Long Term Side Effects of Antibiotics: Can Our Guts Ever Fully Recover?

The High Price of Antibiotic Use: Can Our Guts Ever Fully Recover?

by Chris Kresser

Last updated on

iStock.com/Nomadsoul1

If you need to take antibiotics and are looking for ways to reduce the side effects, please see this article.

Maintaining proper balance of healthy gut flora is a crucial yet widely misunderstood component of human health. While the development of antibiotics has lengthened our lifespans, our excessive and inappropriate use of these drugs may be causing serious long-term consequences we are only now becoming fully aware of.

These consequences not only affect our individual health, but may even be causing permanent changes to the microflora of all people from generation to generation.

Martin Blaser’s recent (2011) article published in Nature highlights the potentially dangerous long-term consequences that arise from the rampant overuse of antibiotics. (1) He argues that changes in our microbiota may even be promoting the transmission of deadly organisms, as one of the important roles of an intact microflora is to resist colonization by pathogenic organisms.

Blaser also points out that not only does the individual use of antibiotics cause permanent changes in the gut flora, but that infants born to women given antibiotics during pregnancy, or the 30% of children delivered via cesarean section, may be starting life with a significantly altered and insufficient level of friendly gut flora. (2) This is a serious concern because lack of diversity in friendly gut bacteria has been shown to contribute to a large number of diseases and complications.

Unfortunately, even a single course of antibiotics can permanently alter the gut flora.

One study found that after a single treatment of intravenous antibiotics, fecal bacteria tests demonstrated a significant change in the variety of bacterial strains, and the development of the pathogen Clostridium difficile. (3) C. difficile colonization in the gut can lead to serious complications such as severe diarrhea and colitis. (4)

Another study demonstrated that a short course of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin reduced the diversity of the intestinal microbiota, with significant effects on roughly one-third of the bacterial species. (5) This study also found that while much of the diversity eventually recovered, there were still several species that failed to recover after six months, suggesting that even a short course of antibiotics may cause permanent changes to the community of friendly flora in the gut.

Antibiotics are known to cause diarrhea, which may be due to infection by antibiotic resistant pathogens such as salmonella, C. perfringens type A, Staphylococcus aureus, and possibly Candida albicans, as well the various metabolic consequences of reduced concentrations of fecal flora. (6) These results suggests that disturbance of the normal intestinal flora following antibiotic use may be responsible for the overgrowth of dangerous pathogens.

Research also indicates that infants’ gut flora is significantly affected by cesarean delivery, which requires the administration of antibiotics to the mother.

One study demonstrated significant changes in the primary intestinal flora of infants born through cesarean delivery, lasting at least six months. (7) Primary colonization of the newborn’s sterile intestinal tract normally happens during vaginal birth, and it is unknown whether an infant born with inadequate or unbalanced colonization will ever develop normal intestinal flora without intervention. 

While breastfeeding can help restore some of the natural balance to the microflora, only about 44.3% of American women breastfeed (with only 14.8% breastfeeding exclusively) for the full six months that is recommended. (8, 9) Furthermore, breastfeeding alone may not compensate for the changes in flora associated with cesarean sections, suggesting that many infants may be at an even greater disadvantage when it comes to the proper development of a healthy, functional digestive tract. (10)

Research from diverse fields demonstrates the negative effects of gut dysbiosis and inadequate friendly flora on a variety of health outcomes.

For example, resident bacteria of the normal flora are involved in intestinal mucosal inflammation and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have higher amounts of bacteria attached to their intestinal mucosa than do healthy people. (11) Patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are found to have reduced concentrations of fecal Lactobacillus and Bifdobacteria, which protect against pathogenic bacteria, increase mineral absorption and induce the production of growth factor in the gut. (12)

An unbalanced microbiota in the gut is also a contributing factor in autoimmunity. (13) Infection with certain microbial pathogens can trigger autoimmune reactions in joints and other organs. (14) The destruction of healthy gut flora can make the mucosal lining more susceptible to leakage, which some researchers believe is a precondition for developing autoimmunity. (15, 16) It is well-established that the balance of gut bacteria plays a key role in the formation of a proper immune response. (17, 18) A lack of healthy gut bacteria is associated with allergies, IBD, and general autoimmune reactions when this immune modulation goes awry.

