload/Northeast-20Regional-20Food-20Guide.pdf

145: “The more grain…” Duckett, S. K., et al. (1993). Effects of time on feed on beef nutrient composition. J Anim Sci, 71(8), 2079–2088. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8376232

145: “On average, grass-fed beef had…” Duckett, S. K., et al. (1993). Effects of time on feed on beef nutrient composition. J Anim Sci, 71(8), 2079–2088. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8376232

145: “Another study compared…” Rule, D. C., et al. (2002). Comparison of muscle fatty acid profiles and cholesterol concentrations of bison, beef cattle, elk, and chicken. J Anim Sci80(5), 1202–1211. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12019607

145: “Studies have shown that…” Sinclair, A. J., et al. (1994). Diets rich in lean beef increase arachidonic acid and long-chain ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids. Lipids, 29(5), 337–343. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8015364

146: “Eggs from pasture-raised hens…” Lopez-Bote, C. J., et al. (1998). Effect of free-range feeding on omega-3 fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol content and oxidative stability of eggs. Anim Feed Sci Tech, 72, 33-40.

146: “Pastured-chicken eggs…” Tolan, A., et al. (1994). Studies on the composition of food. 5. The chemical composition of eggs produced under battery, deep litter and free range conditions. Br J Nutr, 31(2), 185–200. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/4820972

146: “They also have higher…” Karsten, H. D., et al. (2010). Vitamins A, E and fatty acid composition of the eggs of caged hens and pastured hens. Renew Agr Food Syst, 25(1), 45–54. Retrieved from http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7219036

146: “Tests conducted in 2005…” Hamilton, M. C., et al. (2005). Lipid composition and contaminants in farmed and wild salmon. Environ Sci Technol, 39(22), 8622–8629. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16323755

146: “Another study found that…” Seierstad, S. L. et al. (2005). Dietary intake of differently fed salmon; the influence on markers of human atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Invest, 35(1), 52–59. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15638820

146: “Wild salmon also contains…” Lu, Z., et al. (2007). An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 103(3-5), 642–644. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17267210

146: “In animal studies, CLA…” Ip, C., et al. (1994). Conjugated linoleic acid. A powerful anticarcinogen from animal fat sources. Cancer, 74(3 Suppl), 1050–1054. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8039138

146: “In a Finnish study…” Aro, A. et al. (2000). Inverse association between dietary and serum conjugated linoleic acid and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Nutr Cancer, 38(2), 151–157. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11525591

146: “In another study…” Smit, L. A., et al. (2010). Conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Clin Nutr, 92(1), 34–40. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20463040

146: “When ruminant animals…” Dhiman, T. R., et al. (1999). Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J Dairy Sci, 82(10), 2146–2156. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10531600

147: “Grass-fed beef is also…” Daley, C. A., et al. (2010). A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J, 9, 10. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20219103

147: “Grass-fed beef is also…” Duckett, S. K., et al. (1993). Effects of time on feed on beef nutrient composition. J Anim Sci, 71(8), 2079–2088. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8376232

147: “Selenium plays…” Marchello, M. (2001). Nutrient Composition of Grass- and Grain- Finished Bison. Great Plains Research: A Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 544. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/greatplainsresearch/544

147: “A 2013 analysis…” Environmental Working Group. (2013). Superbugs Invade American Supermarkets. Retrieved from http://www.ewg.org/meateatersguide/superbugs/

148: “The EWG report recommends…” Environmental Working Group. (2013). Tips to help you avoid superbugs in meat. Retrieved from http://static.ewg.org/reports/2013/meateaters/ewg_meat_and_antibiotics_tipsheet.pdf

Chapter 9

151: “Within a few hours…” Price, W. A. (2006). Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. La Mesa, CA: Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation. p. 280

152: “However, while some beta-carotene…” Hedrén, E., Diaz, V., & Svanberg, U. (2002). Estimation of carotenoid accessibility from carrots determined by an in vitro digestion method. Eur J Clin Nutr, 56(5), 425–430. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12001013

152: “Too much vitamin A…” Masterjohn, C. (2006). Vitamin A on Trial: Does Vitamin A Cause Osteoporosis? Wise Traditions, 7(1).

152: “Too much vitamin A…” Masterjohn, C. (2006). From Seafood to Sunshine: A New Understanding of Vitamin D Safety. Wise Traditions, 7(2).

152: “You’re free to eat…” Fernandez, M. L. (2012). Rethinking dietary cholesterol. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 15(2), 117–121. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22037012

156: “It’s the most common…” Hanson, E. H., Imperatore, G., & Burke, W. (2001). HFE gene and hereditary hemochromatosis: a HuGE review. Human Genome Epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol, 154(3), 193–206. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11479183

156: “A 1996 CDC study…” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Hemochromatosis for health care professionals. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemochromatosis/training/index.htm

156: “What’s more…” Weinberg, E. D. (2007). Iron loading in humans: A risk factor for enhanced morbidity and mortality. J Nutr Environ Med, 16(1), 43–51. Retrieved from http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13590840601167685

156-157: “Studies have shown…” Tuomainen, T. P., et al. (1997). Body iron stores are associated with serum insulin and blood glucose concentrations. Population study in 1,013 eastern Finnish men. Diabetes Care, 20(3), 426–428. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9051399

157: “In the majority of studies reviewed…” Kratz, M., Baars, T., & Guyenet, S. (2013). The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease. Eur J Nutr, 52(1), 1–24. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22810464

158: “Butyrate provides energy…” Lewis, K., et al. (2010). Enhanced translocation of bacteria across metabolically stressed epithelia is reduced by butyrate. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 16(7), 1138–1148. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20024905

158: “In fact, butyrate’s…” Di Sabatino, A., et al. (2005). Oral butyrate for mildly to moderately active Crohn’s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 22(9), 789–794. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16225487

158: “Phytanic acid…” Kratz, M., Baars, T., & Guyenet, S. (2013). The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease. Eur J Nutr, 52(1), 1–24. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22810464

158: “In a study of 2,600…” Mozaffarian, D., et al. (2013). trans-Palmitoleic acid, other dairy fat biomarkers, and incident diabetes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Am J Clin Nutr, 97(4), 854–861. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23407305

158: “Finally, conjugated linolenic acid…” Gebauer, S. K., et al. (2011). Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Adv Nutr, 2(4), 332–354. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22332075

158: “Finally, conjugated linolenic acid…” Castro-Webb, N., Ruiz-Narváez, E. A., & Campos, H. (2012). Cross-sectional study of conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr, 96(1), 175–181. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22648724

158: “Finally, conjugated linolenic acid…” Belury, M. A., et al. (2002). Conjugated linoleic acid is an activator and ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). Nutr Res, 22(7), 817–824. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531702003937

159: “Some studies have even shown…” He, T., et al. (2008). Effects of yogurt and bifidobacteria supplementation on the colonic microbiota in lactose-intolerant subjects. J Appl Microbiol, 104(2), 595–604. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17927751

160: “Studies suggest that…” Crittenden, R. G., & Bennett, L. E. (2005). Cow’s milk allergy: a complex disorder. J Am Coll Nutr, 24(6 Suppl), 582S–591S. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16373958

160: “Parents should be aware…” Høst, A. (1995). The natural history of cow’s milk protein allergy/intolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr, 49(Suppl 1), S13–S18. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8647059

Chapter 10

162: “Irritable bowel syndrome…” International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. (2013). Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.aboutibs.org/site/about-ibs/facts-about-ibs/statistics

162: “IBS is the second…” Cash, B., Sullivan, S., & Barghout, V. (2005). Total costs of IBS: employer and managed care perspective. Am J Manag Care, 11(1 Suppl), S7–S16. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15926759

162: “On average, 60 percent…” Amos, J. A., & Krucik, G. (2012). Acid Reflux (GERD) Statistics and Facts. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/gerd/statistics

162: “Nexium, an acid-suppressing drug…” DeNoon, D. J. (2011). The 10 Most Prescribed Drugs. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/news/20110420/the-10-most-prescribed-drugs

163: “The gut contains over…” Sánchez de Medina, F., et al. (2013). Host-microbe interactions: the difficult yet peaceful coexistence of the microbiota and the intestinal mucosa. Br J Nutr, 109(Suppl 2), S12–S20. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23360876

163: “Indeed, according to…” Velasquez-Manoff, M. (2012). Epidemic of Absence: A New Way of Understanding Allergies and Autoiummune Diseases. New York: Scribner. p. 167.

