A streamlined stack of supplements designed to meet your most critical needs - Adapt Naturals is now live. Learn more

FODMAPS: Could Common Foods Be Harming Your Digestive Health?


Published on


Functional gut disorders such as IBS are affecting one in five Americans, causing abdominal pain, inconsistent or excessive bowel movements, and even psychological symptoms such as anxiety or depression. (1) If you have experienced IBS, you know that these symptoms can be constant, painful, and can have a serious impact on quality of life.

If there were a dietary intervention that could reduce or eliminate IBS symptoms, would you try it? Tweet This

There is a strategy that has recently become more popular; it is a dietary approach that I have seen work well for many of my patients, and that evidence is growing in support of. Known as the Low FODMAP Diet, this method has been demonstrated to reduce functional gut disorder symptoms in approximately 75% of patients. (2) Understanding how FODMAPs affect the gut and knowing how to eliminate them from your diet may be the key to getting your IBS symptoms under control.

What are FODMAPs?

The acronym FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols.

These short-chain carbohydrates are incompletely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and can be easily fermented by gut bacteria. (3) These sugars also exert an osmotic effect, increasing fluid movement into the large bowel. (4) The fermentation and osmosis caused by these undigested sugars are a cause of major IBS symptoms such as gas, pain, and diarrhea.

There are many common foods that are high in FODMAPs that can potentially contribute to IBS symptoms, even if they are considered healthy by most standards. Lactose from dairy products, fructose from certain fruit, coconut products, and sweeteners, fructans from fibrous vegetables, and polyols from fruit and sugar alcohols are all rich in FODMAPs and can be difficult to digest for people with functional gut disorders. These foods can cause serious and painful symptoms in those with IBS and Crohn’s disease.

Who may have FODMAP intolerance?

While most IBS patients are FODMAP intolerant, consuming FODMAPs does not actually cause IBS; it simply exacerbates symptoms. (5) Therefore, while many people may be able to consume a large quantity of FODMAPs with no problem, some people will experience an abnormal or exaggerated response to the presence of these poorly absorbed saccharides. (6) And while all FODMAPs can potentially factor in the development of IBS symptoms, the relative contribution of different types of FODMAPs varies across ethnic and dietary groups depending on the amount of each in the diet. (7) Additionally, individuals differ in their amount of malabsorption of FODMAPs such as fructose, lactose, and fructans, and therefore are more or less sensitive to certain FODMAPs in particular.

So what causes FODMAP intolerance? There are a few possible explanations that have been explored in clinical study. In some cases, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, also known as SIBO, contributes to the development of IBS symptoms and FODMAP intolerance. (8)

The presence of pathogenic bacteria in the small intestine causes excessive fermentation of these carbohydrates, increasing gas production and allowing for the proliferation of uncontrolled gut bacteria. In other cases, certain individuals may lack adequate enzymes to break down and absorb the fermentable sugars before they reach the colon, contributing to the osmolarity changes and bacterial fermentation that occurs in the large intestine.

Of course, emotional and physical stress are also known to be contributing factors to the development of IBS, and could induce FODMAP intolerance for reasons not yet fully understood. (9) In these cases, disturbance of gut microbiota is a likely causative factor; as we know, stress alters the gut flora significantly and could be the reason why stress, FODMAP intolerance, and IBS are so closely linked.

Like what you’re reading? Get my free newsletter, recipes, eBooks, product recommendations, and more!

How can you treat FODMAP intolerance?

First, addressing intestinal bacterial overgrowth or imbalance is key; even if you don’t have IBS, gut dysbiosis can lead to poor digestive function as well as contributing to FODMAP intolerance. There are a few gut-healing protocols available today, such as the GAPS Diet or the Specific Carbohydrate Diet; my personal approach is similar to an autoimmune Paleo diet. I often recommend probiotics to my patients to help balance out their gut flora, and occasionally recommend antimicrobial treatments depending on the severity of the individual gut infection. Managing gut flora is a highly individual process, so it’s important to pay attention to your own symptoms when coming up with a treatment plan.

