This article was originally published in 2015 and has been updated in November 2018 to reflect the latest research.
Do you have gas, bloating, abdominal pain, and stool issues? Up to 20 percent of the U.S. population suffers from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that adversely affects daily life. Instead of digging deeper to identify the underlying cause(s), conventional medicine typically offers medications to suppress gut symptoms. Read on to learn about five lesser-known causes of IBS that you may not be looking for.
Irritable bowel syndrome doesn’t have to be a lifelong sentence. Learn about five underlying causes of IBS you might not be looking for to help heal the gut from the inside out.
How Doctors Diagnose IBS
IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder. Yet it’s poorly understood—not only by those who suffer from it but also by many clinicians who try to treat it. (1) Symptoms of IBS include gas, bloating, and abdominal pain, accompanied predominantly by constipation, diarrhea, or both. Those afflicted report lower quality of life and activity levels and call in sick twice as often as the general population. (2) Depression and anxiety often accompany IBS, most likely through the gut–brain axis connection between the enteric nervous system of the GI tract and the central nervous system.
Over the years, diagnostic criteria have evolved, but IBS is now generally defined as recurrent abdominal pain at least three days per month in the previous three months, associated with two or more of the following: (3)
- Improvement with defecation
- Onset associated with change in stool frequency
- Onset associated with change in stool consistency
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IBS Medications Aim to Tame, Not to Treat
Not that long ago, IBS was dismissed as a psychosomatic disorder that was “all in your head.” Fortunately, it is now recognized as a legitimate gastrointestinal disorder, although it’s often poorly managed. Current treatments focus on alleviating the symptoms of IBS instead of actually fixing the underlying problems—but that’s a common theme in conventional treatment of modern chronic diseases. Medications prescribed for IBS include:
- Anticholinergic or antispasmodic drugs
- 5-HT3 antagonists
- Mast cell stabilizers (also used to treat asthma)
But those who use these IBS medications report low satisfaction, with little relief from the condition, and many of these drugs induce side effects that are similar to IBS symptoms themselves! (4, 5)
5 Causes of IBS You May Not Have Considered
In order to properly treat IBS, you’ll need to do some investigating to determine the cause. This article will summarize five causes of IBS that you may not be looking for—but should be.
1. Gut Dysbiosis
Ever-growing research links the gut microbiome to bone health, heart health, autoimmune disease, thyroid health, and more. It should be no surprise, then, that IBS is directly related to gut dysbiosis, a change in the composition of the gut bacteria. Up to 83 percent of IBS patients have abnormal fecal biomarkers, and up to 73 percent have intestinal dysbiosis. (6) Specifically, those with IBS tend to have decreased levels of “good” bacteria, such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, and increased levels of harmful strains such as E. coli and Clostridia. (7, 8) An increased ratio of Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (two major classes of bacteria) is also common. (9)
Success in treating IBS with prebiotics and probiotics is further evidence that gut dysbiosis plays a role in IBS. A recent article reviewed 24 randomized placebo-controlled probiotic trials, the majority of which showed benefits of treatment. (10) Beneficial probiotic strains included B. animalis, L. rhamnosus GG, B. infantis, B. longum, and L. acidophilus. (11, 12, 13) Prebiotics, which act as food for the microbiota, can also help establish beneficial bacterial. (14, 15, 16)
Another strategy that can correct gut dysbiosis is a low-FODMAP diet, which eliminates foods containing certain carbohydrates that feed intestinal bacteria. (17, 18, 19) This method may help get the beneficial-to-harmful bacteria ratio back under control, but it works best as a short-term solution that is then followed by prebiotic/probiotic treatment. (20, 21, 22)
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a special subset of gut dysbiosis in which the small intestines harbor an abnormal number of bacteria. Compared to the colon, the small intestine should have a bacterial concentration that is considerably lower. Bacterial overload in the small intestine can interfere with digestion and nutrient absorption.
SIBO may be present in up to 80 percent of IBS patients, although a recent meta-analysis reported a huge range of estimates (between 4 and 78 percent) across 50 studies. (23) Part of the reason for the discrepancies is non-uniform IBS diagnosis, and the other part may be variations in SIBO diagnosis. I prefer the methane breath test over jejunal aspirate and culture, the conventional testing approach.