164: “Some research suggests that…” Salminen, S., et al. (2004). Influence of mode of delivery on gut microbiota composition in seven year old children. Gut, 53(9), 1388–1389. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15306608

164: “Other studies indicate…” Azad, M. B., et al. (2013). Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months. CMAJ, 185(5), 385–394. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23401405

164: “The baby’s diet…” Penders, J., et al. (2006). Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy. Pediatrics, 118(2), 511–521. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16882802

164: “Babies that are exclusively…” Azad, M. B., et al. (2013). Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months. CMAJ, 185(5), 385–394. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23401405

164: “This is important…” Hooper, L. V., et al. (2001). Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine. Science, 291(5505), 881–884. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11157169

164: “The amount, type, and balance…” Rothe, M., & Blaut, M. (2013). Evolution of the gut microbiota and the influence of diet. Benef Microbes, 4(1), 31–37. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23257016

164: “For example, foods that are rich…” Hooda, S., et al. (2012). 454 pyrosequencing reveals a shift in fecal microbiota of healthy adult men consuming polydextrose or soluble corn fiber. J Nutr,142(7), 1259–1265. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22649263

165: “Antibiotics, NSAIDs…” Dethlefsen, L., & Relman, D. A. (2011). Incomplete recovery and individualized responses of the human distal gut microbiota to repeated antibiotic perturbation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108(Suppl 1), 4554–4561. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20847294

165: “Antibiotics, NSAIDs…” Mäkivuokko, H., et al. (2010). The effect of age and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on human intestinal microbiota composition. Br J Nutr,103(2), 227–234. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19703328

165: “Chronic stress” Konturek, P. C., Brzozowski, T., & Konturek, S. J. (2011). Stress and the gut: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options. J Physiol Pharmacol, 62(6), 591–599. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22314561

165: “Chronic infections…” Walk, S. T., et al. (2010). Alteration of the murine gut microbiota during infection with the parasitic helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 16(11), 1841–1849. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20848461

165: “The metabolic activity…” O’Hara, A. M., & Shanahan, F. (2007). Gut microbiota: mining for therapeutic potential. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 5(3), 274–284. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17368226

165: “Bacteria in the gut…” O’Hara, A. M., & Shanahan, F. (2007). Gut microbiota: mining for therapeutic potential. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 5(3), 274–284. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17368226

165: “Recent research has revealed…” Lam, Y. Y., et al. (2011). Role of the gut in visceral fat inflammation and metabolic disorders. Obesity (Silver Spring), 19(11), 2113–2120. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21881620

165: “Microbes help us…” Musso, G., Gambino, R., & Cassader, M. (2011). Interactions between gut microbiota and host metabolism predisposing to obesity and diabetes. Annu Rev Med, 62, 361–380. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21226616

165: “During this process…” Bäckhed, F., et al. (2005). Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science, 307(5717), 1915–1920. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15790844

165: “As I mentioned earlier…” Wong, J. M., et al. (2006). Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids. J Clin Gastroenterol, 40(3), 235–243. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16633129

166: “Butyrate also inhibits…” Siavoshian, S., et al. (2000). Butyrate and trichostatin A effects on the proliferation/differentiation of human intestinal epithelial cells: induction of cyclin D3 and p21 expression. Gut, 46(4), 507–514. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10716680

166: “Studies have shown that…” Guarner, F., & Malagelada, J. R. (2003). Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet, 361(9356), 512–519. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12583961

166: “Germ-free mice…” Taguchi, H., et al. (2002). Experimental infection of germ-free mice with hyper-toxigenic enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, strain 6. J Med Microbiol, 51(4), 336–343. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11926740

166: “Germ-free mice…” van der Waaij, D. (1989). The ecology of the human intestine and its consequences for overgrowth by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. Annu Rev Microbiol, 43, 69–87. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/2679366

166-167: “And we now know…” Teixeira, T. F., et al. (2012). Potential mechanisms for the emerging link between obesity and increased intestinal permeability. Nutr Res, 32(9), 637–647. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23084636

166-167: “And we now know…” Humbert, P., et al. (1991). Intestinal permeability in patients with psoriasis. J Dermatol Sci, 2(4), 324–326. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/1911568

166-167: “And we now know…” Maes, M., Kubera, M., & Leunis, J. C. (2008). The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 29(1), 117–124. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18283240

167: “In fact, some researchers…” Visser, J., et al. (2008). Tight junctions, intestinal permeability, and autoimmunity: celiac disease and type 1 diabetes paradigms. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 1165, 195–205. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19538307

167: “Researchers have identified…” Wang, W., et al. (2000). Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions. J Cell Sci, 113(Pt 24), 4435–4440. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11082037

167: “In fact, researchers have found…” Visser, J., et al. (2008). Tight junctions, intestinal permeability, and autoimmunity: celiac disease and type 1 diabetes paradigms. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 1165, 195–205. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19538307

167: “As you can see…” Fasano, A., & Shea-Donohue, T. (2005). Mechanisms of disease: the role of intestinal barrier function in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2(9), 416–422. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16265432

168: “In people with celiac disease…” Drago, S., et al. (2006). Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines. Scand J Gastroenterol, 41(4), 408–419. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16635908

168: “The standard American diet…” Turnbaugh, P. J., et al. (2009). The effect of diet on the human gut microbiome: a metagenomic analysis in humanized gnotobiotic mice. Sci Transl Med,1(6), 6ra14. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20368178

168: “These changes to the microbiota…” Cinova, J., et al. (2011). Role of intestinal bacteria in gliadin-induced changes in intestinal mucosa: study in germ-free rats. PLoS One, 6(1), e16169. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21249146

168: “By contrast…” De Filippo, C., et al. (2010). Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 107(33), 14691–14696. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20679230

169: “It also causes…” Wigg, A. J., et al. (2001). The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal permeability, endotoxaemia, and tumour necrosis factor alpha in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Gut, 48(2), 206–211. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11156641

169: “Chronic stress…” Konturek, P. C., Brzozowski, T., & Konturek, S. J. (2011). Stress and the gut: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options. J Physiol Pharmacol, 62(6), 591–599. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22314561

169: “Infection with bacteria…” Fukuda, Y., et al. (2001). Helicobacter pylori infection increases mucosal permeability of the stomach and intestine. Digestion, 63(Suppl 1), 93–96. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11173917

169: “Infection with bacteria…” Ohnishi, T., et al. (2013). Kudoa septempunctata invasion increases the permeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayer. Foodborne Pathog Dis, 10(2), 137–142. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23373474