In addition to addressing gut bacteria, following a low FODMAP diet seems to be the most effective dietary intervention to help reduce chronic IBS symptoms. (10) Many clinical trials have shown a high level of success from IBS patients who reduce or eliminate FODMAP containing foods from their diet. (111213) In addition, avoiding gluten may help reduce IBS symptoms further, according to some research. (14)

While a “Paleo” or “Primal” diet may eliminate many of these culprits, there are a few Paleo-friendly staples that can worsen FODMAP intolerance symptoms. I’ve written about coconut milk causing digestive distress in some individuals, and coconut milk is an unfortunately high source of FODMAPs. Many fruits such as apples, peaches, mangoes, and watermelon are FODMAP rich, and dried fruits are especially problematic for those with intolerances. Even certain vegetables that are normally quite healthy can be problematic for those suffering from IBS; asparagus, brussels sprouts, broccoli, garlic, and onions are just a few of the vegetables that could be exacerbating symptoms.

To determine which specific foods that may be causing your IBS symptoms, I recommend reviewing this basic but informative chart featuring different types of FODMAPs and the foods they are found in. You may be consuming a FODMAP-rich food without knowing it, and reducing or eliminating consumption of these foods may help alleviate IBS symptoms. This chart also provides a list of low FODMAP foods that can be enjoyed in place of these problematic foods.

For much more information about FODMAP intolerance, as well as an extensive list of FODMAP foods and an in-depth gut healing protocol, check out my Personal Paleo Code. In this detailed guide, I explain how to best adapt the standard Paleo diet into one that can help relieve IBS symptoms without needing to restrict your diet indefinitely. It’s a protocol I use with my patients, and many have found success without drugs or surgical intervention. It’s certainly worth a try for anyone suffering from chronic digestive disorders.

ADAPT Naturals logo

Better supplementation. Fewer supplements.

Close the nutrient gap to feel and perform your best. 

A daily stack of supplements designed to meet your most critical needs.

Chris Kresser in kitchen


Join the conversation

  1. Your list of safe fruits and veggies is a stark contrast to the one provided in the 28 Days of Low FODMAP AIP recipe book from A Clean Plate. I realize this book is also low AIP, but things like berries (except strawberry), zucchini, sweet potato and banana are AIP compliant. These are excluded from her list, but included in yours. I think that’s one of the problems. There is so much discrepancy among lists. I did her 28 days and got to the point that all food repulsed me. I was hungry, but had to make myself eat because it all made me want to vomit. Yeah I wasn’t having diarrhea as often (been suffering with a Crohn’s flare for 5 months and refuse to take medication). I just couldn’t maintain it any more. As soon as I went back to regular Paleo I got my appetite and taste buds back.

  2. The FODMAP diet has helped reduce the burning, bloating, gas symptoms. I also have multiple food allergies and sensitivities, so I can only eat a few of the foods on the low fodmap list.

    I am confused though, the Stanford FODMAP diet list indicates that coconut is low in FODMAPS, but your website indicates coconut is high in FODMAPS…please help. Coconut milk is the only Milk I can drink. I can drink Rice Milk, but with the warning about arsenic in Rice I have been avoiding that. Thank you for all the good information on your website. B. A.

    • Monash University is a University in Australia that studies how the gut bacteria handles FODMAPs and tests foods to determine if they’re high in FODMAPs as well as which FODMAPs they contain. They have an app, just look up “Monash University low FODMAP” in your app store, and it’s there. It costs $9 but if you can do a low FODMAP diet and then figure out your sensitivities and use the app to help determine that as well as what foods have which FODMAPs (for instance, if it turns out you’re only sensitive to Polyols, it tells you which foods are high in polyols as well as which ones you can eat in smaller quantities and still be safe). It’s been a lifesaver for me, check it out.
      As far as your coconut situation, that app does say that coconut is okay in certain forms. It says that coconut milk and coconut oil is okay, shredded and dried coconut is high in polyols in whole servings but okay in half servings, coconut water is high in Oligo-saccharides and polyols unless you have just a tiny bit, and coconut itself is high in polyols in whole servings, but okay in half servings. Hope that helps!

