Three Eggs a Day Keep the Doctor Away! | Chris Kresser

Three Eggs a Day Keep the Doctor Away!

by Chris Kresser

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The persistent myth that cholesterol causes heart disease has scared many of us away from eating eggs on a regular basis. But there is absolutely no research that links egg consumption to heart disease.

A recent review of the scientific literature published in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care clearly indicates that egg consumption has no discernible impact on blood cholesterol levels in 70% of the population. In the other 30% of the population (termed “hyperresponders”), eggs do increase both circulating LDL and HDL cholesterol.

You’ve probably been conditioned to believe that anything that raises LDL cholesterol (so-called “bad” cholesterol) should be avoided like the plague. But recent research suggests that it’s not the amount of cholesterol in an LDL particle (a.k.a. LDL cholesterol, or LDL-C) that drives heart disease risk, but instead the number of LDL particles in the bloodstream.

If anything, egg consumption is likely to protect against heart disease because it increases the proportion of large, buoyant LDL particles. Larger LDL particles can carry more cholesterol, which means fewer particles are needed overall. In other words, egg consumption may decrease LDL particle concentration, which is the most significant risk factor for heart disease.

Eggs one of the most nutrient-dense foods available. One egg provides 13 essential nutrients, all in the yolk (contrary to popular belief, the yolk is far higher in nutrients than the white).

Eggs are an excellent source of B vitamins, which are needed for vital functions in the body, and also provide good quantities of vitamin A, essential for normal growth and development.

The vitamin E in eggs protects against heart disease and some cancers; eggs also contain vitamin D, which promotes mineral absorption and good bone health.

Eggs are rich in iodine, for making thyroid hormones, and phosphorus, essential for healthy bones and teeth.

Eggs are also good sources of antioxidants known to protect the eye. Therefore, increased plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in individuals consuming eggs are also of interest, especially in those populations susceptible to developing macular degeneration and eye cataracts.

There’s absolutely no reason to limit your consumption of eggs to three to four per week, as recommended by “heart-healthy” nutritional guidelines. In fact, consuming two to three eggs per day would provide a better boost to your health and protection against disease than a multivitamin supplement. Eggs truly are one of nature’s superfoods.

It’s important, however, to make sure that you buy organic, pasture-raised eggs. Studies show that commercially-raised eggs are up to 19 times higher in pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids. Unfortunately, almost all eggs sold in supermarkets – even the organic eggs sold at chains such as Whole Foods and Wild Oats – are not truly pasture-raised. To find these eggs, check your local farmer’s market or visit the Eat Wild website to locate a source in your area.

To read more about heart disease and cholesterol, check out the special report page.

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  1. Isn’t it a good point to make a difference between cooked egg consumption and raw??.

    Everyone focuses on cholesterol, but why blame a firefighter for being near a fire?.
    I would focus on inflammation instead.
    Lowering cholesterol should be a consequence, not an end 🙂 .

    I’ve had a good impact on cholesterol (in my body at least) by consuming raw foods, lots of raw egg yolks, raw milk, lots of oranges and fasting at least twice a week.
    In my situation changing the way of eating eggs has made a HUGE difference, before i used to cook them in butter and avoid fruit.. As soon as i stopped doing that it turned the whole matter around for me.

    My 2 cents.
    Thanks for the great comments 🙂

  2. Thanks for your illuminating and evidence based comments to this discussion. Perhaps you will apply your statistical knowledge better in future. Three cheers to an egg free life.

    • The people that continue to defend egg consumption constantly bring up cholesterol.
      The people that avoid eggs often cite the animal protein risks and the choline. Bottom line is what happens to your gut bacteria and the studies relative to prostate cancer and egg consumption.
      You see a difference there?????
      Now concerning cholesterol….Likely that consuming cholesterol in moderation is not going to have a big impact on your blood level. However, my problem is that most cholesterol studies look at people in a range of 180 to 250. Whereas the heart safe zone is below 150 and especially a LDL of around 70.
      Comment till you are blue in the face, I am not eating meat, fish, eggs, salt or processed foods.
      Have a great day!

      • Isn’t it a good point to make a difference between cooked egg consumption and raw??.

        Everyone focuses on cholesterol, but why blame a firefighter for being near a fire?.
        I would focus on inflammation instead.
        Lowering cholesterol should be a consequence, not an end 🙂 .

        I’ve had a good impact on cholesterol (in my body at least) by consuming raw foods, lots of raw egg yolks, raw milk, lots of oranges and fasting at least twice a week.
        In my situation changing the way of eating eggs has made a HUGE difference, before i used to cook them in butter and avoid fruit.. As soon as i stopped doing that it turned the whole matter around for me.

        My 2 cents.
        Thanks for the great comments 🙂

  3. Hi Chris,

    What’s your take regarding cooking eggs? Per Dr.Mercola’s blog, he advises against cooked eggs as it oxidizes the cholesterol & renders the egg harmful to your health. Any evidence to support that cooking eggs makes them harmful?

  4. Hi Chris ,

    I read a globe and Mail article saying that eggs do not higher the chance of heart disease and stroke . They said it does increase the chances of developing type 2 diabetes by 69% .

    My 1 year old is obsessed with scrambled eggs . I’ve been scrambling her 1 per day for the past month and if i miss a day she is not happy .

    where did you get your info from ? I really don’t want to stop giving her happy breakfast. Please tell me

  5. I have 271 mg/dl cholestetol, normal is less than 200, my LDL is 193 mg/dl, normal is less than 130, my HDL is 57, normal is greater than 35. With this lab result, is it safe for me to eat 3 pro organic eggs a day? I am 56 yo. Please enligthen me on this. Many thanks everyone?