169: “Infection with bacteria…” Maia-Brigagão, C., Morgado-Díaz, J. A., & De Souza, W. (2012). Giardia disrupts the arrangement of tight, adherens and desmosomal junction proteins of intestinal cells. Parasitol Int, 61(2), 280–287. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22146155

169: “Excess alcohol…” Purohit, V., et al. (2008). Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium. Alcohol, 42(5), 349–361. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18504085

169: “NSAIDs, aspirin…” Tugendreich, S., et al. (2006). NSAID-induced acute phase response is due to increased intestinal permeability and characterized by early and consistent alterations in hepatic gene expression. Toxicol Pathol, 34(2), 168–179. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16642600

169: “NSAIDs, aspirin…” Sequeira, I. R., et al. (2012). The effect of aspirin and smoking on urinary excretion profiles of lactulose and mannitol in young women: toward a dynamic, aspirin augmented, test of gut mucosal permeability. Neurogastroenterol Motil, 24(9), e401–e411. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22757650

169: “NSAIDs, aspirin…” van Vlerken, L. G., et al. (2012). Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: role of proton pump inhibitors and intestinal permeability. Eur J Clin Invest, 42(7), 760–767. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22288900

169: “Preliminary research suggests…” Braniste, V., et al. (2010). Impact of oral bisphenol A at reference doses on intestinal barrier function and sex differences after perinatal exposure in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107(1), 448–453. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20018722

170: “For example, SIBO…” Bowe, W. P., & Logan, A. C., et al. (2011). Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis – back to the future? Gut Pathog, 3(1), 1. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21281494

170: “Other research indicates…” Maes, M., Kubera, M., & Leunis, J. C. (2008). The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 29(1), 117–124. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18283240

170: “Finally, increased intestinal permeability…” D’Eufemia, P., et al. (1996). Abnormal intestinal permeability in children with autism. Acta Paediatr, 85(9), 1076–1079. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8888921

170: “The gut microbiota…” Teixeira, T. F., et al. (2012). Potential mechanisms for the emerging link between obesity and increased intestinal permeability. Nutr Res, 32(9), 637–647. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23084636

170: “Changes in the gut microbiota…” Vijay-Kumar, M., et al. (2010). Metabolic syndrome and altered gut microbiota in mice lacking Toll-like receptor 5. Science, 328(5975), 228–231. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20203013

170: “Changes in the gut microbiota…” DiBaise, J. K., et al. (2008). Gut microbiota and its possible relationship with obesity. Mayo Clin Proc, 83(4), 460–469. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18380992

171: “Bad bacteria in the gut…” Cani, P. D., et al. (2007). Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes, 56(7), 1761–1772. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17456850

171: “Other gut problems…” Sabaté, J. M., et al. (2008). High prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with morbid obesity: a contributor to severe hepatic steatosis. Obes Surg, 18(4), 371–377. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18286348

171: “Other gut problems…” Torgerson, J. S., et al. (2008). Gallstones, gallbladder disease, and pancreatitis: cross-sectional and 2-year data from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) and SOS reference studies. Obes Surg, 98(5), 1032–1041. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12809825

171: “Other gut problems…” Chandrasekharan, B., & Srinivasan, S. (2007). Diabetes and the enteric nervous system. Neurogastroenterol Motil, 19(12), 951–960. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17971027

171: “Other gut problems…” Teixeira, T. F., et al. (2012). Potential mechanisms for the emerging link between obesity and increased intestinal permeability. Nutr Res, 32(9), 637–647. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23084636

171: “In fact, as I mentioned…” Visser, J., et al. (2008). Tight junctions, intestinal permeability, and autoimmunity: celiac disease and type 1 diabetes paradigms. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 1165, 195–205. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19538307

171: “In addition to contributing…” Kim, B. I., et al. (2011). Increased intestinal permeability as a predictor of bacterial infections in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and hemorrhage. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 26(3), 550–557. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21332551

171: “There are clear associations…” Saarialho-Kere, U. (2004). The gut-skin axis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr,39(Suppl 3), S734–S735. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15167366

171: “Celiacs also…” Saarialho-Kere, U. (2004). The gut-skin axis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr,39(Suppl 3), S734–S735. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15167366

171: “One fascinating study…” Parodi, A., et al. (2008). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in rosacea: clinical effectiveness of its eradication. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 6(7), 759–764. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18456568

171: “Altered gut microbiota…” Gueniche, A., et al. (2010). Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-2116 (ST11) inhibits substance P-induced skin inflammation and accelerates skin barrier function recovery in vitro. Eur J Dermatol, 20(6), 731–737. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20965806

172: “Finally, probiotics have…” Gueniche, A., et al. (2010). Bifidobacterium longum lysate, a new ingredient for reactive skin. Exp Dermatol, 19(8), e1–e8. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19624730

172: “One Italian study…” Marchetti, F., Capizzi, R., & Tulli, A. (1987). Efficacy of regulators of the intestinal bacterial flora in the therapy of acne vulgaris. Clin Ter, 122(5), 339–343. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/2972450

175: “These bacteria ferment…” Macfarlane, G. T., & Macfarlane, S. (2012). Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health. J AOAC Int, 95(1), 50–60. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22468341

176: “For example, two separate…” Pérez-Cobas, A. E., et al. (2013). Gut microbiota disturbance during antibiotic therapy: a multi-omic approach. Gut, 62(11), 1591–1601. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23236009

176: “For example, two separate…” Dethlefsen, L., & Relman, D. A. (2011). Incomplete recovery and individualized responses of the human distal gut microbiota to repeated antibiotic perturbation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108(Suppl 1), 4554–4561. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20847294

176: “Helicobacter pylori…” The EUROGAST Study Group. (1993). Epidemiology of, and risk factors for, Helicobacter pylori infection among 3194 asymptomatic subjects in 17 populations. The EUROGAST Study Group. Gut, 34(12), 1672–1676. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8282253

177: “Chronic stress can…” Bowe, W. P., & Logan, A. C., et al. (2011). Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis – back to the future? Gut Pathog, 3(1), 1. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21281494

177: “Chronic stress can…” Konturek, P. C., Brzozowski, T., & Konturek, S. J. (2011). Stress and the gut: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options. J Physiol Pharmacol, 62(6), 591–599. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22314561

177: “It also increases…” Konturek, P. C., Brzozowski, T., & Konturek, S. J. (2011). Stress and the gut: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options. J Physiol Pharmacol, 62(6), 591–599. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22314561

177: “However, mindfulness-based…” Zernicke, K. A., et al. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a randomized wait-list controlled trial. Int J Behav Med, 20(3), 385–396. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22618308

177: “However, mindfulness-based…” Dobbin, A., et al. (2013). Randomised controlled trial of brief intervention with biofeedback and hypnotherapy in patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome. J R Coll Physicians Edinb, 43(1), 15–23. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23516685

Chapter 11

190: “Studies that have compared…” Callegaro Mda, D., & Tirapegui, J. (1996). Comparison of the nutritional value between brown rice and white rice. Arq Gastroenterol, 33(4), 225–231. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9302338

190: “White rice doesn’t have…” Miyoshi, H., & Tirapegui, J. (1987). Effects of brown rice on apparent digestibility and balance of nutrients in young men on low protein diets. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 33(3), 207–218. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/2822877

191: “Soaking lentils…” Nagel, R. (2010). Living with Phytic Acid. Retrieved from http://www.westonaprice.org/food-features/living-with-phytic-acid

198: “Though there is still controversy…” Borthakur, A., et al. (2007). Carrageenan induces interleukin-8 production through distinct Bcl10 pathway in normal human colonic epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 292(3), G829–G838. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17095757

