Sleep is an absolute necessity for optimal health. I’ve written before about the risks of sleep deprivation in adults and why maximizing sleep quality is essential to achieving optimal health. However, children and adolescents are arguably even more at risk, since sleep is so crucial for proper growth and development.
In this article, I’ll discuss the health impacts of too little sleep, how much sleep kids and teens really need vs. how much sleep kids in the United States are actually getting, and my tips to help your kids get better-quality sleep.
The Health Costs of Too Little Sleep
In children and adolescents, insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for:
- Obesity: a 2015 meta-analysis of longitudinal studies found that children and adolescents with shorter sleep duration had more than twice the risk of becoming overweight or obese (1).
- Diabetes: sleep deprivation adversely impacts blood glucose regulation. A 2012 study found that short sleep duration is associated with increased insulin resistance in adolescents (2).
- Hypertension: youth with short sleep duration have a 2.5-fold increased risk of having elevated blood pressure (3).
- Depression: while the connection between depression and poor sleep may be a vicious cycle, with depression leading to sleeplessness, several studies suggest that poor-quality sleep itself is a risk factor for depression (4, 5).
- Attention and behavior problems: more than a dozen studies have linked attention and behavior issues in children to poor sleep quality and short sleep duration (6, 7, 8, 9).
- Poor academic performance: sleep is unequivocally related to academic performance. Sleep loss is frequently associated with poor learning capacity and neurocognitive performance (10), while earlier bedtimes and wake times are associated with better grades (11).
How much sleep do your kids really need? It might be more than you think!
In teens, short sleep duration is also associated with increased risky behaviors (12):
- Abuse of drugs and alcohol: in a nationwide study of U.S. adolescents, getting seven or fewer hours of sleep was associated with increased use of drugs and alcohol (13).
- Motor vehicle crashes: one study found that later school start times were associated with increased sleep and fewer car crashes among teens (14).
- Suicide attempts: sleeping fewer than eight hours a night is associated with a threefold increased risk of suicidal attempts (15).
How Much Sleep Do Kids and Teens Really Need?
To determine how much sleep children and teens need to promote optimal health and avoid all of these potential health issues, a panel of 13 experts at the American Academy of Sleep Medicine reviewed more than 864 articles in 2016 on sleep and health in children and adolescents. They came to a consensus that for every 24 hours, children ages six to 12 years old should sleep nine to 12 hours, and teens ages 13 to 18 years old should sleep eight to 10 hours (16). Therefore, fewer than nine hours in children or eight hours in teens is considered inadequate.
Too Many Kids Getting Inadequate Shut-Eye
A recent analysis performed by the CDC attempted to determine the prevalence of short sleep duration (fewer than nine hours for middle schoolers and fewer than eight hours for high schoolers) on weekdays. They found that 73 percent of youth got inadequate hours of sleep (17). Here’s the full breakdown:
For middle schoolers:
- 6 percent got four hours or less
- 6 percent got five hours
- 11 percent got six hours
- 20 percent got seven hours
- 30 percent got eight hours
- 27 percent got nine hours or more (adequate sleep)
For high schoolers:
- 7 percent got four hours or less
- 13 percent got five hours
- 23 percent got six hours
- 30 percent got seven hours
- 27 percent got eight hours or more (adequate sleep)
Put another way, a whopping 23 percent of middle schoolers and 43 percent of high schoolers get six or fewer hours of sleep per night. And this doesn’t even tell us whether the little sleep they are getting is quality sleep. When we consider these data, is it really any wonder that we have epidemics of childhood obesity, diabetes, and ADHD?
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How to Support Healthy Sleep Habits
Now that we know just how crucial sleep is, let’s talk about solutions.
In contrast, the functional approach seeks to determine the causes of poor sleep in the first place. While some kids may have more complex causes of underlying sleep abnormalities, in my experience, most sleep difficulties in children can be addressed by making a few simple lifestyle changes. Try these tips in your home to improve your kids’ sleep:
- Get kids outside during the day: Like adults, kids need exposure to bright blue light during the day to help entrain their circadian rhythms. If they attend school during the day, make sure they are getting exposure to sunlight before or after school, or ideally at lunchtime, when the sun is highest.