  6. Sadly the overriding message here that will be picked up by people is go right ahead and eat eggs. Most people will be unable to afford that sub section of eggs that are not harmful nor will they be able to consistently source them so why take the risk. You can get everything you need from a whole food plant based diet with a Vit B12 supp’. Its cheap and is proven to lower risk of heart disease and other major chronic diseases.

  7. Hey Guys,

    New science says, there is scant information whether dietary cholesterol raises blood cholesterol levels…

    Some try to say, about 30% seem to have high cholesterol from foods high in cholesterol!!! Most science is now focusing on the liver output of cholesterol, meaning there is an imbalance in the body.

    To justify the 30% hypothesis, lets suggest that those 30% have a sugar problem. Sugar is known to not only mess with Cholesterol but with LDL, HDL, and triglycerides.

    A bold statement is still being avoided by the FDA regarding a reversal on their cruel elimination of healthy and nutrient dense foods because of (fill in the blanks. i.e. Pharmaceuticals, sense of failing the public, etc…)

    Wait and see. Vitamin D was seen as a myth 10 years ago when CAM doctors were pushing it, now it’s all over the medical news.

    In the meantime, I’ll stick with what makes sense, not dictates from doctors than want to rob my health instead of sustaining it. BTW, just a few years ago, the FDA started warning about too little cholesterol???


  8. It would be prudent to check if you are in the 30% of high responders. It is pretty simple take a cholesterol test and then for 5 days or so have plenty of eggs for breakfast. I did this along with liver twice during the week and my LDL shot from 2.8 mmol to 4.0 mmol. Now if this happens and you really want to be sure then also check your particle size but if cost is a problem then LDL count is often concordant with size so simply stay of eggs and cholesterol laden foods. Check out the blue zone areas who live longer than anybody else free of disease. Do they eat eggs ?

  9. One egg, two eggs, 3 eggs, 4. I like eggs so please give me some more!! lol

    No matter what topic it is everything has it’s pros and cons. Do what you feel is best for you. I eat eggs every day. I eat 2-3 hard boiled eggs daily and I am just fine.

  10. Of course three eggs a day will keep the doctor away, because you’ll be in the grave. I mean what’s the point of checking the cholesterol of a corpse? Three eggs a day, land in the grave, thanks Chris! Glad to kill a few more brain cells reading your stuff.

    • I eat three eggs a day and quite alive and well! 🙂

      I know this is an old article, but I couldn’t resist. I hope we’ve all learned that cholesterol foods do not give us cholesterol problems.

      • Yea and cigarettes don’t cause lung cancer, Hitler didn’t kill Jews, and Carthage won the Punic Wars. Forget those “experts” from the Canadian Heart Association, British Medical Society, American Heart Association, Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic, WHO who’ve all claimed through scientific tests and reasoning that dietary cholesterol is bad for you. Can I buy drugs from you? Just because you’re alive doesn’t mean you’re alive and well. An alcoholic is alive but isn’t healthy and neither is a chain smoker or paraplegic.

      • Good for you! My cholesterol labs are super, as well, with a daily egg AND bacon breakfast.

        Those disagreeing with Chris must be upset because they have a deficiency–llikely from omitting certain food groups. Tsk-tsk.

        • Good for me indeed! I rarely have eaten eggs (haven’t eaten any in a decade) and my lung capacity, IQ, cholesterol, vitamin and mineral levels, amongst other things are better than normal. But keep eating those eggs so you can get an early grave. By the way eggs are a food, not a food group, although if one wants to increase acne problems and other things than they should consume eggs and dairy products. Cigarettes are healthy right?

          • “…my lung capacity, IQ, cholesterol, vitamin and mineral levels, amongst other things are better than normal.”
            Good for you; but how about ‘attitude,’ good Sir?

            • Dont waste your time with Jordan Perttu,


              For all that he listed…no one can prove cause and effect.. People who are vegan still gets cancer. a person who do-sent smoke get lung cancer and those who eat eggs like bodybuilders in the past are still alive…don’t look at those who take steroids on the side…and yes he should read updated findings…and yes its hard for these big companies and organization to swallow their error….you have to admit, if a single answer is accepted by all….there wouldn’t be the need for research facility and off the shelve product like whey protein or soy protein base product….everyone would just head down to the nearest store and get a dozen eggs..the only point worth mentioning is where to get eggs from..

              • Egg’s are 100% BV, and are the food all other foods are judged by, their simply is no nutritional substitute for eggs and cooking them destroys the non oxidized cholesterol, lipids, collagen and many other beneficial nutrients in them, look up current dated information, you can eat 4-6 eggs a day raw, but Not cooked, and as far as cooking the egg whites why waste your time, blend em up with ice and a banana make a really nice shake, induce oral tolerance and feel great

              • I get emails from a local Veggie/vegan society and I always refuse to go along to there get togethers because they generally serve crap in amongst the great healthy food they consume. In many cases their sugar consumption is as high as the average obese brit or amercian. Having said that plant based is the way to go.

          • You are just like the people who go on the “Tattooed Women” website and talk about how bad they all look and will look when they are older. If you are against eating eggs go ahead and enjoy your egg-free life. Why get so angry? Maybe if you gave in and enjoyed a nice meal with eggs you wouldn’t be so cranky.