Antibiotics that are used to treat SIBO, like rifaximin, can also be effective for treating IBS, further evidence that SIBO may be underlying some cases of IBS. (24, 25) Or, SIBO may follow IBS incidence, especially if a person with IBS begins taking PPIs (acid-blocking medications) for indigestion. One of the many dangers of PPIs is the development of SIBO. (26, 27)
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3. Gut Permeability
The GI tract is lined with a single layer of tightly packed epithelial cells designed to keep pathogens and other unwanted species out of the bloodstream. If the barriers between cells become permeable, undigested protein molecules and bacterial toxins can pass through and trigger immune reactions and inflammation.
Leaky gut and associated low-grade immune activation affect between 12 and 50 percent of people suffering from IBS. (28, 29, 30) Low levels of E-cadherin, a protein involved in regulating gut permeability, have been reported in IBS sufferers who experience diarrhea and/or constipation. (31)
Supplements that can help reestablish the intestinal barrier include:
- MSM and quercetin
- N-acetyl glucosamine
- DGL slippery elm
- Cat’s claw
GI-Revive contains several of these in an effective blend. Supplementing with probiotics can also help repair gut permeability. (33)
4. Gut Infection
Gut infections are another lesser-known cause of IBS. Many studies have confirmed a link between a single episode of bacterial gastroenteritis and future development of IBS. (34, 35, 36) Parasites such as B. hominis, Giardia spp., E. histolytica, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Trichinella spp. have also been correlated with progression of IBS, although causation has not yet been confirmed. (37, 38, 39)
Modern lifestyle has compromised the gut’s ability to resist infections from pathogenic bacteria and parasites. (High levels of stress, for instance, combined with factors such as the Standard American Diet, can easily lower our immunity.) Gut permeability, gut dysbiosis, and high stomach pH from chronic PPI use create more opportunities for pathogens to overwhelm or bypass the gut’s immune defenses.
5. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Other Food Intolerances
The medical field once mocked non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), but the condition is slowly gaining acceptance even in conventional medicine. (40) Many of the symptoms—gas, bloating, abdominal pain, and changes in stool patterns—are indistinguishable from IBS, so NCGS can be difficult to identify. Brain fog and fatigue following gluten consumption are also very common.
In IBS patients, I see a number of other food intolerances, such as:
A large review of over 73 studies “confirmed that food allergy and intolerance should be considered as an underlying pathology for IBS.” (41) But bear in mind that food intolerances themselves are often symptoms of deeper causes like SIBO, gut infections, and/or gut permeability.
The cheapest tool to determine food intolerances is an elimination diet, which I outline in depth in my book The Paleo Cure.
What’s Your Experience with IBS?
IBS can be an unpredictable and even debilitating condition. Finding the root cause is not always an easy or quick road, but neither is a lifetime of symptom-suppressing medications with additional side effects.
In my practice, I have seen patients who have suffered from this condition for 20 years recover after we identify and address the underlying causes of IBS outlined above and fix their diets.
Better supplementation. Fewer supplements.
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Just following conversation.
Hi. I have suffered from severe migraines for 40 years now. (I am 52) I have one now, as I type this… Some are so severe, I can’t even lie down, as the throbbing gets unbearable. Doctors keep telling me they’re not food related, and to just keep taking pain killers every time… I get them exactly 8 hours after eating certain foods. These include MSG, some preservatives, soya, yeast & yeast products, long life dairy like custard & condenced milk, flavourings, non-organic red wine, etc. As I understand, the food is in the colon after 8 hours. What could be the cause? Regards, Mike
Pls I feel all the symptoms mentioned .the only one i know whicj stopped befire the inset of IBS was diarrhea but since then it’s been hell for me. Right now i try to treat infections like staph and im placed with antibiotics and laxative to see if it will reduce my discomforts. Pls what can do to get rid of this unbearable pain?
I have suffered from IBS for several years I am 24 years old. My Dr had me cut out gluten products and it’s been a week of that. It has helped to a point. Before I started this diet I was going poop about 10 times a day and I never felt I was done. When I had to go make a BM o had a urgent need and needed to run to the bathroom each time. Right now the amount of times I used the restroom has dropped a lot. However my mornings are still bad. I get cramps and nausea when I need to get. It’s always soft and feels like I’m constipated but I always go. I am getting sent to a gastriologist in a few weeks.