      • I see a dietitian to help me with the Low Fodmap Diet, I am in the process of elimination, I am finding that while I am on the Low Fodmap diet I am feeling so much better, starting to feel normal….. I also use the Monash University app and once I know which Fodmaps I have to eliminate I can then filter them and the app will then tell me what I can and cant eat.

  3. Can anyone recommend a specific brand or source of healthy bacon that is low FODMAPs and preservative free? It seems like even the organic or sustainable/humane local producers use cultured celery juice as a preservative, which I’m assuming is high FODMAPs (and also high nitrate). Are people making their own bacon by home-curing pork belly in order to avoid all the sugars and preservatives, and how hard it that? Please help or advise.

  4. What about butter and margarine? Couldn’t find an answer if both are low FODMAP, or just butter or just margarine?

    • Most “experts” say that butter is NOT, but occasionally you’ll see a list that says to avoid it because it has a tiny amount of lactose due to the milk solids that remain in butter. But in any case, organic, all grass fed and/or raw is best. Ghee is butter with the milk solids removed, so there is 0 lactose, and thus many consider it the very safest form of dairy fat for avoiding FODMAPs. Again, organic and grass fed is best. If you are totally intolerant of lactose, then go with ghee. (Frankly, it’s better for cooking anyway since it doesn’t brown as easily as butter.) Since margarine is vegetable oil based (among other bad things!), it should be avoided (based on lists that I’ve seen).

    • Olive oil is a good substitute for butter or margarine. They even come infused with flavors such as orange, basil, rosemary, jalapeno, etc.

    • Unless it vegan margarine it probably has milk in it(whey and/or buttermilk ) for flavour etc.

  5. In this article you Chris says: “For much more information about FODMAP intolerance, as well as an extensive list of FODMAP foods and an in-depth gut healing protocol, check out my Personal Paleo Code. In this detailed guide, I explain how to best adapt the standard Paleo diet into one that can help relieve IBS symptoms without needing to restrict your diet indefinitely. ” The only thing mentioning FODMAPS I could find (not in the table of contents or index) was something very short and mainly a reference to a bonus chapter on this website. I cannot figure out how to access the bonus chapters on this website – could someone please give me some direction on this?

  6. I just started the fodmap diet a week ago after years of constant bloating. I’m feeling a bit better but last night had chicken cooked with coconut oil on top of a salad of organic romaine, spinach, carrots, cucumber and egg with a dressing of balsamic vinegar and garlic infused olive oil. I used all fodmap approved flavorings – salt, pepper, dried chives, rosemary and basil – but got very bloated an hour later. Any ideas? Could I have trouble with the garlic infused olive oil? Now I’m afraid to eat!

    • Hi Helga,
      AIP paleo would exclude eggs, so if you have any inflammation, I wouldnt have eggs (and I stopped eating eggs in November). Also, raw veggies cause trouble for people with any IBS/IBD. Look into SIBO and histimine intolerance also.

      • Could be the vinegar. Could be the overall fiber load of the combined veggies. Could be that oil of course but maybe not. Really it could be anything. Do you keep a journal? It’s best not to throw everything out after one bad experience. Test each potentially problematic thing individually and see how you do. Do it a couple times, different times of the day, in different combinations. If one item bugs you repeatedly, remove it. I understand the feeling of not wanting to eat anything (been there) but at least for me that was borne out of me being too invested in a diet choice working out. Being super invested doesn’t allow you to have an open mind and you do need an open mind to sort these things out because while all these diet suggestions are helpful they will not all work for you. Your body is individual and you’ll have to be your own detective ultimately to figure out what works. Give yourself the time, try not to be too invested in this all working out with one diet switch and make lots of notes. You’ll figure it out but it may take a few weeks.

        • A few weeks? How about a few months or a few years. Most people spend their entire life without figuring it out, fortunately we have Chris Kresser to help us out though. However without spending hundreds of dollars on testing it’s not that easy to figure it out.