            • Lol, veganism often infects its hosts with such bad attitudes! A horrible affliction.

              I eat 4 eggs a day scrambled with virgin unrefined coconut oil and it has incredible health benefits so I’m going to stick with it.

              It’s the cereals I worry about…

              • Lol i’ve been almost vegan/fruitarian for 3 months.
                During the last month one of my teeth got completely rotten from inside, was also pretty tired most of the time.
                The only things there were good were the bowel movements!.

                Switched to raw egg yolks and raw milk and the situation changed drastically.

                Strangely i had no problem until last year, when i started consuming butter fried egg white along with the yolk.
                Had like 6 eggs at a time.
                Also eaten plenty of sugary stuff and processed garbage.
                my cholesterol went up like crazy, both LDL and total.

                Why i think it is weird? because aside from the garbage I was eating the same amount of egg yolks, but i was eating it raw.. and that time I did not have any impact on my total cholesterol or LDL.

                Switched back to raw egg yolks and raw milk, in 3 months gonna repeat my blood test and will see what the situation is.. my big suspect is the inflammation caused by processed (both cooked and processed) foods, whey protein powder too.
                let’s see!.

    • I’ve eaten three to four eggs a day for the past 4 years or so. My cholesterol is actually below normal. That being said, I do not eat meat, and would not recommend my consumption to the average person. Do what you want and get your levels checked every once in a while. Everyone’s unique and will handle foods differently.

  11. In order to tell the difference if egg is bad or good for any individual is simply to go on a diet which contain eggs for 2 weeks or more while avoiding other food that contains bad cholesterol. i mean to be realistic…how do you know which food you consume is raising the bad cholesterol….i found out the easy way which was adopt a vegan lifestyle for month while taking only eggs as my protein source.but before doing it i had my blood drawn and know what the result were so to compare after consuming eggs daily a minimum of 4. my ldl was lower than the margin at 2.3. and to answer some of the previous post, vegan have about the same mortality rate as non vegan. what was missing is omega 3 it their diet….there is a vid on YouTube about it. and if conclusion states that eating eggs daily is safe and opposite than what was known…breakfast would be easier cheaper and natural…compared to drinking protein drink and bars. especially if you’re an athlete or involve in sports.

    • Uh right lets listen to youtube about “factual evidence” while we’re at it lets listen to an oil company executive about the existence of climate change. Also, there have been countless studies showing that non-vegans have higher mortality rates than non-vegans. Also, the more vegan a country is the higher expectancy they have (WHO, CIA, etc.).

      • Jordan ,
        , if you don’t agree , I find it somewhat odd that you are on here ,
        Or like a lot of narsassistic negative, big mouthed people , do you find a deep seated need to climb upon any soapbox , where there is a crowed gatherd and put forward “your” opinion , but not only put it forward actuall “push” your opinion onto people who truth be told , skip right over your rant the moment they see your name,

  12. HI,

    Im 6.6ft in height .. im 80kg’s, and Look too lean for my height. I want to putton weight .. so i started working out . and eating 6eggs a day… is this safe ? i feel good about my eggs in my deit as it make me fell full.

    please suggest… if this is the wrigh way to consume eggs… im doing 6 a day now …. boiled some time raw

      • TDDFT_4_lyf: Rude. Not everyone speaks English as their 1st language. Ian was asking a reasonable question. Try to be a semi-decent human being and not such a schmuck.

        Ian: Many have used multiple eggs a day to add muscle. As the article states at the end, make sure your eggs are truly organic and pastured, so you get the full health benefits. Local eggs from reputable neighbors is often a good source, or, if you can, have some fun and get 2 or 3 chickens yourself for your backyard. They take up very little space and are a fun and easy hobby.

    • Yes i have been taking 4-6 eggs a day and i drink green tea daily…i just had my blood work done and my bad cholesterol was 2.3 which is good. but i don’t eat beef burgers or steaks…mainly fish and chicken…to know if its safe for a week eat eggs but skip the usual suspects that would elevate you bad cholesterol…and have a blood work done before you start(so that you know its not the eggs) and after a week or 2(to see if eating eggs makes your lld high)….if you have high bad cholesterol…drink green tea and take oats regularly.

    • I used to eat 5 a day, raw, now I eat 4, but added 2 bananas and ice yogurt, great blend, and great for Arthritis as well, I just wash em off toss em in shell and all, get the benefits of the best most digestable calcium with the most Nutritious food on the planet !

  13. You totally Failed on the post comparing Vegan vs Protein and foods in USA vs say Laos, while everything on the chart is correct ( the one thing that is not on the chart is the fact that here in the US we live nearly 20 years longer, thus failing that any Vegan diet’s can possibly warrent merit’s,
    Challange post a list of Vegan’s that are not sick from some form of collagnetic condition, that have been Vegan for 15 years or longer, if they are still alive ?