New research has linked changes in gut bacteria with obesity. One study found that the gut bacteria of obese subjects differs significantly in species type from lean subjects, and that low calorie diets, restricting either fat or carbohydrates, changed the gut flora and increased the abundance of the bacterial strains found more predominantly in the lean subjects. (19) Another study found that transplanting fecal bacteria from lean or obese mice into mice with sterile guts could affect whether these mice gained body fat, even when food intake was controlled. (20) Those mice implanted with fecal bacteria from obese mice gained a significantly larger percentage of body fat than those transplanted with bacteria from lean mice. The authors hypothesized that certain types of gut flora are associated with obesity due to the increased extraction of energy from the diet. I’ve written about this in more detail here.

These studies demonstrate the wide range of potential consequences caused by the improper development or destruction of the intestinal flora.

Though antibiotics may be necessary in certain situations, it’s important to weigh the benefits of using them with the potential risks that may come from the permanent alteration of the gut flora.

If antibiotics must be used (and there are certainly situations where this is the case), special care should be taken to not only restore their gut flora using probiotic foods and supplements, but to eat a diet that supports healthy gut microbiota with plenty of fermentable fibers from starch and the removal of food toxins.

To protect infants’ gut health, especially those infants born through cesarean section, it is crucial to exclusively breastfeed for at least six months, with breastfeeding continuing on-demand throughout the complementary feeding period (up to 2 years of age). I also recommend using a high-quality infant probiotic to help populate your baby’s gut with beneficial flora, as I explain in this article from my natural childbirth series.

Infancy is a critical time where the development of a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the long term health of your child. You can read more about protecting the gut health of your child in The Healthy Baby Code.

In medicine and health, as in all other areas of life, each choice we make comes with consequences. The purpose of this post is not to suggest that antibiotics are “bad” and we should never take them.

As I said in the beginning of the article, antibiotics save lives and have significantly lengthened our lifespans. But that benefit has come with a price, and it’s one that we’re only just beginning to understand the full implications of. My goal here is simply to raise awareness of this price – the harmful and potentially lasting effects of antibiotics – so that you can make a more informed choice.

What are some alternatives to antibiotics?

Mark Sisson wrote a good post listing some alternatives to antibiotics a few months back. In my practice I use a combination of botanical anti-microbials, biofilm distruptors (bacteria often live in extracellular matrices called biofilm, which protect them from our innate immune defenses and any external anti-microbials we might take), and probiotics – as well as micronutrients to support immune function, like vitamin C, iodine and selenium.

While these botanicals do have an impact on the gut flora, it is less pronounced than the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Still, I recommend taking any strong anti-microbials under the supervision of a qualified health care provider.

212 Comments

Join the conversation

  1. Intravenous Vitamin C is a wonderful natural, safe, alternative to antibiotics. Known for years, but suppressed by drug companies and not taught to medical doctors.
    Check your yellow pages for clinics that handle IV C.

    Humans are one of the few animals that don’t produce C in their bodies.

  2. I was prescribed a strong med for C.diff because I was at high risk. Yet, haven’t gotten results back yet to confirm. I’ve been taking the med for a week now & would like to stop. Can I stop if I replace with an abundance of probiotics? I take probiotics 4 hrs. between my doses of antibiotics. Please help!

    • Talk to your doctor as to when you can stop taking the medication for your c-diff before you actually stop taking it.

  3. Do the GAPS Diet by Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride to heal and seal your gut! Read her book and find a GAPS Practitioner to address your individual issues.

  4. I heard Chris mention on Joe Rogan’s podcast that when he was younger he was treated for amoebic dysentery with multiple rounds of antibiotics after surfing and traveling in Indonesia. He referenced having spent 10 years recovering his gut health and I’m curious what he believes to have been the most effective actions in doing so. I’ve had a virtually identical experience, have essentially recovered, and am curious what I might have done had I understood the potential complications of using antibiotics to treat this type of condition.

  5. Dear Chris most of us have taken antibiotics by now.
    My main question is how to restore the gut flora to max after the damage done?
    Pl respond.

    • Currently medical community has no answer. If you have friends in third world country go there and spend 6 months in place where people poop out and drink water from river. You might rabies as side effects jk. But that the only way out of antibiotics. Going ancestral !!!