I have IBS-D and C, but mostly D and I never know when it’s going to hit me after I eat. Traveling, dining out, even at work is horrible for me because it’s sometimes hard to make it to the bathroom in time. It’s embarrassing to say the least. I can actually feel it coming on with the sharp rolling stomach pains and it builds to where I have to go to the bathroom instantaneously. I think I’ve had IBS at least since I had my gallbladder removed. I don’t recall having IBS before then and could pretty much eat whatever I wanted. I’ve had the stool tests done for Crohn’s and Colitis and both came back negative. I’m only just now 47, but had three polyps removed on a colonoscopy of which one was pre-cancerous. I was recently diagnosed with sub clinical Hypothyroidism and take Levothyroxine (only 100 mcg so not that high of a dosage really). This doctor finally recommended me to try a Low FODMAP diet for my IBS and it worked. I also gave up Gluten and Soy for a bit and not only did I feel better, but I also started losing weight. But doing a Low FODMAP diet and giving up Gluten/Soy can be hard to do and I have a hard time sticking to it even though I feel better and don’t have flare ups. I don’t have the depression (only occasionally as most people do without IBS), but I do have anxiety, can be high strung by nature, and lately have been experiencing a lot of memory fog. I wish there was a miracle pill I could take for IBS. I’m more concerned with my IBS than I am with my Hypothyroidism and I wouldn’t wish IBS on my worst enemy. I’m back off of vacation and am getting ready to go back on a Gluten Free/Soy Free diet. Invest in an Instant Pot for the ones of you us who don’t like to cook. It’s been so instrumental for me.
Have you been checked for SIBO and SIFO by an Integrative Medicine GI MD or regular GI MD? Also, have your stools checked too by a lab for the above, parasites and candida. You may have improper balance of good and bad bacteria in the intestines.
Eat organic non GMO foods as the GMO foods have round up weed killer in them. This disrupts the gut micro biome…seriously.
Get to a FM MD for a complete blood, stool and urine workup. OAT test is so important to have. Hope this helps.
I feel very frustrated as my mother has this, BUT there is NO WAY Dr will give her anything for stomach acid, I mean it won’t hurt her & might help, I can’t even speak to the dr myself as she goes & tells mum, it would be OK if the dr decided to try it anyway, don’t know till u try it, also she won’t do her a gluten or lactose test, any ideas be good, unless mum buys into it she won’t help herself, if it was me I be pleased to find anything, in the end I think well I gng to enjoy my life & not worry I just suggest to others or sometimes one sister who she will listen to, even one brother said don’t google anything, I feel like saying I know I am one of these people that pick up on stuff & have been told its IBS, he seemed to think may not be as she tired, felt like saying of course she is IBS causes fatigue
For me I found that poor indoor air quality would cause my IBS to flare up.
I have had IBS and Crohn’s diseases for most of my adult life. I grew up in a 250 year old house with hard wood floors and no insulation. My IBS and Crohn’s did not start until I moved to a newer house with wall to wall carpeting and an attic full of fiberglass. It took me 25 years to figure out that the cause of my IBS was toxins in the air. Two years ago I started removing all of the carpeting and fiberglass from my current house. I also replaced all of my cloth furniture. All of my symptoms went away several months after improving the air quality in my home. It has been over a year now without any signs of IBS or Crohn’s. I am convinced that Man Made Mineral Fibers in the air were the cause of my health problems. People always look at what they eat but rarely consider the air they breath.
I’m convinced that preservatives in wheat products are major players in IBS flair ups for some people. I eat basic salted tortillas chips consisting of 3 ingredients and homemade bread without any flair ups. If however I eat processed bread or flour tortillas the IBS appears within 2 days.
Hit ctrl+F and type in ‘anxiety’ and look in the comments section. I guess most answers for IBS can be found there. Even my own gf has IBS, but also, before it developed, she had a very bad depression + anxiety. She still has. But when she relaxes more, gets out of the burned-up state, her symptoms rapidly start getting better. Problem is she never keeps balance in her mental health. If she did, I’m sure she could recover completely…
IBS is caused also by a disruption of the gut flora…please have compassion for those who suffer with anxiety and depression due to the above. I have suffered since high school and earlier with constipation and severe allergies and now autoimmune disease, from a leaky gut and food allergies. Its a nightmare now having fungus lining the gut and stomach because my doctor’s never listened to my symptoms…now its everywhere. I was given numerous broad spectrum antibiotics and never told to take probiotics. Our foods have them in them also glyphosates. Stay away from GMO’s, pesticides, and wheat. The main food allergens and having a leaky gut also over time lead to autoimmune disease. Thank you for understanding.