    • Hi,
      Try working with one to two things at a time until you know how your body reacts to each item. A big part of being on FODMaP is also the amount of each food you ingest. I would take a look at the FODMaP chart on page 2 and 3 of this link,


      It may not be specific to a Palio diet, but I’m sure you could cross- reference some things. You just want to make sure to be cautious with the foods that are included in Palio diet that are high in FODMaP’s, as Palio is very general in saying “veggies” and “fruits” but don’t always go into great detail.

      I found the chart in the link above very helpful as it gives you a list of moderate FODMaP’s and serving sizes you should limit yourself to.

    • Hi Helga,

      Garlic is high in fodmaps, as is balsamic vinegar – the grape must is high in fructose.

      • I buy the balsamic as high in FODMAPs but my understanding is that infusing olive oil with garlic is fine, according to some. I believe I read that either on Dr. Siebecker’s or Diane Sanfillippo’s website.

        • Yes, I have read that infusing oils with high FODMAP foods is OK (whereas in water is NOT). It has to do with the difference in the way oil and water absorb the food compounds. For example making beef or chicken stock with onions and celery is said to be a problem for strict FODMAPs avoidance (maybe not if you’re just limiting them though?). Based on my personal experience, I’ll echo all of the other respondents in terms of the potential sources of the problems — could be any one or all of these: too many veggies or food at one time (or just the fact that they are raw), the balsamic vinegar, not chewing enough,etc. When I’ve had bouts and suspected that too many raw veggies like kale or lettuce may have triggered it, I’ve found that steaming them or making raw green smoothies with them instead caused no issues or relapses.

    • Garlic is a big IBS no no! That is the culprit. All of the rest of those foods are approved.

    • it could be the coconut. i am finding i have low tolerance to coconut generally in all its forms

    • Hi Helga, my family recently did the Low FODMAP diet as two of our children have big problems with stomach aches and feeling sick, bloating and sometimes diarrhoea. We were told to avoid coconut altogether so my immediate thought was that it could be the coconut oil. I don’t know if that helps at all. Just so you know, it was a huge success for us with the whole family seeing great results. I didn’t even think I had a problem at all but I didn’t know what it was like to never have a stomach ache till now.

    • It looks like to me you ate too much. Time is hard to find to eat on this diet but eating like every hour, hour and a half, two hours is best, I find. Try eating your salad and then waiting an hour then eating your chicken, then a wait again and eat the other stuff. Very small quanties are best that i find and don’t drink while eating food. Drink before or after not during. Good luck to you.

    • I’ve found that Onions and Garlic create havoc in my system. Even powdered forms cause me problems. Raw forms keep me doubled over in pain for 24 hours.

    • It is sad when a person becomes afraid to eat. May I suggest smaller meals. Chew slowly. Moist meals work better for me than dry. I try to avoid being hungry and gulping down food. This means a healthy morning and afternoon snack and an earlier dinner so as not to overdo pre-dinner snacks that then spoil the appetite. The ordinary (boring) meals our mothers cooked, small piece of fish/steak/a lean lamb chop, potatoes and steamed string beans/small plain salad, work well for me. Somewhere along the line meals became recreation or entertainment, I have had to go back to plainer, smaller meals.

      • So true! I’ve gone from a gourmet cook who loved cooking and preparing meals for family and friends to a minamalist cook. Very plain, whole food, low FODMAP, foods. Eating out in restaurants or at friends can be a problem! For friends, I usually volunteer to bring something( that I can eat).

    • I’ve just started on the low Fodmap diet and let me tell you, it is challenging! Cucumbers bother me, butter bothers me, vitamins bother me. Like others , I’m somewhat afraid to eat for fear of a reaction. Some foods listed on the low Fodmap diet bother me, so it is trial and error! I introduce one new low Fodmap food at a time to see if I react to it. Good luck!