  6. been going thru the same bullshit as some of these comments….all started with getting strep throat and a round of antibiotics i now have high level of cortisol [adrenal fatigue] that i have been hit with for going on 4 months just found out 2 weeks ago.. came from i suspected a few things it all STARTED after i developed strep throat and was put on antibiotics the pills didnt do well with me unbelievable diahrrea then i was given the 1 does shot…EVER SINCE THAT DAY i slowly over months got worse and strange symptoms like my hands looked unnormal the palms redness blochyness ….fatigued….after months of this bullcrapE.R visits over 50 times all normal test i eventually went to a endocrinologist high cortisol levels but no pitituary tumor or adrenal tumor…so she said stress……i realized it cant be emotional stress cuz im ok…..it has to be immune system stress and all came down to something like parasites [only because i made 3 trips out the country eatin tons] or this thing called “candida”….so i did a 10 day parasite cleanse and just started a candida cleanse and removed sugar from my diet when i removed sugar i felt ALOT better but still struggling…think itll take time along damn time…months years idek….i even got b12 pills,magnesium,vitamin c to help my adrenals….doing a 50 billion probotic for stomach…some diotomaceous earth detox for stomach and candida herbal cleanse im on so much shit now idek wut will work wut wont should i make an appt for a digestive doc smh im mad at docs beyond …..to be honest i know i will be on probotic for a long damn time for sure and a special diet i need help my life sux since this crap

    • Seems like these antibiotic manufactures should be sured for the damages they are causing!
      My life has changed since taking them for ear infections. My shorts list is Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Thyroid Nodules.

      I see people everywhere are writing about the same life changing experiences after antibiotics. Personally I think doctors must know what is happening, how could they not with all those having problems with grains and Autoimmune disease!

      FED UP!!!

    • That is because the medical industry is run by criminals, like the Rockefellers. They are eugenicists who want to destroy humans’ natural system and put you on a crippling medical system that milks you for every dollar you have, makes you sicker and more dependent, and ultimately kills you. Don’t believe me? Research it. The evidence is everywhere, like air. They mix poison with medicine, like mixing truth with lies. Anyone who refutes this, dismisses it, or trolls this post is a paid shill or useful dupe who is too mentally lazy to research anything.

      • I completely agree with you and congratulate you for such bitter truth remarks.
        it’s time people be pragmatic and look beyond synthetic medication fraught with killing side effects.

    • Shocked to finally see folks are suffering as bad if not worse then I am. Everyday I search for reason to go on. My distrust and hatred of doctors knows no bounds. The pain and suffering I endure everyday has made my life a living hell on earth. I don’t know who to go to, or who to see. I don’t know if this can be fixed. I have been taking Probiotic 10, four tablets a day and it doesn’t seem to do jack. I take soluble fiber which seems to help some. There has to be an answer on what will work. I get so sick of the false advertisements sent to me claiming to heal me. The one that scares me is where they want me to eat fermented cabbage. My intestines is so stripped that common sense tells me that will really cause me great pain. I wish the pain would just go away or I would.

      • please don’t do away with yourself. my fiancé and I both struggle daily. To top it off I have strep like symptoms and a dry painful cough that started back in September! I’ve never had a cough that stayed consistent and never changed. they put me on amoxicillin! I’m terrified. I tested negative for strep but I was still put on that and multiple other things to treat strep and sinus infection… she looked baffled.. but we all know… yet can’t say anything because then they diagnose us Delusional Parasitosis…. I’m praying we all bounce back from this shit

        • Amanda, for dry painful cough try……eating raw whole almond powder couple spoons 3-4 times a day. (Morn-aft-eve-night). I’m hoping you have no sensitivities to almonds. Keep a few white rock crystal sugar in your mouth and suck on its juice slowly soon after eating the almond powder.

      • Try Dr. O’Hirra’s probiotic in the green box. I’ve suffered from diverticulitis and a perforated colon in the past 2 years. After the emergency surgery for the perf colon I started using Dr. O’Hirra’s. It’s the only probiotic I’ve EVER had any results from – ever. With the ailments I had, I received intravenous Cipro & Flagyl for weeks AND have taken that combo via mouth a dozen times. Since giving up gluten & taking Dr. O’Hirra’s, my hair has started to grow back & my digestive tract runs “smoothly” for the first time in my life. For me this probiotic has given me a new lease on life. I order from Amazon and load 4 AM and 4PM if I’m feeling stressed or have taken antibiotics. Happy to say I’ve only had antibiotics once in the past 6 months…as compared to every day of every month for 18 months before I got well. Give it a try – it’s worth the $35 for the chance it helps you!