198: “Though there is still controversy…” Bhattacharyya, S., et al. (2012). Exposure to the common food additive carrageenan leads to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and inhibition of insulin signalling in HepG2 cells and C57BL/6J mice. Diabetologia, 55(1), 194–203. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22011715

198: “Though there is still controversy…” Tobacman, J. K. (2001). Review of harmful gastrointestinal effects of carrageenan in animal experiments. Environ Health Perspect, 109(10), 983–994. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11675262

198: “A study at the Harvard…” Chavarro, J. E., et al. (2008). Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic. Hum Reprod, 23(11), 2584–2590. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18650557

198: “Other studies found…” Cederroth, C. R., et al. (2010). Soy, phyto-oestrogens and male reproductive function: a review. Int J Androl, 33(2), 304–316. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19919579

198: “A large review…” Hooper, L., et al. (2009). Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on circulating hormone concentrations in pre- and post-menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 15(4), 423–440. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19299447

Chapter 12

205: “Women were as active…” O’Keefe, J. H., et al. (2011). Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 53(6), 471–479. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21545934

205: “This instinctual response…” O’Keefe, J. H., et al. (2010). Achieving hunter-gatherer fitness in the 21(st) century: back to the future. Am J Med, 123(12), 1082–1086. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20843503

205: “His GPS data…” Cordain, L., & Friel, J. (2005). The Paleo diet for athletes: A nutritional formula for peak athletic performance. New York: Rodale Books. p. 288

205: “Closer to home…” Bassett, D. R., Schneider, P. L., & Huntington, G. E. (2004). Physical activity in an Old Order Amish community. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 36(1), 79–85. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/14707772

205: “Today, the average sedentary…” Chen, J. D. (1999). Evolutionary aspects of exercise. World Rev Nutr Diet, 84, 106–117. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10489818

206: “Now, thanks to dramatic changes…” Tudor-Locke, C., & Schuna, Jr., J. M. (2012). Steps to Preventing Type 2 Diabetes: Exercise, Walk More, or Sit Less? Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 3, 142. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23189071

206: “The typical US adult…” Owen, N., et al. (2010). Too much sitting: the population health science of sedentary behavior. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 38(3), 105–113. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20577058

206: “The typical US adult…” Bauman, A., et al. (2011). The descriptive epidemiology of sitting. A 20-country comparison using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Am J Prev Med, 41(2), 228–235. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21767731

206: “A sedentary office worker…” Cordain, L., Gottshall, R. W., & Eaton, S. B. (1997). Evolutionary aspects of exercise. World Rev Nutr Diet, 81, 49–60. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9287503

206: “All this increased sitting…” O’Keefe, J. H., et al. (2011). Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 53(6), 471–479. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21545934

206: “Sitting decreases the activity…” Hamilton, M. T., Hamilton, D. G., & Zderic, T. W. (2004). Evolutionary aspects of exercise. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 32(4), 161–166. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15604935

206: “Even a single day…” Tremblay, M. S., et al. (2010). Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(6), 725–740. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21164543

206: “Even a single day…” Tudor-Locke, C., & Schuna, Jr., J. M. (2012). Steps to Preventing Type 2 Diabetes: Exercise, Walk More, or Sit Less? Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 3, 142. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23189071

207: “Up to two-thirds…” Olmedillas, H., et al. (2012). Cycling and bone health: a systematic review. BMC Med, 10, 168. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23256921

207: “Both humans and animals…” Tremblay, M. S., et al. (2010). Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(6), 725–740. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21164543

207: “After just twelve weeks…” Zerwekh, J. E., et al. (1998). The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects. J Bone Miner Res, 13(10), 1594–1601. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9783548

207: “What’s more, studies suggest…” Tremblay, M. S., et al. (2010). Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(6), 725–740. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21164543

207: “Just five days…” Tremblay, M. S., et al. (2010). Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(6), 725–740. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21164543

207: “Other studies have found…” Demiot, C., et al. (2007). WISE 2005: chronic bed rest impairs microcirculatory endothelium in women. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 293(5), H3159–H3164. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17766475

207: “In an Australian study…” Dunstan, D. W., et al. (2010). Television viewing time and mortality: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Circulation, 121(3), 384–391. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20065160

207: “A U.S. study…” Warren, T. Y., et al. (2010). Sedentary behaviors increase risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(5), 879–885. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19996993

208: “Regular physical activity…” Byberg, L., et al. (2009). Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50 year old men: 35 year follow-up of population based cohort. BMJ, 338, b688. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19264819

208: “In fact, your fitness level…” Kokkinos, P., et al. (2008). Exercise capacity and mortality in black and white men. Circulation, 117(5), 614–622. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18212278

208: “Adults who exercise…” Tremblay, M. S., et al. (2010). Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(6), 725–740. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21164543

208: “Adults who exercise…” Colcombe, S., & Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study. Psychol Sci, 14(2), 125–130. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12661673

208: “These benefits are evident…” Tremblay, M. S., et al. (2010). Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(6), 725–740. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21164543

208: “Finally, getting adequate exercise…” Buman, M. P., & King, A. C. (2010). Exercise as a Treatment to Enhance Sleep. Am J Lifestyle Med, 4(6), 500–514. Retrieved from http://ajl.sagepub.com/content/4/6/500.abstract

208: “Finally, getting adequate exercise…” Passos, G. S., et al. (2010). Effect of acute physical exercise on patients with chronic primary insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med, 6(3), 270–275. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20572421

208: “Here’s the shocker…” Tremblay, M. S., et al. (2010). Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(6), 725–740. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21164543

208: “In fact, a large study…” Patel, A. V., et al. (2010). Leisure time spent sitting in relation to total mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults. Am J Epidemiol, 172(4), 419–429. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20650954

208: “Canadians who reported…” Katzmarzyk, P. T., et al. (2009). Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(5), 998–1005. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19346988

209: “A large and growing body of evidence…” O’Keefe, J. H., et al. (2011). Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 53(6), 471–479. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21545934

210: “Overtraining has been associated…” Margonis, K., et al. (2007). Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: implications for diagnosis. Free Radic Biol Med, 43(6), 901–910. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17697935

210: “Overtraining has been associated…” Cosca, D. D., & Navazio, F. (2007). Common problems in endurance athletes. Am Fam Physician, 76(2), 237–244. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17695568

210: “Overtraining has been associated…” Gleeson, M. (2007). Immune function in sport and exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985), 103(2), 693–699. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17303714

210: “Overtraining has been associated…” Nieman, D. C. (2000). Is infection risk linked to exercise workload? Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32(7 Suppl), S406–411. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10910297

210: “A study of one hundred…” Möhlenkamp, S., et al. (2008). Running: the risk of coronary events : Prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners. Eur Heart J, 29(15), 1903–1910. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18426850

210: “A study of elite runners…” Wilson, M., et al. (2011). Diverse patterns of myocardial fibrosis in lifelong, veteran endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol (1985), 110(6), 1622–1626. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21330616

210: “Finally, a study of…” Harris, K. (2009). “Cardio” Causes Heart Disease. Retrieved from http://www.archevore.com/panu-weblog/2009/11/1/cardio-causes-heart-disease.html

210: “Some research suggests…” Rowland, T. W. (1998). The biological basis of physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30(3), 392–399. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9526885

211: “Standing and walking slowly…” Levine, J. A., Schleusner, S. J., & Jensen, M. D. (2000). Energy expenditure of nonexercise activity. Am J Clin Nutr, 72(6), 1451–1454. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11101470