  14. I could type on the benefits of eating Raw Whole Shell and all Egg’s all day long and the benefits of them but I will give you something better
    1st, FDA CFR 2010 finalized Aug 2012, on egg’s look it up, commercial eggs are as good as any other, in fact organic-free range might have open doors to the barn but the chickens are standing in lines to get to the food and watering troughs,
    2nd, the calcium carbonate in egg’s shells contain 27 nutrients that help your blood transport needed calcium, (as you need it not liquified acid calciums)
    3rd nothing older than Aug 2012 is of any benefits on egg contaminations due to FDA intervention, more contaminations take place by the people fondeling the eggs and using dirty hands and utinsiles or counter tops, Eggs are sterile, (we buy them in shrink wrapped cases to no be exposed to dirty fondleing hands of other shoppers)
    4-Egg’s are the nutritional super food by which All other foods are judged by, – period
    lastly I eat 6 raw whole eggs a day, I wash the shells off toss in blender with bananas and ice, suit to taste, be careful of adding junk like ice cream, carmel, espcially vanalla or coconut this makes the whole drink just taste way to good and you might want 3 more,
    5- final note, the Egg’s shell inner membrane contains collagen type 1, lesser 3,4,5,&10 collagen types, but this will help you in the inflamation catigory and you just might see your skin and over all health improver if your are over 30, as we slow way down on collagen production as we age, complex to state (could write a book on it ) but we replicat collagen from the egg’s shell membrane in our pryors patch’in our gut, amazing, (this is why athletes quit by age 40 or so ) here is final note and it is a link for any with auto immune conditions and it helps a LOT !!!

    5 egg’s a day as my HS coach said, he was in his 60’s then and could out pace us! enjoy !! meal in a shell, used to eat em at the farm when collecting them and off to school

    • i’m 40 and i too have been eating an average of 4 eggs(breakfast) a day since 2009. but 1 thing i have to point out the egg white has to be cooked or is not absorbed by the body 100%. Do some reading on this

    • Sisca,

      I’m afraid your comment towards me is the only one that’s off topic.

      My original comments contain a number of points about health. I also examined the biological plausibility of eating the period of another species, an important step in deciding the health effects of what we eat. ‘Fff’ took issue with this, so it warranted further clarification.

      It seems you’re quite bothered by what an egg really is. If this is the case, perhaps you should reconsider eating them.

  15. A lot of studies being cited here, and as is usually the case the studies are conducted poorly with little to no information on food consumption combinations, such as animal protein and simple sugars.
    Simply test any food on yourself, within 60 days you should be able to tell if it is detrimental to your health.
    I eat six eggs every day and I’m perfectly healthy, but I should point out that I do not consume any type of refined (man made or altered) sugar, sweetener, or condiment. Also, I consume about three cups per day of plants. For me, this works very well. I rarely if ever get sick, and along with daily exercise keep the body fat level around 10%.
    Instead of bickering over random incomplete studies, try it for yourself and have your physician test your blood a few times per year, this coupled with the way you feel, day in and day out is an excellent gauge of what will work for you.

  16. Do these egg benefits apply to seniors? For example, can we recommend to parents/relatives in their sixties that they add eggs to their diet (assuming normal health)? Not sure if, at this age, our body begins to handle cholesterol-rich foods differently from our younger years. Thanks!

    • Un fortunatlly for those of us past our 40’s we need to eat more raw egg’s as the shell’s membrane really only contains about 50mg of collagens we need, so yes need to watch that age ticking by and increase accordingly or face the plastic surgen or worse

  17. I have been told that if you break the yolk during cooking you loose all the health benefits of eating the egg.
    Is this a valid assumption?

  18. May I ask, is it still beneficial to eat eggs from supermarkets dispite it has 19 times more omega 6 than pasture-raised eggs?

    Where I live is very hard to find pasture-raised eggs… thanks


      this is the best research information I could find to illustrate the significance of getting Phosphatidylcholine from eggs.
      I believe if you can find the time to watch this short video you will be amazed with the properties of egg-PC…. Yet, if you see my pervious comments to Jeremy, I think cooking destroys the benefits of egg-PC.
      Chris I have only recently begun to read your information. Thanks for doing such a great job…

    • Thanks for the link Steve. A great summary of the other side of this discussion. What stood out to me was that:

      “The collective analysis of forty-four studies, separated over 400,000 participants into groups who consumed less than 3, 3-5, or greater than 5 eggs per week. …For colon cancer specifically, the less than 3 and 3-5 eggs per week groups had similar increases in risk—about 15 percent—and the group eating more than 5 eggs per week had a 42 percent increase in risk.”

      Even if you don’t have faith in Dr. Fuhrman as you put it, the other 16 sources he cited, plus the aggregate analysis of 44 studies is hard to ignore. I’d be nervous about 3 eggs a week let alone 3 eggs a day as Chris recommends.

      For me the risk associated with eggs far exceeds the benefit of the nutrients they provide. Besides, there’s nothing eggs provide that can’t be equally if not better provided from other (Ideally plant-based) sources.

      If anyone can think of nutrients we have to get from eggs that makes the risk worth taking I’m all ears 😉

      • Jeremy,
        Perhaps eggs can only be eaten raw since “possibly” protein and fats are changed in the cooking process. Plus, I don’t eat the whites since anti nutrients are within the whites. If you cook the whites the biological properties of Avidin are incapacitated. Hmm, if this is true about this protein it would only make sense that other protein lose their biological activity as well…the egg yolk seems so malleable prior to cooking. Yet, it becomes a brick with no plasticity and is no longer water soluble. Just a few observations…

      • Hi Jeremy – Iodine that’s what I eat 3 egg yolks a day for and not the whites because I suspect leaky gut, Jade

        • Hi Jade,

          Thank you for your comment.

          I agree iodine is important, but there are plenty of other sources to get it. For example, 1/4 of a gram of dried seaweed gives 100% of your daily allotment, as does 2 grams of fortified salt. Iodine is in a lot of the foods we eat every day.