      • I have really bad intestines close to removal. I have had recurring foot infections for over two years and the doctors just kept pouring antibiotics in me. Severe bleeds. I took GI Heal from Optimal Health Knowledge and I feel so much better. Not all healed only been a month but I can function. I just ordered more of the herbs in GI Heal so I can increase the effects…hopefully. I do not get any money from this just trying to help.

      • I had the same symptoms, tried many different things. Had taken two rounds of antibiotics two months apart. Had belching, stomach pain, bloating, diarrhea. Test were all negative, 3 ER trips. Florastor was my life saver! On my 6th day & my symptoms are nearly gone.

  7. maybe the invention of antibiotics from the first place was sth wrong. unless u dont take vicious antibiotics doses for serious cases u dont get what i mean.alternative medicine was working from the first day of human history why we stopped to use it on everyday basis? i have got a chronic condition that if i dont take antibiotics it may be really dangerous. the thing that most annoys me that dr prescribes easily one that is targeting all. wouldn’t it better to really have very very targeted antibiotics? i would say policies look at general population for evaluating the safety of a drug but when u fall into that minor category of serious side effects that they say they dont see in majority ur life is screwed. u are kinda ignored even mocked by others or drs about how weird ur symptoms are but these things really decrease quality of life and introducing too much stress.

  8. Hello im concerned because of constant tummy problems and needing to use the restroom frequently. Three years ago I had gotten celluitis and mrsa and was prescribed bactrim. It clears and always comes back and since taking the antibiotic im having weight gain tummy problems so on. Is there anything I can do….my doctor says not worry.

    • First add Coconut oil to your diet, 1 TB a day. Probiotics, 50 billion units with 10 strains of bacteria take 1 a day. Vitamin D3 5000 Units a day, Add a Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc Supplement, a good B Complex, Tumeric, Oregano Oil, either liquid or capsule. A really good daily vitamin too!

      • Renee, you are on the right track but you are still missing the the most fundamental element. It is like trying to plant flowers back in a weed patch. COLOSTRUM is like a garden tractor or tiller. It prepares your intestines for the Probotic flowers that you are trying to plant. You may have to take Colostrum, probotics and good fats everyday for the rest of your life but the best diet in the world will not fix antibiotic damage without COLOSTRUM. Most people have to put the probiotics in the form of an enema initially after adding colostrum to my diet. It is basically the same as a fecal transplant but a little bit cleaner.

        • Robert,
          You seem to know a lot. I have been on Amoxicillan for almost 20 yrs straight. I need to talk to someone who gets this stuff… No one in the medical field seems to care at all…

    • I can tell you your stomach health will get much worse if you keep taking the antibiotic. C-diff will hit you next. There are only 3 antibiotics that can be used to treat that. After that is exhausted they have something new they been doing to help introduce healthy bacterial to the gut and that is fecal transplants. If you haven’t heard of that before you will think I am making it up. Google it to verify. It is real.
      God help you. I live in fear of Mercer and Staph infection because I am not able to use antibiotics anymore. Heck I live in fear of any type of infection. I am not sure how much more my gut can take. I am in agony every day.

  9. I am 21 years old and have been suffering from many gut issues as well as anxiety. When I was 20, I had an infection so my doctor prescribed me Amoxicillin and Deoxycline, two of the strongest drugs. I did eat yogurt while I took them in order to reduce the side effects, but they still persisted and 2 weeks after I developed severe anxiety and stomach issues that put me in the hospital. The doctors did all kinds of tests and found nothing so they assumed it was IBS and anxiety-related. Of course when they say it’s IBS, they mean that they have no clue what’s going on. I didn’t have any issues with anxiety or my gut until I took that course of antibiotics. I was living a happy and healthy life, now it’s like I struggle with these gut issues every single day and anxiety and I’m finding it so hard to cope. What angers me the most is that I was told by a nurse that my doctor should have never prescribed me such strong antibiotics for such a common infection, that I should have been given something else. I’m completely sure that those antibiotics triggered an autoimmune reaction and I’m looking forward to having a fecal transplant done in the future; hopefully it works and I can finally return back to my normal life because right now I just feel helpless.