211: “Standing and walking slowly…” Black, A. E., et al. (1996). Human energy expenditure in affluent societies: an analysis of 574 doubly-labelled water measurements. Eur J Clin Nutr, 50(2), 72–92. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8641250

211: “Studies show…” Owen, N., et al. (2010). Too much sitting: the population health science of sedentary behavior. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 38(3), 105–113. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20577058

212: “Studies show that…” Levine, J. A., Schleusner, S. J., & Jensen, M. D. (2000). Energy expenditure of nonexercise activity. Am J Clin Nutr, 72(6), 1451–1454. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11101470

212: “Even a relatively low…” Healy, G. N., et al. (2008). Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Diabetes Care, 31(2), 369–371. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18000181

212: “Even a relatively low…” Wilmot, E. G., et al. (2012). Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 55(11), 2895–2905. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22890825

212: “Even a relatively low…” Dunstan, D. W., et al. (2012). Breaking up prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Diabetes Care, 35(5), 976–983. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22374636

212: “People who are lean…” Levine, J. A., et al. (2005). Interindividual variation in posture allocation: possible role in human obesity. Science, 307(5709), 584–586. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15681386

216: “Modern research has confirmed…” Trapp, E. G., et al. (2008). The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women. Int J Obes (Lond), 32(4), 684–691. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18197184

216: “In fact, some studies…” Paoli, A., et al. (2012). High-Intensity Interval Resistance Training (HIRT) influences resting energy expenditure and respiratory ratio in non-dieting individuals. J Transl Med, 10, 237. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23176325

216: “As one researcher put it…” O’Keefe, J. H., et al. (2011). Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 53(6), 471–479. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21545934

216: “Studies of contemporary…” Cordain, L., & Friel, J. (2005). The Paleo diet for athletes: A nutritional formula for peak athletic performance. New York: Rodale Books. p. 288

222: “Studies have shown that…” Lieberman, D. E., et al. (2010). Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature463(7280), 531–535. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20111000

222: “Studies have shown that…” Lieberman, D. E., & Bramble, D. M. (2004). Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature, 432(7015), 345–352. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15549097

222: “Other studies have shown…” Digby, C. J., Lake, M. J., & Lees, A. (2005). High-speed non-invasive measurement of tibial rotation during the impact phase of running. Ergonomics, 48(11-14), 1623–1637. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16338728

222: “Other studies have shown…” Rixe, J. A., Gallo, R. A., & Silvis, M. L. (2012). The barefoot debate: can minimalist shoes reduce running-related injuries? Curr Sports Med Rep, 11(3), 160–165. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22580495

222: “Some recent studies suggest…” Reynolds, G. (2013). Barefoot Running Can Cause Injuries, Too. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/06/barefoot-running-can-cause-injuries-too/

Chapter 13

227: “This may not seem unusual…” Knutson, K. L., et al. (2010). Trends in the prevalence of short sleepers in the USA: 1975-2006. Sleep, 33(1), 37–45. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20120619

227: “During that period…” Bixler, D. (2009). Sleep and society: an epidemiological perspective. Sleep Med, 10(Suppl 1), S3–6. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19660985

227: “During that period…” Schoenborn, C. A., & Adams, P. F. (2008). Sleep Duration as a Correlate of Smoking, Alcohol Use, Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity, and Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2004-2006. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/sleep04-06/sleep04-06.pdf

227: “In fact, studies suggest…” Chepesiuk, R. (2009). Missing the dark: health effects of light pollution. Environ Health Perspect, 117(1), A20–27. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19165374

229: “Too much electronic media…” Owens, J., et al. (1999). Television-viewing habits and sleep disturbance in school children. Pediatrics, 104(3), e27. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10469810

229: “Too much electronic media…” Van den Bulck, J. (2004). Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep, 27(1), 101–104. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/14998244

229: “Too much electronic media…” Suganuma, N., et al. (2007). Using electronic media before sleep can curtail sleep time and result in self-perceived insufficient sleep. Sleep Biol Rhythms, 5(3), 204–214. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2007.00276.x/abstract

229: “Chronic jet lag…” Erren, T. C., & Reiter, R. J. (2009). Light Hygiene: Time to make preventive use of insights–old and new–into the nexus of the drug light, melatonin, clocks, chronodisruption and public health. Med Hypotheses, 73(4), 537–541. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19586725

230: “A single night…” Donga, E., et al. (2010). A single night of partial sleep deprivation induces insulin resistance in multiple metabolic pathways in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 95(6), 2963–2968. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20371664

230: “Exposure to even…” Fonken, L. K., et al. (2010). Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 107(43), 18664–18669. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20937863

230: “A randomized controlled…” Spaeth, A. M., Dinges, D. F., & Goel, N. (2013). Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Weight Gain, Caloric Intake, and Meal Timing in Healthy Adults. Sleep, 36(7), 981–990. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23814334

230: “One study showed…” Calvin, A. D., et al. (2013). Effects of experimental sleep restriction on caloric intake and activity energy expenditure. Chest, 144(1), 79–86. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23392199

232: “Melatonin plays a key…” Blask, D. E., et al. (2009). Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk. Sleep Med Rev, 13(4), 257–264. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19095474

232: “In a remarkable study…” Nelson, R. J., & Blom, J. M. (1994). Photoperiodic effects on tumor development and immune function. J Biol Rhythms, 9(3-4), 233–249. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/7772792; Hat tip to Dan Koifman

232: “People who are exposed…” Blask, D. E., et al. (2009). Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk. Sleep Med Rev, 13(4), 257–264. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19095474

232: “People who are exposed…” Curti, R., et al. (1982). Work stress and immune system: lymphocyte reactions during rotating shift work. Preliminary results. Med Lav, 73(6), 564–569. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/6984725

232: “Sleep-deprived people report…” Minkel, J. D., et al. (2012). Sleep deprivation and stressors: evidence for elevated negative affect in response to mild stressors when sleep deprived. Emotion, 12(5), 1015–1020. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22309720

232: “Sleep loss increases cortisol…” McEwen, B. S. (2006). Sleep deprivation as a neurobiologic and physiologic stressor: Allostasis and allostatic load. Metabolism, 55(10 Suppl 2), S20–23. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16979422

233: “Poor sleep has multiple effects…” Durmer, J. S., & Dinges, D. F. (2005). Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol, 25(1), 117–129. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15798944

234: “These glasses are remarkably…” Wood, B., et al. (2013). Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression. Appl Ergon, 44(2), 237–240. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22850476

234: “These glasses are remarkably…” Figueiro, M. G., et al. (2011). The impact of light from computer monitors on melatonin levels in college students. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 32(2), 158–163. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21552190

234: “These glasses are remarkably…” Burkhart, K., & Phelps, J. R. (2009). Amber lenses to block blue light and improve sleep: a randomized trial. Chronobiol Int, 26(8), 1602–1612. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20030543

235: “In one study of…” Foti, K. E., et al. (2011). Sufficient sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Am J Prev Med, 41(6), 596–602. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22099236

236: “Carbohydrates increase the ability…” Fernstrom, J. D., et al. (1979). Diurnal variations in plasma concentrations of tryptophan, tryosine, and other neutral amino acids: effect of dietary protein intake. Am J Clin Nutr., 32(9), 1912–1922. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/573061

236: “Certain amino acids…” Fernstrom, J. D., et al. (1979). Diurnal variations in plasma concentrations of tryptophan, tryosine, and other neutral amino acids: effect of dietary protein intake. Am J Clin Nutr., 32(9), 1912–1922. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/573061