Paleo diet making IBS worse?! Could it have triggered a FODMAP intolerance? I recently went on a prescribed hypoglycemic diet when I was diagnosed with Fibromyalgia. This doctor believes hypoglycemia can contribute to symptoms of fibromyalgia. My diet was really pretty clean before. Almost paleo, but with addition of rice and properly prepared oats. As part of the new diet, I was told to cut out bananas and sweet potatoes (which seem to benefit my digestion). I am almost two months in to this new way of eating, and while I don’t feel deprived and have a little more energy, I have no relief of pain (which I wasn’t counting on anyway), and have had horrible bloating. Not just from the increased amount of gassy vegetables — but now it seems like everything I eat makes me bloated and very uncomfortable. I hear how all of these diets make most everyone feel so great and I am feeling horrible. I will add that I am eating sweet potatoes again, as they feel soothing to my stomach. Also, I got tested for SIBO recently and while I haven’t met with my naturopath yet, she sent the results which seem to indicate hydrogen-dominant SIBO. Do you have any info on hydrogen-dominant? I only see resources on here for methane-dominant.
I was diagnosed with IBS in 2001. Since then I was diagnosed with celiac as well. When I first cut out gluten I went for almost two years without any problems. But in 2014 the bathroom issues started again. I have diareah most days. I never know when it will hit. I’m mainly home bound. I go out very little. When I do go out I never eat before I leave. Which means some days I don’t eat all day. My main outing is church. My anxiety gets so bad before I go I have to take Xanax before leaving to calm me down. Because I have had many embarrassing accidents. My IBS is literally ruining my life. I now am trying to fix myself after trying every medication you can think of. I’m on the low fodmap diet. I never cheat. I don’t eat ANYTHING with gluten. I never eat fast food or sodas. I never go to restaurants. I don’t eat dairy. I don’t smoke or drink alcohol. I have 1,000-1200 calories a day. Crazy thing is. I’m not losing weight. I’m just so tired of it all.
Do you eat organic only? It is becoming more and more obvious that gluten containing products all have been grown with glyphosate aka roundup. If you don’t eat organic, there is no point to what you are doing. Also look for a good wide spectrum probiotics supplement or eat a lot of different fermented foods and maybe bone broth. It has to do with the wrong balance of bacteria in your gut but also can have an emotional component. Stress management should be at the top of your agenda.. There is no one size fits all unfortunately. You have to try different natural modalities. If possible, grow your own food and only use organic soil base. They say that the soil today has lost most of its nutrient content… so it’s up to us to figure a way to better get those natural antibiotics and anti inflammatory compounds. Diarrhea can also be caused by medications. Good luck with that!
No such thing as organic anymore.
There’s 84,000 different untested chemicals in our environment.
It’s projected that in 31 years, we’ll have fishless oceans.
All the soil, air, and water is connected. The ecosystems are all connected.
Have you had a stool test to determine if you have a bacterial overgrowth? This is where I would start. Go to the Functional Medicine website to look for a doctor, so that they can order the stool test. A GI doctor can do a breath hydrogen test to also determine if you’re a methane or hydrogen gas producer.
Also perhaps you’re not making enough hydrochloric acid in the stomach due to nutritional deficiencies, especially b vitamins. When the gut flora is messed up your gut won’t make b vitamins then the stomach won’t produce HCL acid to break down proteins, and then bacteria enters the stomach and isn’t broken down either and contributes to diarrhea. You need to get a stool test to determine all of these things. And don’t forget the breath hydrogen test. You have to be referred to a GI doctor for this test.
Thats not true, you can see alternative medicine doctors for the SIBO breath test or buy the kit online yourself.
Actually I had the SIBO test done by a medical doctor.
Janet – you just described my life and symptoms. I have the same issues and feel exactly the same way you do. I couldn’t have said it better! It is downright depressing.
Please get checked for SIBO, (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth). You need your stools checked for fat malabsorption and dysbiosis. Also, you will need to go onto a Biphasic diet. If you have SIBO, I am saving you many years of suffering, like I have been through. Find yourself a Functional Medicine MD through the institute for Functional Medicine in your area. I was misdiagnosed and its a very sad story. I also have SIFO (small intestinal fungal overgrowth).