    • transplant feses from a healthy living person or swallow a pill containing feses (poo as you like) that is enteric coated from that person to restore normality

      • Have you had this procedure. I have heard about it a dr. Philadelphia PA is doing this treatment. My daughter and I believe I have this issue. All my daughters (22 year olds) friends have similar issues. We all use same pediatric doctor

    • and amoxycillin is the first line and is among the weakest, Deoxycline is also an inexpensive and essential antibiotic. Most likely your gut microbes died during the course, so you need to restore it.

    • Hi. I am suffering from gut problems and pain. What does happen with fecal transplant.? Does it work with you?

      • I have done this at home as a last resort because i was suffering so badly and heard such great things. I used my BF as the donor and after the first couple times we got over the idea and it was easy and no big deal. Unfortuantely it didnt help me much and in fact I started having SEVERE fatigue after eating. Most of my issues come from long term use of antibiotics from chronic strep throat as a kid and then a 2 month course from shingles. I have problems eating ANYTHING, i get headaches, brain fog, weakness, and always would get tired after eating but I would pass out for like an hour, after the FMT I will pass out for like 12 hours now! Before you say insulin / diabetes I have checked that already as well every other test under the sun. I have seen a ND, GI, allergist did colonoscopy, endoscopy, checked thyroid, glucose, SIBO, Candida, no one has answers for me. I used to tak eating for granted and now I have to worry every day every time I eat a bite.

        Regarding the fecal transplant, they say you may have better luck trying different donors as maybe you are not compatible. My BF had gotten a stool test prior and is in perfect health but as optimistic I was it did not work for me. It is worth a try its simple once you get over the initial thought of it

        • Also want to mention at sometimes LARGE amounts of probiotics worked for me. Like 900billion a day, but not so much after fecal transplant. It was super expensive anyway I would do it on vacations and stuff. Rifaximin helped some too.

        • You have to take Colostrum in order for the fecal transplant to be effective. If a fecal transplant is not available then probotic enemas will work. BUT YOU HAVE TO TAKE COLOSTRUM.

          • Whats the best source of Colostrum? I was on this like 20 years ago and remember it helping. I dont know why I stopped, probably the cost. Thanks for the info.

  10. I have been on antibiotics for the last 4 years because of the lung infections that I was always getting. 2 years ago I got a lung transplant and they have had to supress my imune system with several anti-rejection drugs. Since May of this year they have now put me on 2 antibiotics and my gut is screwed up to the max. It is not unusual for me to have everything run straight through me days before I can get it under control. I average being put into the hospital about every 3 months for one type of infection or another. I got out 3 days ago from the hospital where I was getting 7 different types of antibiotics. 3 were oral 3 were IV and I was getting through my nebulizer which I take 2 weeks on and 2 weeks off. I eat greek yogurt all of the time and take a probiotics that has 32 different strains and 85 billion cultures. Since I am home I am down to 3 orals a day and 3 times a day I am taking an IV and my nebulizer of antibiotics. The Doctors tell me I need to lose about 20 pounds but I do not seem to be able to make any headway. To be honest it is hard to get active doing things because of my constant bathroom trips.

    I know that they are just doing what they can to keep the infections down and I have a feeling that if I stop them I will not be around long as I no longer have the ability to fight off infections.
    My question is since I am taking all of these drugs to suppress my immune system and because of that I am taking all of these antibiotics to fight off infections. How can I ever get my gut back to where it used to be. Any ideas?

    • As one with more years on antibiotics than most I can try to answer some of the puzzle of the gut question, but you have to be able to do what you need to do and not cheat for a while.

      Bacteria that is destroyed from our gut can be repopulated but without doctor help it takes longer (they have tools that can help, but they don’t want any of us getting better, so we seem to be on our own).

      Kefir – I make my own from fresh raw milk, but it can be made from regular ORGANIC milk as long as it is not massively processed)

      Bone broth from organic or AT LEAST grass fed and NON antibiotic beef – vegans sorry, but this is one of the best ways to combat all KINDS of bad in our diets – going back to bone broth included in our diet is an imperative

      ALL kinds of fermented (ORGANIC ONLY) food, from sauerkraut, to miso, to peppers, any kind of foods from the earth that are fermented will speed the recovery of the intestines and their flora

      Water – must be filtered – water does not keep the intestines “wet” past the small intestine, the foods must keep moving or they DO become dry and a danger – still, drink 8 cups or more pure water a day

      Caffeine in moderation – herbal teas are always going to be a part of my diet, but I do have a TINY bit of caffeine to keep migraines at bay – but it’s white tea and guayusa (much less jittery, in fact none when consumed alone – not much tannins that do contribute to bad health in the white tea

      – DO be aware that caffeine can and does cause constipation along with sleep disturbances

      EXERCISE – and I mean just walking – how do you THINK your gut moves? Without movement your gut can’t move – just a fact of life

      Three months minimum of the bone broth, kefir etc for the cilia to grow back – but the will be small so STILL be careful and add back in foods that aren’t too fibrous CAREFULLY and SLOWLY.