          Eating eggs doesn’t just give you iodine. It gives you heart disease and stroke causing saturated fat as well as cancer causing cholesterol. Personally I’ll take my seaweed and salt, etc for my source of iodine 😉

          There’s simply no nutrient we need to eat eggs in order to get. Eggs cause more harm than good to us, not to mention the hundreds of millions of male chicks that are killed within 3 days of birth each year just because they are unable to produce profit for the egg industry.

          Best of luck in your pursuit of health.


          • So it’s actually about the male chicks , well here in NZ we send the males to farms to become meat so all good yeh , wast not want not 🙂

          • Cholesterol doesn’t cause cancer, cholesterol is needed to make hormones. Everything in moderation people, if you can just stay away from processed foods, and any ingredient label that has questionable ingredients you will be fine!

      • Since Egg’s are the Food the USA’s FDA and EU bases all other food’s nutritional values against (thus putting eggs as the most nutritious food you can eat) What would you suggest swapping to somthing worse than the best ?

      • we blend 6 egg’s raw, and whole shell’s and all 3 for breakfast and 3 at bedtime with 1-2 bannanas and cup of ice, the egg is the #1 food by which all other foods are compaired to and nutritional values are established by, 3 a week, body builders will down a carton a day – best protien -period, I would not recommend starting at that many, start with 1 in am and 1 at bed time, increase ever few weeks, you naturlly make cholestrol, it is needed , and as you increase the eggs in your diet you will make less, body adjusting and the such,

  19. Thanks all for u r comments, but I m scared. I m of 6 feet height n i m weighing 62kg. To increase my body mass I m drinking 24 raw eggs with milk everyday. Please guide me.

  20. Discarding scientific evidence as “myth” is highly misleading. Here’s a chart showing the relationship between animal protein (Eggs) and disease. (

    More specifically, The American Heart Association challenged a similar statement in a 1971 lawsuit. The end result after the egg industry spent as much as they could on lawyers was Judge Ernest G. Barnes ruling:

    “There exists a substantial body of competent and reliable scientific evidence that eating eggs increases the risk of heart attacks or heart disease… This evidence is systematic, consistent, strong and congruent. (

    Please don’t do the egg industry’s work for them and tell people to eat more of something that’s killing us.

  21. Ridiculous how comments focus on the cholesterol in eggs when it has been known for a long time that is not the problem.
    If there is a problem with eggs it is animal protein and choline.
    Maybe like meat it is creating bad bacteria in the colon vs the good bacteria formed by consuming vegetables.
    What is needed is more research but meanwhile you should limit egg consumption to no more than two per week according to some studies.

  22. So, in essence, you can lose weight without exercising ‘ but it’s kind of a waste of time. Leptopril is an OTC v3 diet pill that can be purchased from most drug stores along with Wal-Mart.

  23. Hi there,

    I was consulted to take 2-3 eggs before hitting gym. But i’m worried about one thing, since eggs are laid by female chickens, taking eggs with estrogen as daily routine wouldn’t effect anything in males(human)? Such as decrease in testosterone productivity or unusual changes for future entity from same family.

    Waiting for your response. Thank you.


  24. How can we check the PUFA or MUFA profile of certain eggs so we know which to get? I looked at so many different brands (at the regular supermarket and at health food places), and I could NOT find one brand that listed the PUFA or MUFA content or ratio. They only list the total fat content and saturated fat content? Is it sufficient enough to just pick an organic brand that is pasture-raised and assume that they have a 4:1 MUFA to PUFA ratio?

  25. Good information on heart disease ruined by recommendation to eat eggs. I’ve done leading edge cardiovascular testing, measuring heart rate variability and ANS function with pulse wave analysis (accelerated photoplethysmography) on hundred of people of all ages in both the US and Finland. My undocumented observation is that the big egg eaters do not test well. My documented before and after screenings show that when we take them off eggs they test better. A minuscule amount of people in the developed world has access to “clean eggs”. Chicken and egg farming is gross Biz. Poor advice on an otherwise useful series of articles. Why are you not teaching people about the endothelium? And how to keep it healthy? That’s the leading edge of cardiovascular care. Not eggs!

  26. Hi there,

    I was consulted to take 2-3 eggs before hitting gym. But i’m worried about one thing, since eggs are laid by female chickens, taking eggs with estrogen as daily routine wouldn’t effect anything in males(human)? Such as decrease in testosterone productivity or unusual changes for future entity from same family.

    Waiting for your response. Thank you.


  27. Yeah, the quality of this science is neatly epitomized by the statement that eggs are a good source of lutein. Eggs are a minuscule source of lutein–and what they have comes from feeding laying chickens lutein-rich plants like marigolds specifically in order to get some lutein into eggs, in order to enable the egg industry and naive advocates like Kresser to say that eggs are a great source of lutein. They’re not; a few leafs of spinach, or virtually any green, has more than half a dozen eggs.

  28. Is there concern that eating eggs (especially whites) can contribute to inflammation for those with leaky gut? Something I’m very interested in as I exhibit autoimmune symptoms (skin conditions, low grade inflammation, constantly running nose/watery eyes) but I love my eggs.

    Is it worth cutting them out to see if some of the autoimmune symptoms improve?