The foods we have eaten have glyphosates (round up in them) and this breaks down the gut micro biome that keeps the bacteria in the digestive tract in balance. Eat on non GMO (genetically modified organisms) organic foods. Look for the USDA organic label on products.
Hope this information has been helpful.
Interesting article,have been dealing with ibs since 1993.Diet and exercise have helped me in controlling pain, nausea and anxiety.High fat,low carb,no sugar diet with,cannabis oil,mustard oil and coconut oil.I use olive oil for cannabis extraction
Hyperthyroidism can also cause IBS….. I had many other symptoms like Graves disease. I am on medication at the moment but is still suffering with anxiety.
You more than likely have SIBO and need a GI doctor to do a breath hydrogen test on you. They will need to encourage the good bacteria and get rid of the bad bacteria.
If you’ve ever taken any antibiotics then this would explain why…especially broad spectrum antibiotics.
Perhaps doing the Autoimmune Paleo Diet would help to calm your anxiety…making Bone Broths and eating fermented vegetables like kimchi, sauerkraut, buttermilk or probiotic yogurt would help to calm the anxiety.
Look into Sarah Ballantyne’s cookbooks and her Autoimmune Paleo Approach Book it explains autoimmune disease and you have autoimmune disease. You can also got to Paleomom.com and ask for her help as well…she ‘s very well educated on autoimmune disease! Good luck to you! You can reverse autoimmune disease and get off of the toxic drugs. You can also look up Dr. Amy Myer’s…The Thyroid connection Autoimmune doctor, who’s written a book called the Thyroid connection…she’s brilliant! She can help you to turn things around and to get off of the drugs by eating a more healthy diet that doesn’t trigger the immune system.
Ann — most of those Paleo ideas would be disastrous for anyone with histamine intolerance, especially bone broth, yogurt, buttermilk and possibly sauerkraut.
I totally believe in your article! Unfortunately in the U.K. The doctors are not very good at dealing with IBS Even professors at hospitals just want you to try hypnotherapy and eat rice crispies and white pasta. I’ve struggled with chron bloating, constipation since i was 27 it really got worse after I had a bad case of food poisoning in South Africa. I never did anything when I got back like taking antibiotics and probiotics. I’ve still never really took many probiotics but have started now on Biokult. I have never had my stools tested would this be a good idea? I also have bad skin psoriasis and I itch when consuming medium to large amounts of sugar I am really struggling to keep a normal life depression certainly is there and I’ve had a tough 5 years since divorcing and a major illness to my ex before we split.
John you should get tested for SIBO with a breath test, that will let you know if you have bad bacteria. I’ve also read alkaline water actually cures IBS so i recommend giving that a read too. Good luck and never give up!
Interesting article. Curious to hear what you think about the new wave of microbiome sequencing in relation to IBS, for example with companies like uBiome, as well as personalized probiotics with companies like Blaise?
IBS-C used to make me depressed. Before I knew how to treat it, the nausea, lethargy and brain fog made everyday harder. However, I do three things that significantly reduce my symptoms and if my stress levels are average (very busy lifestyle right now) they are obsolete.
1) I let myself sleep in whenever I feel a little icky and make an effort to get a good 7-8 hours a night.
2) I grow homemade probiotics. These have changed my life! I ordered a labeless $5 packet of cube-like bacteria from Ebay and keep them in a jar in my kitchen. I feed them sugar water every three days like a pet and drink the water after the three days. They haven’t died (actually have grown) and the benefits are amazing. I finally felt really healthy for the first time since I was a child.
I can give someone instructions if they need them.
3) Avoiding certain foods. The fodmap isn’t what I’m following, I just simply learned what upsets my stomach. Any artificial sweeteners are the worst. I eat very low amounts of anything sweet. I also eat very small amounts of dairy, rice/potatoes and gluten products.
If you’re feeling sick, what worked for me is probiotics, sleep and eating 80% plants. Now that I feel better, I eat some processed crap occasionally but if I feel under the weather, I stick to almost all plants in soups, juices and other simple recipes.