      • My symptoms were worse on a low FODMAPs diet. An overall balanced diet that doesn’t load up on one type of vegetable in order to avoid other foods back-fired. I already knew what foods were iffy for me, and I just avoid those or eat them in moderation. The LF diet seems to work wonders for some, but having already eliminated grains, legumes, conventional dairy, etc, it worsened my condition.

      • Are you doing the FODMAP diet elimination under the direction of a dietician? It is better to get expert advice it needs to be one who is experienced in FODMAP diet. Initially I blamed cane sugar, but was quite wrong. I always ate a lot of toast when my stomach played up thinking it was plain and not difficult to digest. I was wrong it was part of the problem not the cure!

  7. Just an update for folks new to the FODMAPs diet – my wife has had IBS for 20 years, and experienced such relief on the low FODMAPs diet that we started our own company making FODMAP Friendly protein bars. (She is a registered dietitian and designed them herself.) Those interested can find us at nicerfoods.com.

    • Funny but I can’t eat ANY of the ingredients in your specially formulated bars… bummer

      • Sad to hear it. We actually rely on potential customers for designing future foods – you can read more about it on our site. Maybe you could imagine some ingredients in a bar you could eat and post a new food idea on our website? It may may very well help more than just you.

        All the best,

        • Hi Jesse,

          The link nicerfoods.com isn’t loading for some reason? Are your bars available yet? I live in Washington State, are your bars being sold in stores locally (I ask this since kickstarters mentioned you are in WA?) Thanks!


    • wow1 tHATS INSPIRED ..i’m so excited I’m going to dash over there like crazy!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  8. Hi Chris! Thanks for such an informative post. I have been having digestive issues and visited a GI doctor and had a wonderful experience. For the past couple of days I have been following a low FODMAP diet (due to the Dr.’s recommendations) but coconut milk is listed as low FODMAP on the list given to me by my Dr. Can you explain this? I haven’t had any yet, but I was looking forward to using it in some recipes down the road. Thanks so much!

  9. wow! I’m suffering from digestive problems so must try this. I’ve been eating a lot of those items it’s suggested NOT to eat for the sake of my gallbladder!

    • Hi Judy, I have biliary issues and very low histamine tolerance and can’t tolerate fructans AND probably have SIBO. I think I’m actually get more sensitive to foods, not less, by eating AIP! I really hope you do better than me!

      • Lisa, I am a bit in your boat. AIP has not been the Holy Grail of diets it is often purported to be. That said, like SCD, it is a good diet as a jumping off point to improve your diet and find a diet that works for you.

        Letting go of the rigidity of AIP/SCD and keeping careful track of what I ate and what I felt afterwards, helped me tailor a diet that works well for me. I eat sort of all-cooked low-fat AIP plus rice. This makes my stomach happy and I’m also not starving (which I was pre-rice). Also for whatever reason adding rice has completely helped my constipation issues – so counterintuitive but I’m grateful for it! I’m crazy regular now (also helped by my supplements).

        I had some success on the low-FODMAP diet but ditched it because I felt my intolerances were getting worse on it and the only two fruits I COULD eat were cooked apple and cooked banana which are both technically FODMAPs so – what is that? Due to my increasing inability to digest carbs, I saw my doctor. At this point I was eating only low-starch veggies and meat and had lost a lot of weight. My doctor put me on Rifaximan which seems to have helped me greatly. I no longer even feel like I have IBS after the drugs – now my main issue is gastritis which I can deal with by avoiding GERD triggers (including high-fat meat) and using good GERD practices. I could not do this before – I had to take medication for it. That seems to be mostly resolved as well from diet and the antibiotics/probiotics/supplement regimen I’ve been on.

        As I’ve been ‘sick’ for a long time and still believe that something I was eating was giving me grief, I still eat all cooked foods and a limited diet but my stomach is much better and I’m starting to branch into more foods as I continue to improve. The elimination diet is a PITA but has really helped me discover a bunch of things.