    • I’d love to hear others responses about this too. In the last few months, I’ve added back eggs (had previously avoided them for years)..They’re organic and from pastured hens.. I upped them to two/day for two weeks… One week ago, I developed a hip problem that feels inflammatory. I’ve now stopped the eggs totally to see if there’s any shift… I am very cautious with inflammatory foods in general…. no grains, soaking and dehydrating nuts and seeds, fermented veggies, no added sugar, lots of dark greens… everything pretty much organic… perhaps too many nuts and seeds.. don’t know…. hoping it was the going from one egg to two.

    • Yes it is worth trying to cut them out to see if they stop, I cut them out for a month and now when I eat them I notice that I get an itchy throat.

  29. Gosh!! And if most of American GI’s that had autopsies done during Vietnam and Korean wars and were between ages of 19-24. Yikes all with advanced ATHERSCLEROCIS. I mere blood lipid test only tells what’s floating in your arteries at that moment. The GI’s all had advanced heart disease yes at 19!!
    So if you can convinnce mankind to the actual condition and health of ones arteries ie: diseased say by the age of 45—- convince to eat 3-6 eggs a day? If you had heart disease can you arrest and reverse it eating like this?? I would love the knowledge to know. I was eating grass fed eggs 3 a day and coconut oil lots of veggies and fruit— no simple carbs, sugar etc and my blood pressure and cholesterol levels went up through the roof! Stopped doing it and everything is normal with blood pressure at 110 / 70 and feel so much better and NO I do not use oils in my diet as most are rancid and treated with hexane gas.
    Please– any comments.

  30. Hi, Chris. I eat eggs from pastured hens almost every day for breakfast. I love them! But I recently read a older post on MDA, in which Sisson warns against eating eggs so regularly. He people who eat eggs every day run the risk of developing an allergy to them. Do you agree?

    • No, allergies to egg’s are mostly from cooking them, people that are allergic knowingly so, should avoid – obviously but some reports have shown that while allergic to cooked they were not allergic to raw, cooking anything changes its structures, put a flame to a sheet of paper if you have any doubts

  31. I am wondering if you agree it is safe to feed a 1yr old child a 3-1/2 minute cooked egg yolk? Is there much risk of salmonella or other contamination?
    I also read your article on the safety of raw milk. Do you believe raw milk is safe for young toddlers (1-2yrs old), or best fed only to older children?

  32. I am curious if you recommend eating eggs raw or cooked for the most nutritional value. I have read differing opinions on the bioavailabilty of cooked vs. raw egg protein, in particular.

  33. I don’t see how it’s practical at all to get eggs for most folks at anywhere but the grocery store. In my case, where I don’t really have the time to make dozens of trips all over my region to get food, would it be better just to avoid eggs all together then?

  34. I eat 3 eggs with my breakfast and was wondering if this were harmful so I decided to look and see. What I have learned explains why I seek them. See I am a school bus driver and need to maintain good vision, most especially I need the b vitamins since the job admittly comes with it’s share of stress. I find that getting 30 min of exercize each day helps most with stress and cardio vascular health.

  35. i am eating 6 eggs a day its part of the bodybuilding program i was intorduced to, im 17 . is that a problem?

    • Not a problem if you do not care about your health. You do not need as much protein as you might think if you would get good protein from avocado, nuts, seeds, beans and vegetables.

      • People need to be very careful about eating certain legumes, grains, nuts, seeds, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and other plants that are improperly prepared by not being soaked, sprouted, fermented and/or cooked first. The various techniques all depend on the type of food source and the types of Anti-nutrients contained in each.

        These techniques are done to drastically reduce toxins that are naturally produced within the plant, which came about in the plant’s evolution to assist themselves in proper germination as well as to ward off any persistent predators.

        Cooking alone does not always reduce several Anti-nutrients to any meaningful degree. They can then go on to hinder reproductive health, exacerbate cancers and inflammatory conditions, slowly poison the body with harmful substances and create other auto-immune responses that ensures the plants remain intact long enough to procreate without being eaten to extinction.

        While legumes, grains, nuts, seeds, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and other plants can be particularly nutrient-dense and store highly beneficial nutritional content, Anti-nutrient substances like Phytates, Lectins, Saponins, Haemagglutinates, Oxalic Acid and a wide combination of other toxins within them can be very dangerous to our various bodily systems when eaten to excess, unless they have been properly prepared beforehand. The bad effects can accumulate over time and they are very difficult for the body to assimilate or remove if the offending foods keep being eaten.

        Raw/underprepared grains and legumes contain some of the highest concentrations of Anti-nutrients in the plant food family. Don’t just take my word for it – Science can demonstrate repeatedly the adverse workings of these humble foods that we can take for granted. Some Anti-nutrients are noted to have a beneficial effect on the body in small doses and a large proportion of indigenous and many old Western peoples had an innate understanding of how to prepare certain raw foods prior to eating them.

        Nowadays, industrially-produced food typically can simply forsake preparation for other perceived gains, despite the deleterious effect on population health and well-being. This means that many manufactured foods, even ones touted as “Healthy” or a “Superfood”, are usually feeding people with excess Anti-nutrients and are implicated in particular chronic health problems the world over. If your diet includes a high amount of grains or legumes, be especially careful. Legumes include peas, beans, soybeans and peanuts among others, while grains include wheat, corn, rice, oats and barley among others.