I am interested in your homemade probiotics. What exactly do you order off ebay – labeless $5 packet of cube-like bacteria from Ebay? Couldn’t find it.
probably is waterkefir grains
can you help me? For 2.5 years, have pain in upper left stomach area, just under left rib. When I sleep, it wakes me up. I have to stand and eat something tomake it go away. Sometimes pain wakes me up every hour or so. Found that peaches and carbs work best. If I eat a big meal of rice before I go to sleep, pain goes away for several hours. But always starts around 3 to 5 in morning. Hurts also in left pubic area under stomach sometimes. Gave me so many pain medications and stuff like sim balta. Couple months ago, I decided to stop everything. Even marijuana. Started acupuncture. Pain seems to be reducing but is not gone. Why would eating help me sleep? Why carbs? My medicine now is to eat rice before I sleep. But why is it opposite of what I have been told? I am deaf blind and had cancer when I was 2. Had two fat grafting surgeries to fill right face. Doctors ran every test on GI and say nothing wrong. Why? I also now take advil pm to help me sleep. It used to happen always when I sit. Vut that has seemmed to die away. Only hen I sleep for the most part. What drives me crazy is sleep depravation. Standing makes it go away after ten to thirty minutes. Empty stomach makes it worse than if I eat something before I sleep. Has ruined so many things for me. Need help!
Please go onto the http://www.functionalmedicine.com website and look for an Functional Medicine practitioner that can run some tests on you. This is where you should start….perhaps you can make or purchase some nice bone broth, either chicken or beef. It is very calming to the digestive tract. Stay away from over the counter drugs and products…they will only antagonize things. You have to go back to the basics….like if you were an infant…you have to baby your digestive tract. Try to relax and have faith in knowing you will be ok…stress just causes more digestive issues….get a massage or start meditating on God’s word, the Bible. Hope this information can help you on your journey to recovering your health.
I have read all of your posts and learned a lot. I am a mom to a very sick 14 yo boy. His symptoms started very suddenly in November of 2015….vomiting and diarrhea. I thought it was a stomach virus. 2 weeks later he still had it so took him to Pediatrician. They did a stool test and he was found positive for H Pylori, put on antibiotics and Omeprazole and referred to Ped. Gastro. By mid December he had lost about 25 lbs!! Jan 2016, he was scoped by the Gastro and said negative for H. Pylori and there were no other concerns except she said he had Gastritis and that he appeared to have bruising inside his intestines she thought from all the vomiting. Told to stay on Omeprazole, but over the next few months symptoms crept back. By April or so of 2016 symptoms slowly started to creep back until they were full blown again by October of 2016. Daily nausea, diarrhea, vomitting, missing school, sports, everything! I called my Adult Gastro and begged him to see my son. Gastro scoped and had him do a timed digestion test. Negative for everything including H Pylori. Gastro Rx’d a round of Xifaxin and told us he likely had IBSD. He was SO MUCH BETTER after taking 14 days of this antibiotic! Really after 4 days it was a miracle. Here we are AGAIN, a few months later, Feb 2017 and slowly the symptoms are creeping back about twice a week. He never feels well and wants to nap a lot. Well today he vomited as he got to school and I had to go pick him up!! I am at a loss. I will share with you that I have 3 kids and he is my middle and has always been sick with something. Ive always said he has a poor immune system. He gets every cold, every strep that goes around. He had strep 6 times in 1 year!! My husband, my self and the other 2 kids are really never sick! I am in Arkansas, but will search the link to try to find a FM Doctor we can see. I also wanted to note that we eat healthy. No fast foods. What we cook though he NEVER wants to eat. He refuses vegetables so I give him fruits instead. He will eat baked potatoes and meat but it sounds like on these posts that white potatoes are really bad. Please help!! He has lost friends because he never feels like doing anything. Its concerning too that he hasnt gained back but 4 lbs of the 25 he lost in 2015, but has grown MUCH taller so he just looks so frail and sick.
Start reading up on wormwood and SIBO. Look for reliable sources and find hopefully direction. Look for the NIH study that says it rivals Xifaxin! It’s even been approved by FDA for Chron’s as well. It was very effective at getting rid of SIBO and Candida for me. It has incredible newly found actions. In 12/2016 & 1/2017 clinical publications revealed actions of helping type 1 diabetics to begin reproduction of insulin…THAT is a huge breakthrough. I’m following all the intense research coming out on this herb, Artemisin aka Wormwood. I wish you and your son very well!
Here is the NIH study using Wormwood to treat SIBO.