Chapter 14

244: “High blood sugar” Prodam, F., et al. (2013). High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med, 11, 44. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23425018

244: “Depressed immunity” Cohen, S., et al. (2012). Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 109(16), 5995–5999. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22474371

244: “Intestinal permeability…” Alonso, C., et al. (2012). Acute experimental stress evokes a differential gender-determined increase in human intestinal macromolecular permeability. Neurogastroenterol Motil, 24(8), 740–746. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22625665

244: “Increased craving…” Adam, T. C., & Epel, E. S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiol Behav, 91(4), 449–458. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/17543357

244: “Poor cognitive function…” Guenzel, F. M., Wolf, O. T., & Schwabe, L. (2013). Stress disrupts response memory retrieval. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(8), 1460–1465. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23317523

244: “Poor thyroid function” Hackney, A. C., et al. (2012). Thyroid hormonal responses to intensive interval versus steady-state endurance exercise sessions. Hormones (Athens),11(1), 54–60. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22450344

244: “Increased fat storage…” Tchernof, A., & Després, J. P. (2013). Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update. Physiol Rev, 93(1), 359–404. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23303913

244: “Anxiety and depression” Chatzittofis, A., et al. (2013). CSF 5-HIAA, cortisol and DHEAS levels in suicide attempters. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 23(10), 1280–1287. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23453639

245: “Contribute to both…” Marcovecchio, M. L., & Chiarelli, F. (2012). The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control. Sci Signal, 5(247), pt10. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23092890

245: “By contrast, studies…” Christaki, E., et al. (2013). Stress management can facilitate weight loss in Greek overweight and obese women: a pilot study. J Hum Nutr Diet, 26(Suppl 1), 132–139. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23627835

245: “Increase circulating inflammatory…” Gouin, J. P., et al. (2012). Chronic stress, daily stressors, and circulating inflammatory markers. Health Psychol, 31(2), 264–268. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21928900

245: “Play an important role…” Wright, R. J. (2005). Stress and atopic disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 116(6), 1301–1306. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16337463

245: “Impair cognitive function…” Marin, M. F., et al. (2011). Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health. Neurobiol Learn Mem, 96(4), 583–595. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21376129

245: “Trigger or worsen…” Purdy, J. (2013). Chronic physical illness: a psychophysiological approach for chronic physical illness. Yale J Biol Med, 86(1), 15–28. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23483831

252: “Yoga has been shown…” Harinath, K., et al. (2004). Effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion. J Altern Complement Med, 10(2), 261–268. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15165407

252: “It is particularly effective…” Harinath, K., et al. (2004). Effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion. J Altern Complement Med, 10(2), 261–268. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15165407

253: “Massage has been shown…” Morhenn, V., Beavin, L. E., & Zac, P. J. (2012). Massage increases oxytocin and reduces adrenocorticotropin hormone in humans. Altern Ther Health Med, 18(6), 11–18. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23251939

253: “Biofeedback has been shown…” Ratanasiripong, P., Ratanasiripong, N., & Kathalae, D. (2012). Biofeedback Intervention for Stress and Anxiety among Nursing Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial. ISRN Nurs, 2012, 827972. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22811932

253: “Biofeedback has been shown…” Lemaire, J. B., et al. (2011). The effect of a biofeedback-based stress management tool on physician stress: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Open Med, 5(4), e154–163. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22567069

253: “It has also been shown…” Hallman, D. M., et al. (2011). Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback in subjects with stress-related chronic neck pain: a pilot study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 36(2), 71–80. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21365308

253: “It has also been shown…” McLay, R. N., & Spira, J. L. (2009). Use of a portable biofeedback device to improve insomnia in a combat zone, a case report. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 34(4), 319–321. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19655243

253: “It has also been shown…” Shockey, D. P., et al. (2013). Preprocedural distress in children with cancer: an intervention using biofeedback and relaxation. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs, 30(3), 129–138. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23542082

Chapter 15

258: “Socially isolated people…” Cacioppo, J. T., et al. (2002). Loneliness and health: potential mechanisms. Psychosom Med, 64(3), 407–417. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12021415

258: “By contrast, having…” Uchino, B. N. (2006). Social support and health: a review of physiological processes potentially underlying links to disease outcomes. J Behav Med, 29(4), 377–387. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16758315

258: “Perhaps most disturbing…” Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLoS Med, 7(7), e1000316. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20668659

259: “The average American now…” Bronson, P. (2006). How We Spend Our Leisure Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1549394,00.html

262: “A landmark study…” Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLoS Med, 7(7), e1000316. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20668659

262: “This is likely a conservative…” Tucker, J. S., et al. (1996). Marital history at midlife as a predictor of longevity: alternative explanations to the protective effect of marriage. Health Psychol, 5(2), 94–101. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/8681925

262-263: “Studies have shown…” Heinrichs, M., et al. (2003). Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress. Biol Psychiatry, 54(12), 1389–1398. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/14675803

263: “By contrast, low levels…” Heinrichs, M., et al. (2003). Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress. Biol Psychiatry, 54(12), 1389–1398. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/14675803

263: “For example, lonely people…” Uchino, B. N. (2006). Social support and health: a review of physiological processes potentially underlying links to disease outcomes. J Behav Med, 29(4), 377–387. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16758315

263: “They also suffer from…” Uchino, B. N. (2006). Social support and health: a review of physiological processes potentially underlying links to disease outcomes. J Behav Med, 29(4), 377–387. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16758315

263: “People who are more…” Chiang, J. J., et al. (2012). Negative and competitive social interactions are related to heightened proinflammatory cytokine activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 109(6), 1878–1882. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22308464

264: “This has led Dr. Tiffany…” Gallace, A., & Spence, C. (2010). The science of interpersonal touch: an overview. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 34(2), 246–259. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18992276

264: “A study of fifty-nine…” Light, K. C., Grewen, K. M., & Amico, J. A. (2005). More frequent partner hugs and higher oxytocin levels are linked to lower blood pressure and heart rate in premenopausal women. Biol Psychol, 69(1), 5–21. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15740822

264: “A study of ninety-five…” Morhenn, V., Beavin, L. E., & Zac, P. J. (2012). Massage increases oxytocin and reduces adrenocorticotropin hormone in humans. Altern Ther Health Med, 18(6), 11–18. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23251939

264: “A study of 183…” Grewen, K. M., et al. (2003). Warm partner contact is related to lower cardiovascular reactivity. Biol Psychol, 29(3), 123–130. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15206831

265: “Sex releases…” Uvänas-Moberg, K., Arn, I., & Magnusson, D. (2005). The psychobiology of emotion: the role of the oxytocinergic system. Biol Psychol, 12(2), 59–65. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15901214

265: “Additionally, single adults…” Holt-Lunstad, J., Jones, B. Q., & Birmingham, W. (2009). The influence of close relationships on nocturnal blood pressure dipping. Int J Psychophysiol, 71(3), 211–217. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18930771

265: “Hostile married couples…” Chiang, J. J., et al. (2012). Negative and competitive social interactions are related to heightened proinflammatory cytokine activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 109(6), 1878–1882. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22308464

265: “More specifically, social…” Holt-Lunstad, J., Birmingham, W. A., & Light, K. C. (2008). Influence of a “warm touch” support enhancement intervention among married couples on ambulatory blood pressure, oxytocin, alpha amylase, and cortisol. Psychosom Med, 70(9), 976–985. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18842740

266: “One study examining…” Bowen, K. S., et al. (2013). Specific dimensions of perceived support and ambulatory blood pressure: which support functions appear most beneficial and for whom? Int J Psychophysiol, 88(3), 317–324. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22465206