        I also use enzymes, bitters, lactobacillus only probiotics and Mag Citrate. But I had to try about $500 worth of products to narrow that down. The soil probiotics made my stomach worse – although they are touted as a godsend to many. I find for me – once I accepted that whatever worked for ‘everyone OMG!!’ would usually make me feel worse, I was able to keep a more open mind and really find what worked for me. I like the elimination aspect of AIP but – at least for now – certain AIP things are a no-go for me. It is what it is.

        Best of luck to you. It sucks to be the 1% of not-working – I am with you on that and you have my mental support!

      • I was sick on AIP and even normal Paleo before that. I’m now eating a whole food diet with grains and lots of carbs. I feel a ton better. My food sensitivities are fading away. i still can’t eat yeast products but really, AIP was not worth it for me. All that cooking and I still ended up sick. My thyroid was low because I wasn’t getting enough carbs. Paleo isn’t for everyone! We need enough food to pass through our digestive systems so that it doesn’t ferment. Vegetables and meat just don’t cut it. Grains (prepared properly) give us that extra boost. I really hope you find the answer. Read Matt Stone’s “The 12 Paleo Myths.” It changed my life. And Danelle’s “Have Your Cake and Lose Weight Too.” Grains aren’t as evil as they’re made to be. According to Matt Stone, Sibo and food sensitivities are often caused by “dieting.” I’m not a health guru – this is just my story. Sometimes, we need to think outside the “paleo” box. It really isn’t a nutritional panacea.

        • Totally agree. Rice was a revelation (and is SO tasty). I suspect A grain is bugging me so I’m going to add each one back on its own but I’m grateful for rice because – as I said – I feel better on it. It’s all a work in progress. I’m just so grateful to feel the best I’ve felt in 5 years on the new diet and supplements. I’m still pretty amazed.

          We are all different. I have a friend who ‘cured’ his acid reflux being a vegan. Veganism (and even vegetarianism) seems to make me nuts (I need the meat protein it seems – I get anxious from too many carbs not enough protein) but it works for him – who am I to judge?

          Thanks for the support! I will check out Matt Stone – I keep hearing about him. Take care and again thanks for the links.

        • High carb diet , just solely based on average A1C indeed cause a lot of serious chronic diseases – heart and brain. It’s not anecdotal small study, but something that biochemistry along with “meta-studies”, confirms.
          Another problem with grain (besides high carb index) is the protein which in many cases is not just Gluten. Many people have sensitivity to them, which gradually damages their auto-immune system, affecting major organs – again, brain…
          So, they have to be regulated (depending on individual) but going extreme in diet is never smart thing to do. Healthiest and longest living people (w low A1C, inflammation markers, strong hearts and brain functions) come from different diets (vegetarian, mediterenian, etc) and apparently they all work fine for them, even that none are with some shortcomings.
          Rice is good for my gut (best of the brain I found), but it messes to much with my blood glucose, so I have to take it in small amounts and at specific times of the day. On the sugar side, I respond much better to Polenta and sprouted corn tortilla for example and it’s my second best grain for gut too (regulates my bowel movement)/ And finally quinoa seeds.
          So, universal approach doesn’t really exist.

  10. I have been put on the FODMAP diet by my dietician after nearly 2 years of being tested for everything under the sun and failing to get a proper diagnosis. If you have SIBO please ask your doctor for a test as they can test for it and treat it.

    During my first consultation, the dietician went through my diet and food diary and made some suggestions to remove some foods containing FODMAPS and replace them with the low FODMAP foods and also gave me advice on how to prepare, store and reheat food and which foods I should never reheat such a rice. The dietician also provided me with some recipes and created some recipes for smoothies for me. Within the first few days of the diet (that I was following loosely) I noticed a significant improvement in my symptoms although they didn’t disappear but I was no longer in pain, just bloated and constipated for a couple of days.

    On my second consultation, the dietician told me to follow the low FODMAP diet strictly for 2 months and I have been doing that. As the diet is so restrictive I have been able to identify additional foods that trigger my symptoms such as butter and cheese (I have lactose free cheese now and soya spreads instead of butter), eggs, potatoes (I can only tolerate small quantities) and oats. I also cook fresh meals all the time now and avoid any ready meals of any sort. I had no bloating, pain or constipation for a full month since following it strictly and eliminating the additional foods that were problematic but then I had to go away on business and was not able to eat freshly prepared low FODMAP meals and had to rely on ready made salads and restaurant foods that were low FODMAP. My symptoms started to worsen when I was away and I actually didn’t eat lunch for a few days to try to calm my symptoms down again.