      Here’s hoping this helps anyone looking to improve their gut health AFTER being destroyed by antibiotics.

      My journey isn’t through – I cheat WAY too much :-/ Pizza is my DOWNFALL lol!

      • I just read your reply on the gut. I think my son now has fructose issues from being on antibiotic for 3 years. Would you think your plan would help his issue with fructose?

      • The one thing that you did not mention. COLOSTRUM. You are doing everything right but it still will not work without Colostrum.

      • If you are trying to rebuild your cilia, avoid GLUTEN! You’re taking one step forward and three back with that gluten-filled pizza. Nobody is talking about the increased usage of glyphosate in our diet. Antibiotics are having a direct effect on our gut biome like a cluster bomb whereas glyphosate (active ingredient in Roundup) is an herbicide affecting our gut like mustard gas. The manufacturer has gotten it to be dispensed in commercial wheat and sugar fields. That’s why organic is critical, along with wheat-free. So, when you don’t see organic, suspect contaminated “natural” sugar, wheat, soy, canola oil, or a cocktail of these. You start buying organic and the producers will start shifting away from toxic components in our food, water and air.

    • My narurapath suggested I take VSL3-DS probiotic, Prescription only, for multi dose anti biotic use. It has 950 billion count of various strains. Expensive but worth every penny. The good news is when you are done with the antibiotics you can completely repopulate your gut with good flora and change your future health forever. Get the VSL3-DS!! It’s a game changer.

      M

    • There is fecal transplants that doctors can do to get gut flora back to normal; you can even do it yourself but you have to make sure you have a healthy donor, like a family member for instance.

    • eat shit
      (from a healthy person)

      long answer: get a feses transplantation or swallow a feses pill (enteric coated so the microbes won’t be destroyed by the stomach acid)

  11. Dr. Kresser, could you please tell us if intravenous or intramuscular antibiotics also have such a pernicious effect on gut flora? Would it be preferable to oral antibiotics?
    Thanks

  12. I would be interest to know if there is any studies from extended use of antibiotics with children. I have been eating quite high doses of antibiotics from age 2 to age 15 and while I know very well what the price has been with my health on some areas, I would also like to know how much damage that has done for my gut permanently. And if I have any hope to repair that damage over 20 years later.

    • I am wondering the exact same thing. I have been taking preventively antibiotics from being 1 years old up to 10 years…
      I am suffering from moodswings, anxiety, depression. Been in therapy for years, did a lot of selfhelp. tried to fix my diet. Reading a lot about gut health and nutrition..
      I am almost 29 now and don’t know how to solve my situation.
      Refusing taking any more meds, but unable to cope with these things. I really wanna know if there is any knowledge about this

      • I would recommend an intestinal cleanse and quality probiotics. Kobucha tea is great. I have seen articles discussing the relationship between the lack of healthy gut flora and anxiety and depression.

      • Of course you can heal your gut permanently as our bodies constantly renew their cells. Keep your hopes up and keep researching. I found that taking the advice seriously to drink at least eight glasses of water a day, so easy to think yeah I drink a lot of water. But really look at your water intake and make sure you’re drinking that full eight glasses. Also get some good probiotics eat a lot of good fermented foods

  13. If I disruupt the biofilm in an effort to make the supplements more accessable, doesn’t it disrupt the biofilm of the “good guys” as well as the “bad guys” I need to target

  14. Beta glucans, and in particular yeast beta glucans can work well as a complementary therapy, both strengthening the innate immune system and possibly contributing to improved effectivness against antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, as some preliminary research is indicating. In a hospital environment you would typically see a reduction of post surgery infections when yeast beta glucans are administrated. By maintaining an optimally functioning immune system one also greatly reduces the risk of contracting an infection in the first place. Innate immune cells have a specific receptor that is triggered by beta glucans of a certain molecular structure and the mechanism of action is very well understood. More information about beta glucans can be found at ImmiFlex.com