266: “Other studies have shown…” Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Gouin, J. P., & Hantsoo, L. (2010). Close relationships, inflammation, and health. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 35(1), 33–38. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19751761

266: “Other studies have shown…” Ditzen, B., Hoppmann, C., & Klumb, P. (2008). Positive couple interactions and daily cortisol: on the stress-protecting role of intimacy. Psychosom Med, 70(8), 883–889. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18842747

266: “The beneficial effects…” Holt-Lunstad, J., Birmingham, W. A., & Light, K. C. (2008). Influence of a “warm touch” support enhancement intervention among married couples on ambulatory blood pressure, oxytocin, alpha amylase, and cortisol. Psychosom Med, 70(9), 976–985. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18842740

267: “However, some recent archaeological…” Druzhkova, A. S., et al. (2013). Ancient DNA analysis affirms the canid from Altai as a primitive dog. PLoS One, 8(3), e57754. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23483925

268: “These beneficial effects…” Jennings, L. B. (1997). Potential benefits of pet ownership in health promotion. J Holist Nurs, 15(4), 358–372. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9397745

269: “Today, we know that…” Nilsson, U. (2008). The anxiety- and pain-reducing effects of music interventions: a systematic review. AORN J, 87(4), 780–807. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18395022

269: “Research also suggests…” Nilsson, U. (2008). The anxiety- and pain-reducing effects of music interventions: a systematic review. AORN J, 87(4), 780–807. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18395022

271: “The American psychologist…” Martin, R. A., & Lefcourt, H. M. (1983). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressors and moods. J Pers Soc Psychol, 45(6), 1313–1324. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1984-15058-001

271: “And the British philosopher…” Takeda, M., et al. (2010). Laughter and humor as complementary and alternative medicines for dementia patients. J Pers Soc Psychol, 10, 28. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20565815

271: “Laughter may increase…” Bennett, M. P., et al. (2003). The effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell activity. Altern Ther Health Med, 9(2), 38–45. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12652882

272: “People who volunteer have…” Piferi, R. L., & Lawler, K. A. (2006). Social support and ambulatory blood pressure: an examination of both receiving and giving. Int J Psychophysiol, 62(2), 328–336. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16905215

272: “People who give social support…” Piferi, R. L., & Lawler, K. A. (2006). Social support and ambulatory blood pressure: an examination of both receiving and giving. Int J Psychophysiol, 62(2), 328–336. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16905215

Chapter 16

278: “We now know that vitamin D…” Straughan, J. L. (2010). Sunshine and the cardiovascular benefits – a dose of sunshine! Cardiovasc J Afr, 21(3), 168–170. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20532460

279: “Scientists observed a connection…” Feelisch, M., et al. (2010). Is sunlight good for our heart? Eur Heart J, 31(9), 1041–1045. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20215123

279: “Later studies showed…” Rostand, S. G. (1997). Ultraviolet light may contribute to geographic and racial blood pressure differences. Hypertension, 30(2 Pt 1), 150–156. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9260973

279: “While some have argued…” Wannamethee, S. G., et al. (2002). Migration within Great Britain and cardiovascular disease: early life and adult environmental factors. Int J Epidemiol, 31(5), 1054–1060. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12435784

279: “In the United Kingdom…” Law, M. R., & Morris, J. K. (1998). Why is mortality higher in poorer areas and in more northern areas of England and Wales? J Epidemiol Community Health, 52(6), 344–352. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/9764254

279 “In one study, researchers…” University of Edinburgh. (2013). Sunshine Could Benefit Health and Prolong Life, Study Suggests. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130507195807.htm

279 “For example, a drop…” Lewington, S., et al. (2002). Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet, 360(9349), 1903–1913. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12493255

280: “Sunlight may also…” Feelisch, M., et al. (2010). Is sunlight good for our heart? Eur Heart J, 31(9), 1041–1045. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20215123

280: “Studies have shown that…” Acheson, E. D., Bachrach, C. A., & Wright, F. M. (1960). Some comments on the relationship of the distribution of multiple sclerosis to latitude, solar radiation, and other variables. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl, 35(147), 132–147. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/13681205

280: “Along the same lines…” Freedman, D. M., Dosemeci, M., & Alvanja, M. C. (2000). Mortality from multiple sclerosis and exposure to residential and occupational solar radiation: a case-control study based on death certificates. Occup Environ Med, 57(6), 418–421. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10810132

280: “Finally, exposure to sunlight…” Berwick, M. (2011). Mortality from multiple sclerosis and exposure to residential and occupational solar radiation: a case-control study based on death certificates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20(4), 582–584. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21454422

280: “Researchers aren’t entirely clear…” Fisher, M. S., & Kripke, M. L. (2002). Systemic alteration induced in mice by ultraviolet light irradiation and its relationship to ultraviolet carcinogenesis. Bull World Health Organ, 80(11), 908–912. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12481215

280: “Importantly, these immune…” Berwick, M. (2011). Mortality from multiple sclerosis and exposure to residential and occupational solar radiation: a case-control study based on death certificates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20(4), 582–584. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21454422

281: “According to a report…” Environmental Working Group. (2013). EWG’s 2013 Guide to Sunscreens. Retrieved from http://www.ewg.org/2012sunscreen/

282: “At the end of the seventeenth…” Louv, R. (2008). Last Child In the Woods: Saving Our Children From Nature Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. p. 45

282: “By the 1890’s…” Godbey, G. (2009). Outdoor Recreation, Health, and Wellness: Understanding and Enhancing the Relationship. RFF Discussion Paper 09-21. Retrieved from http://www.rff.org/publications/pages/publicationdetails.aspx?publicationid=20803

283: “Fredrick Law Olmstead…” Government of South Australia. Healthy Parks, Healthy People. Retrieved from http://www.lga.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/HPHP_FACT_SHEET_ART.pdf

283: “A recent review of studies…” Pergams, O. R., & Zaradic, P. A. (2008). Evidence for a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(7), 2295–2300. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18250312

283: “According to Louv…” Louv, R. (2008). Last Child In the Woods: Saving Our Children From Nature Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. p. 36

283: “Natural environments…” Hartig, T., Mang, M., & Evans, G. W. (1991). Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experiences. Environ Behav, 23(1), 3–26. Retrieved from http://eab.sagepub.com/content/23/1/3.abstract

283: “Patients in hospital rooms…” Maller, C., et al. (2006). Healthy nature healthy people: “contact with nature” as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. Health Promot Int, 21(1), 45–54. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16373379

284: “Spending even a little…” Kuo, F. E., & Taylor, A. F. (2004). A potential natural treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from a national study. Am J Public Health, 94(9), 1580–1586. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/15333318

284: “Nature can improve…” Maller, C., et al. (2006). Healthy nature healthy people: “contact with nature” as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. Health Promot Int, 21(1), 45–54. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16373379

284: “It’s supported by more…” Louv, R. (2008). Last Child In the Woods: Saving Our Children From Nature Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. p. 45

284: “Studies using geographic…” Maller, C., et al. (2006). Healthy nature healthy people: “contact with nature” as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. Health Promot Int, 21(1), 45–54. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/16373379

284: “In preschool children…” Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32(5), 963–975. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10795788

284: “And while crowding…” Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2001). Aggression and Violence in the Inner City: Effects of Environment via Mental Fatigue. Environ Behav, 33(4), 543–571. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/Abstract.aspx?id=189144

284: “And while crowding…” Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. J Environ Psychol, 15(3), 169–182. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272494495900012