        Certain animals can instinctively avoid them, as the naturally-occurring chemical defences are known to have a dangerous effect on the health of those eating them. Some Anti-nutrients will steal or block the essential elements, trace elements & minerals required for healthy metabolism. Others will shut down, mimic or damage cellular processes that can affect the muscles, bones, organs (including brain), blood and skin… My own body has indicated to me on numerous occasions that certain edible plants are to be left alone or at least enjoyed in minimal quantities.

        Our bodies are very capable of letting us know what hurts them or if they encounter deficiencies in our health, but we are often so busy in our outside lives that we often ignore both the subtle and the glaringly obvious inside of us. Knowledge is power and it is your best defence against keeping you safe from the multitude of dangers out there, even in your foods. Viewing the research and having a basic understanding of the biology behind it, that is why I am now a former Vegan and reverting back to a more healthful Vegetarianism.

        By the way, eggs are brilliant. Free-roaming, pasture-fed, organic eggs are even better. Chickens are supposed to eat small animals (especially insects), grasses, certain fruits/vegetables and a small number of grains that make their unfertilised eggs a wonderful addition to the human diet. Instead, our food industries give them a heavy diet of grains, legumes or even other chickens ground up into their meal. As I speak, there are no eggs for sale at my local supermarket that are exclusively free range, pasture-fed and organic… yet. And the ones that come close normally command a great premium too.

        I would happily eat three a day, as long as I know that the animals they come from are not being mistreated, neglected or made ill just because I’m hungry.

        • First I applaud your pursuit to find the most healthy and ethical diet you can.

          Continuing with that spirit, I would like to share my perspective with a few of your claims. Specifically:

          Chris: “I would happily eat three a day, as long as I know that the animals they come from are not being mistreated, neglected or made ill just because I’m hungry.”

          Jeremy: As you acknowledged, this is extremely difficult when you said, “There are no eggs for sale at my local supermarket that are exclusively free range, pasture-fed and organic.”

          Eggs from happy well cared for animals simply do not exist. Specific examples include:

          –> How male chicks are treated. These non-egg laying bi-products of the industry are tossed into the trash or ground up in rendering machines while they are still alive calling out for their mothers.
          –> Females have the tips of their beaks cut off while they are fully conscious.
          –> When females stop producing eggs after 1-2 years they are sent to slaughter, even though they would live to be 15-20 years old.

          Free range eggs do not change this cycle of violence.

          From a health perspective eating eggs, from any source, still contains animal protein. It has been evidenced extensively that animal protein is one of the primary causes to being overweight or dying from heart disease, cancer, etc. There’s no such thing as healthy meat, dairy and eggs, just like there’s no such thing as healthy cigarettes.

          Chris: “…that is why I am now a former Vegan and reverting back to a more healthful Vegetarianism.”

          Jeremy: Vegetarianism is neither more healthful or more ethical than veganism. The dairy industry is part of the same machine that produces meat. Specific examples include:

          –> Male calfs. Similar to male chicks on an egg farm, male calves are considered useless as they cannot produce milk. As a result they are turned into veal, one of the most horrific practices in existence. This industry would not exist without the dairy industry. Female cows have to give birth to produce milk and their calves don’t simply disappear.
          –> Female Cows only produce milk for 3-7 years. After this they are sent to slaughter, which contributes to 90% of the hamburger meat, even though they could live from 18-25 years. The consumption of dairy products supports this cycle.
          –> Conditions in modern dairy farms aren’t dissimilar to those in factory farms. I’m happy to provide video evidence to further substantiate this if need be.

          These animals live horrific lives, regardless of what trigger word such as “free range” or “organic” is put on the packaging. Additionally, there are no nutrients that animal protein provides (Including dairy and eggs) that isn’t sufficiently if not better provided by plant-based protein.

          Getting a bit more literal, milk and cheese is the lactic discharge from another species. Eggs are the discharge from a hen’s period which comes straight from their backside. (That’s right, only one hole) There’s nothing natural, necessary, or justifiable about vegetarianism over veganism. I welcome your comments to the contrary.

          I encourage you to keep up the fight of being a vegan. I think you’ll find it’s more in line with the values you mentioned in your post and not as hard to thrive on as some may think.

  36. Here’s the study Chris M told me about, I think. He wasn’t sure it was the right one. However, it’s by the same key author and university. They found that the low-PUFA eggs were practically identical to a low-egg diet in their effect on LDL oxidation, while high-PUFA eggs increased oxidation of LDL particles. I’ve seen a lot of other studies like this that show anti-oxidants are over-rated and it’s better to simply minimize the consumption of foods that cause (per)oxidation.

  37. I wanted to bring up this study. Scientists found that normal eggs caused increased LDL oxidation, as did eggs enriched with omega-3 and Vitamin E. But when they developed a low-PUFA egg with a higher ratio of MUFAs to PUFAs, the LDL oxidation did not increase at all.

    Chris Masterjohn mentioned a similar study, which is what led me to this. The study he mentioned is a different one, however. Making eggs with a higher MUFA:PUFA ratio gave a strong protection against LDL oxidation, whereas making eggs with more anti-oxidants or omega-3 fats had no benefits. I believe that a high ratio of MUFA:PUFA and SFA:PUFA is ideal.

    The regular eggs had a 2:1 MUFA:PUFA ratio, while the high MUFA:PUFA eggs had a 4:1 ratio of oleic acid (18:1 n-9) to linoleic acid (18:2 n-6). I use eggs with a 4:1 MUFA-PUFA ratio (2g of MUFA, 0.5g of PUFA). They have a 3:1 ratio of SFA to PUFA (1.5g of SFA). A lot of eggs have twice as much PUFAs, based on nutritional data (accurate to 0.5g of fat). I would look for eggs with the least PUFAs (pref 0.5g).