    That has led me to think that perhaps its the ready made, prepackaged foods that are causing the problems. My dietician had told me to avoid these at all costs and that’s what I had been doing until I had to go away. I am back to home cooked freshly prepared meals. Hope that bit of information will help others on here.

    Also it is trial and error as we will all have a different reaction to different food groups. I know for certain that I am gluten, lactose (and dairy) and fructose/fructans intolerant.

    • This is really helpful, KDS. I’m on FODMAPS but still reheating foods. Can you say more about how to prepare and what not to reheat? Do you have a reference?
      I do know that reheating changes the carb structure.

    • I’m also wondering about those reheating instructions. And a question: is this a histamine-related issue at work, too?

  11. I was recently placed on the low FODMAPS diet and I have a few questions about this list. First of all, I was given my food list from Cleveland Clinic and it is the original list from Susan Shepherd. My list is quite a bit different than other lists that I am finding. I have tried to find the most up to date list I can, but all of the versions are different. I did print the list in your information because it was the easiest to read for me. Is pumpkin acceptable to eat? Unfortunately, 75% of my diet was taken away according to the foods listed that are unacceptable. I am struggling to find vegetables to eat. Meat is no problem as I have 1/2 a grass fed cow in my freezer, but other than carrots and green beans, most of those vegetables on that list cause me issues. Spinach is a huge problem for me as well as raw foods like lettuce. What can I substitute in there? And I have seen sweet potatoes on the no list. Is this true?

  12. My wife, who is a registered dietitian, has experienced a literally life-changing experience thanks to the low FODMAPs diet. On our honeymoon, she was in so much pain due to gas and bloating that we were about to check into a hospital – and it was not parasites or food poisoning, but simply the mal-absorbed carbohydrates – FODMAPs.

    This has been such a huge shift for us that we’ve decided to launch the world’s first protein bar that’s designed to be low-FODMAPs, and to cater to people with food sensitivities. Those interested can check it out here:


  13. Coconuts and coconut milk are now on the low FODMAP list – I can’t even stomach lactose free milk, but coconut milk is fine.

    As for bananas, they’ve been moved to the high list if ripe.

    One thing I’ve found is all the conflicting information online. Eating pretty much the same thing every day for 4 weeks (non dairy and gluten), and then re-introducing foods was key for me to working out the trigger foods, rather like a logic puzzle.

    As for bacterial infection…hmmm. I live in cold, rainy UK, haven’t been abroad for over a decade, and rarely eat raw salad. Guess it could be, but I’ve other family members who have the same thing, so I’d bet not.

  14. Maybe you could give me some advice, Chris. I’ve been on the autoimmune protocol – AIP – for about three months. I’m not seeing a way forward yet with this diet – still having onset of Hashimotos symptoms – sometimes severe, sometimes mild. I’m wondering if it’s maybe FODMAPs. I don’t have IBS – that basically disappeared when I went on paleo two years ago and especially when I adopted AIP. I do have intermittent constipation, abdominal pain and gas – not often enough to concern me deeply. I’d say the Hashimotos symptoms bother me more than the digestive. I’m considering trying out low FODMAP and AIP at the same time but it’s very restrictive. I’ve already lost a lot of weight and don’t want to deprive my body. I live in a place without understanding doctors so I’m in a bit of a catch 22 situation. And also have very limited finances to buy expensive supplements or pay for consultations. Do you think a low FODMAP diet may help? How long should I try it before I reintroduce FODMAP foods? Or should I rather look at addressing the Hashimotos or SIBO? I cannot fathom living so restricted long term.

  15. What the heck do you eat then?!? Seems like most vegetables have FODMAPs and all of the fodmap charts are contradicting each other.