285: “Studies have found associations…” Godbey, G. (2009). Outdoor Recreation, Health, and Wellness: Understanding and Enhancing the Relationship. RFF Discussion Paper 09-21. Retrieved from http://www.rff.org/publications/pages/publicationdetails.aspx?publicationid=20803

286: “Think of cycling…” Thompson Coon, J., et al. (2011). Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Technol, 45(5), 1761–1772. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21291246

286: “Compared with exercising indoors…” Thompson Coon, J., et al. (2011). Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Technol, 45(5), 1761–1772. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21291246

287: “Joggers who exercise…” Louv, R. (2008). Last Child In the Woods: Saving Our Children From Nature Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. p. 49

287: “One study outfitted…” Thompson Coon, J., et al. (2011). Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Technol, 45(5), 1761–1772. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21291246

287: “Research in Norway…” Louv, R. (2008). Last Child In the Woods: Saving Our Children From Nature Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. p. 49

Chapter 17

290: “‘If you think of all…’” Henig, R. M. (2008). Taking Play Seriously. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/17/magazine/17play.html?pagewanted=all

291: “It keeps our minds…” Brown, S. (2009). Play: How It Shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination, and Invigorates the Soul. New York: Penguin Group.

291: “He discovered that…” Fagen, R., & Fagen, J. (2009). Play behaviour and multi-year juvenile survival in free-ranging brown bears, Ursus arctos. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 11, 1–15. Retrieved from http://kaboom.org/docs/documents/pdf/Fagen-and-Fagen-2009.pdf

291: “Professor John Byers…” Byers, J. A. (2008). The Biology of Human Play. Child Development, 69(3), 599–600. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06227.x/abstract

291: “This research suggests…” Bell, H. C., Pellis, S. M., & Kolb, B. (2010). Juvenile peer play experience and the development of the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices. Behav Brain Res, 207(1), 7–13. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/19786051

292: “In adults, playfulness…” Brown, S. (1998). Play as an organizing principle. In M. Berkoff and J. Byers (Eds.). Animal play: Evolutionary, comparative and ecological perspectives (pp. 243–259). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

292: “It encourages cooperation…” Henig, R. M. (2008). Taking Play Seriously. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/17/magazine/17play.html?pagewanted=all

292: “Dr. Stuart Brown…” Brown, S. L., & Lomax, J. (1969). A pilot study of young murderers. Hogg Foundation, annual report.

292: “In Dr. Brown’s clinical…” Brown, S. L., & Lomax, J. (1969). A pilot study of young murderers. Hogg Foundation, annual report.

293: “According to a poll…” Kaiser Family Foundation. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds. Retrieved from http://kff.org/other/event/generation-m2-media-in-the-lives-of/

293-294: “A staggering 99 percent…” Lenhart, A. (2008). Teens, Video Games and Civics. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2008/Teens-Video-Games-and-Civics.aspx

294: “While they do satisfy…” Henig, R. M. (2008). Taking Play Seriously. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/17/magazine/17play.html?pagewanted=all

Chapter 18

308: “This recommended range…” Guyenet, S. (2008). The Myth of the High-Protein Diet. Retrieved from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/12/myth-of-high-protein-diet.html

308: “Protein is one of the most…” Paddon-Jones, D., et al. (2008). Protein, weight management, and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr, 87(5), 1558S–1561S. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/18469287

309: “Studies suggest that…” Rudman, D., et al. (1973). Maximal rates of excretion and synthesis of urea in normal and cirrhotic subjects. J Clin Invest, 52(9), 2241–2249. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/4727456

309: “Eating more protein than…” Rudman, D., et al. (1973). Maximal rates of excretion and synthesis of urea in normal and cirrhotic subjects. J Clin Invest, 52(9), 2241–2249. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/4727456

309: “Eating more protein than…” Speth, J. D., & Spielman, K. A. (1983). Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. Journal of Anthropological Archeology, 2, 1–31.

309: “During pregnancy, the conversion…” Kalhan, S. C. (2000). Protein metabolism in pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr, 71(5 Suppl), 1249S–1255S. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10799398

309: “Some studies suggest…” Herrick, K., et al. (2003). Maternal consumption of a high-meat, low-carbohydrate diet in late pregnancy: relation to adult cortisol concentrations in the offspring. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 88(8), 3554–3560. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/12915635

309: “Some studies suggest…” Speth, J. D. (1991). Protein selection and avoidance strategies of contemporary and ancestral foragers: unresolved issues. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 334(1270), 265–269. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/1685584

312: “Studies suggest that intermittent…” Harvie, M. N., et al. (2011). The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: a randomized trial in young overweight women. Int J Obes (Lond), 35(5), 714–727. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/20921964

312: “It has also been shown…” Collier, R. (2013). Intermittent fasting: the science of going without. CMAJ, 185(9), E363–364. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23569168

312: “It has also been shown…” Azevedo, F. R., Ikeoka, D., & Caramelli, B. (2013). Effects of intermittent fasting on metabolism in men. Rev Assoc Med Bras, 59(2), 167–173. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23582559

312: “It has also been shown…” Hartman, A. L., Rubenstein, J. E., & Kossoff, E. H. (2013). Intermittent fasting: a “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures? Epilepsy Res, 104(3), 275–279. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23206889

312: “It has also been shown…” Faris, M. A., et al. (2012). Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects. Nutr Res, 32(12), 947–955. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23244540

315: “And studies have consistently…” Helge, J. W. (2000). Adaptation to a fat-rich diet: effects on endurance performance in humans. Sports Med, 30(5), 347–357. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/11103848

315: “A recent article in Muscle…” Colpo, A. (2013). Sorry Danny Albers, But Low-Carb Diets Still Suck for Athletes! Retrieved from http://anthonycolpo.com/sorry-danny-albers-but-low-carb-diets-still-suck-for-athletes/ (Anthony Colpo has several great articles on his site, http://anthonycolpo.com, on the dangers of low carb diets for athletes.)

316: “Keep in mind that a…” Colpo, A. (2011). Old-school Bodybuilding: Carbs Make a Comeback! Retrieved from http://anthonycolpo.com/old-school-bodybuilding-carbs-make-a-comeback/

317: “Some recent studies suggest…” Sofer, S., et al. (2013). Changes in daily leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin profiles following a diet with carbohydrates eaten at dinner in obese subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 23(8), 744–750. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/22901843

317: “Some recent studies suggest…” Sofer, S., et al. (2011). Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. Obesity (Silver Spring), 19(10), 2006–2014. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/21475137

318: “But spirulina and brewer’s…” Watanabe, F., et al. (1999). Pseudovitamin B(12) is the predominant cobamide of an algal health food, spirulina tablets. J Agric Food Chem, 47(11), 4736–4741. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/10552882

Chapter 20

345: “Chronic stress significantly…” Schneider, R. H., et al. (2012). Stress reduction in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: randomized, controlled trial of transcendental meditation and health education in Blacks. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 5(6), 750–758. Retrieved from http://pmid.us/23149426

345: “Chronic insomnia doubles…” Hsu, C., et al. (2012). Insomnia and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. APS.211.16-Environmental and Physiological Risks for CVD, 15883. Retrieved from http://www.abstractsonline.com/Plan/ViewAbstract.aspx?sKey=7aaf2f6c-b51f-4571-836c-81e97f6506e6&cKey=946554a4-2b74-4166-85bd-75b4b2ac9bfa&mKey=%7b14145D5B-F96B-4354-8237-8F0937744BA4%7d