    The push for omega-3 eggs is dangerous. Even Mercola stopped advising people to eat omega-3 eggs, because they spoil faster and the sources of omega-3 fats are frequently toxic. People would be a lot healthier if farms focused on minimizing the PUFA content of meat, eggs, dairy, etc. Rather than feeding foods like soy that increase it vastly.

      • Whole Foods offer pasture raised chickens and eggs.

        Also the farmer’s markets have vendors that sell pastured eggs, but make sure they are not free ranged, but pastured. Pastured chickens are allow to roam on grass and shrubs and have the choice to forage for worms and bugs, shrubs etc., their natural diet that they would find out out in nature and they have a choice also to eat the feed left out for them. Free ranged mean they are allow to roam on cement yards and the only food is the feed that is given to them, so the quality of the eggs that they produce is different, depending on the feed that they get and if they can forage in their home environment.

    • Great post Chris, and awesome comment Bruce. For some reason, I instinctually stay away from any eggs labeled “omega-3 enhanced” or the likes. I am glad to see my preconceived notions were sound!

      I am going to try and buy eggs from local farmer’s markets exclusively this spring/summer. I would really love to build my own chicken coop eventually (and perhaps get a milking cow).

  38. Bruce,

    I completely agree with you about the harmful effects of PUFA and the lack of awareness on this issue in the mainstream health and medical world. The research is clear that PUFA are far more dangerous than saturated fat and cholesterol – which actually turn out to be innocent.

    Regarding eggs: while it’s true that there’s no evidence linking egg consumption specifically to heart disease, I do believe that supermarket eggs (which contain up to 19x more omega-6 fatty acids than pasture-raised eggs) should be avoided for numerous reasons. While the amount of PUFA in an egg is relatively low, most of it will be the pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid in a commercial egg. Eggs from pasture-raised chickens have 2/3 more vitamin A and 7 times the amount of beta-carotene than battery-raised eggs. They are also higher in B12, folic acid and vitamin E.

    Then of course there are the more obvious health risks that come with battery-raised eggs, such as exposure to the antibiotics and hormones the animals are treated with and increased chances of salmonella and other diseases due to overcrowding.


    • Rather than dance around the varieties of eggs trying to carefully select those that are not harmful, why not just eliminate them from your diet. It is clear from long living healthy populations most of which do not consume dairy, that leaving out eggs is not a problem. In fact it is clear from reading these pages that many people are taking away the message that all eggs are OK not even that some are good and some are bad. A Harvard health study highlighted that eggs appeared to increase the risk of prostrate cancer.

  39. Eggs only have about 0.7g of PUFA, give or take. They are not where people are getting the overload of omega-6 fatty aicds. Soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, and sunflower oil oil are vastly more dangerous. The amount of omega-6 in half a dozen eggs is less than a serving of potato chips or other junk food or an ounce of peanuts. Those are the foods people should be told to avoid, not the eggs.

    The high-carb and high-PUFA diet most people eat today causes cancer and many other diseases, including heart disease. I don’t understand this article completely. You start by saying “there is absolutely no research” linking egg consumption with heart disease. Then you say that 99% of the eggs people are eating are pro-inflammatory. This is speculation, IMO.

    • There is research linking animal protein with cancer and heart disease. Please validate your article with the name of one person that reversed heart disease while consuming three eggs a day…

        • Read much? I asked for a study where participants reversed heart disease while consuming three eggs a day…

          Where did your study find all those healthy people, certainly not in the US on a typical Western Diet. It has been proven that children at 10 have the yellow streaks which indicate the start of heart disease. Autopsies have demonstrated that most men over 20 have heart disease.

          Eggs have been shown to increase the growth of prostate cancer, even one per day.

            • You really do not read much….

              All the studies on that link are short…you read my comment? Takes years to develop cancer, not weeks or months!

              Those studies are worthless and contradict long term studies that relate the consumption of eggs to increase growth in prostate cancer….

        • Did you happen to take notice of the length of those studies? Cancer normally takes decades to develop, not a few weeks. Heart disease also takes time to develop and cholesterol levels normally studied are from 180 to 250 which is an invalid range to be looking at. There is evidence that indicates what is needed to avoid heart disease is a long history of LDL in the 70 range and total below 150.

          • Richard seems to be combining several questions into one
            Is LDL cholesterol a risk factor for heart disease? yes, although some research suggests that particle size is also important , not just actual LDL numbers
            Can eggs elevate LDL cholesterol significantly ? No for most people unless you are an LDL hyper-responder
            Is there any evidence that egg consumption increases your risk of heart disease? Not really. See the latest summary of all evidence published till now at . Also see extensive review from the Heart Foundation – see summary in section 14

            • Your reading skills need assistance. Get someone to help you read my comment because your last comment makes no sense…
              Everyone in the world that knows how to do research knows that what you consume does not have that large of an impact on your cholesterol levels…
              Eat your eggs and leave me out of it please…

              • Do you mean eat any old eggs, even those from battery farmed chickens who are kept beak to beak (sorry no beaks they are removed at birth) in confined cages. Who’s chicks not deemed useful or productive are ground alive in a large version of a nutri bullet. Even ‘free range’ eggs are produced in large sheds with many chickens not seeing the light of day.

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