  16. I was recently put on the FODMAP diet by the University of Michigan GI dietician. Aside from helping me out greatly with my digestive issues the other wonderful side effect is that my soft tissue pain that I’ve suffered with for over 40 years is GONE!! The Australian dietician, Sue Shepherd, has several cookbooks and other titles available on the FODMAP. She has also started her own line of FODMAP foods. I’ve been in contact with her assistant and hopefully, in the near future, her food products will be available here. If you are looking for other FODMAP recipes, go over to Pinterest where there is at least one person who has some wonderful FODMAP recipes as well.

  17. I’ve read quite a bit recently about the benefits of resistant starch. Now I’m confused, as resistant starch would appear to have negative effects on digestive health re. FODMAPS. Your thoughts…

  18. I am really interested in the FODMAP diet but am a vegan. I also do not do soy. Can anyone give me suggestions of what I can have? Would soaking the beans help? I am in so much pain.

    • For those of you looking for help, my wife and I offer online FODMAPs support at the Watson Center. My wife is a registered dietitian with IBS (and also a vegetarian), and I am a life coach, and this is what we specialize in… IBS and the low-FODMAPs diet. We have free weekly calls every week, and free give-aways, so come check us out.

    • Hello Mellissa, Being vegan in my experience is essential for gut problems but you still have to avoid those fermentable foods that cause problems( e.g. beans- except string beans). I would advise a buckwheat/millet based diet but you do need to be careful where you source your foods from. You need to eat only organic and not from polluted areas( e.g. china ukraine india). So a typical days food for me would be buckwheat porridge with almonds/hazel roasted nut mix chopped on top. I use soy or almond milk( soy may not be suitable for you). NO sugars or sweetners of ANY kind!( having said that stevia may be OK- I have not found any need for it though). Lunch is buckwheat/linseed/sesame flatbread with avocado/raw onion/celery/artichoke hearts/olive oil +/- lemon juice followed by almond paste on flat bread if you’re still hungry. Dinner is either buckwheat or millet with cooked onion +/-celery/cabbage/broccoli/string beans/. Don’t snack if possible(eat a few of your toasted almond/hazel/brazil nut mix if desperate). One of the main problems is that we are such good consumers that we pay such little to regard to where or how are food is produced.

      • Hi Julian, vegan diets are the forerunner (often) of autoimmune diseases. I was also vegatarian for 18 years and now can’t digest much of anything. pork and poultry work fairely well, but most veggies cause trouble (gas, pain, almost instantly upon ingestion). Carrots and green beans still work. There’s a person above who has the same. I’ve managed to get food allergy testing and also a stool test. The stool test was for parasites and h. pylori, but not SIBO. I have no parasites nor h.p. but I have plenty of food allergies… when I was younger, I could eat anything, and since I’m an italian new yorker, I did indeed eat most things attainable.
        Check out Dr. Amy Myers and also Dr. Terry Wahls, both of whom were vegan for the first 1/3 of their lives and now are paleo AIP teachers/proponents.

      • You have to be wary of buckwheat although delicious it is high in oxalates. These bind to calcium and remove calcium from the body. Same as spinach. Can cause kidney stones and osteoperosis…

  19. Would love some clarification on a couple of foods! Started a Paleo + Low Fodmap diet recently to help with SIBO and related issues. While I know it’s all dependent on one’s body and everyone is different, I see a lot of conflicting info on the following:

    Coconut milk
    Greens of onions
    Nutritional yeast
    White rice
    Sweet potatoes
    White potatoes (skin or no skin?)

    Any solid knowledge of these foods specific to Paleo + Low Fodmap would be so apreciated!!

    Thank you so much! 🙂


    • It is very individual. The advice is always “try and see”.

      I also do low fodmap paleo, so my research/experience is:
      Coconut milk – cannot tolerate
      Greens of onions – small amount ok
      Chives – small amount ok
      Nutritional yeast – ok
      White rice – not strictly paleo
      Sweet potatoes – ok
      White potatoes (skin or no skin?) – not strictly paleo