- Reduce bright light in your house in the evening: Even if you can’t convince your kids to wear the hip blue-blocking glasses, you can reduce the amount of blue light they are exposed to in the evening hours. Try lighting some red-bulb lamps or beeswax candles at night instead of harsh white lights.
- Eat dinner earlier in the evening: Kids may find it difficult to fall asleep with a stomach full of food after a late dinner. Try to eat dinner earlier if possible to allow time to digest, and discourage large late-night snacks.
- Set bedtimes for your kids: Parent-set bedtimes have been associated with improved sleep duration and better daytime functioning in teens (19). If your child isn’t sleepy, encourage him to at least get in bed and read or journal by red or orange light. Children thrive on routines, so having a pattern of low-key activities that repeat every night can help them relax and start to feel sleepy.
- Make the bedroom a device-free sleep sanctuary: Make a house rule that there are no devices allowed in the bedroom at nighttime and set a “media curfew” elsewhere in the house (i.e., no devices after a certain time). Evening technology use is associated with poor-quality sleep and shorter sleep duration among youth (20). If teens must use devices to complete homework in the evenings, be sure that they have blue-blocking applications like F.lux set up on their computers and/or that they wear blue-blocking glasses. Make the bedroom a dark, cool, and quiet place.
- Limit caffeine: The abuse of caffeine in teens is highly concerning. Children and adolescents are one of the fastest-growing populations of caffeine users, with an estimated 70 percent increase in the number of teens using caffeine in the past 30 years (21). There is no evidence for a benefit of caffeine in children and adolescents, and at least one animal study suggests that it could interfere with sleep and brain maturation (22).
- Explain why: Helping kids to understand why healthy sleep practices are important and the association between sleep and their health can reduce their resistance to new practices. It also makes them more likely to continue these practices into adulthood, when they become independent.
- Model good behavior: All of these principles for healthy sleep in kids also apply to adults. If you’re staying up until 12:30 a.m. on your iPad, your kids are much more likely to take after your bad habits. This is a great opportunity for you to check in with your own sleep habits, too!
As a parent, ensuring that your child gets adequate sleep is one of the most important things you can do to set them up for success and health in the future.
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Sleep is an integral part of our life. We all know that our brain rests during sleep and also our body. Do not forget to give enough time for sleeping. The person will be scattered and sad because of a lack of sleep.
That is correct, sleep is very very important for our body. Sleep helps our body to recover and recharge it self.
There is serious concern of sleeping disorder. Sleep is extremly necessary for the body and brain. So this is an article why self esteem is really important in treating mental health problems. http://www.timesnownews.com/health/article/self-esteem-important-in-treating-mental-health-problems/201321. Times Now has more such articles on health and wellness. I usually follow Times Now for the health related articles
I’m not in love with a lot of technology for kids. However, there are a few good Ted Ed talks geared towards kids on sleep, what happens in the body as you sleep, etc.
I just explored these with my 9 year old. She thinks sleep is such a waste of time. She’s a creative mind and despite our sleep routine etc, she sometimes struggles to wind down. Hopefully, she is processing this information and will value sleep more.
Chris, I’m intrigued by your response to finding out those kids had so little sleep. Our house was bereft of anything except the radio and Ma and Pa took themselves off to mark homework in Mum’s case and in Dad’s to pursue his art hobby. So I think with no blue lights and probably boredom we tended to go to bed pretty early. There was no curfew because none was required.
However when I was about 7, we children decided to pay the neighbour’s children a visit after dinner. We were told they were in bed and suspected this was a porkie but it was probably the case. It was 7pm on a lovely summer evening. They didn’t have TV either!
I see this often in the kids who come into my clinic (I specialise in teen health). They present with other symptoms but this is a factor I always talk about with them. It’s tricky for them to juggle their lives at such a young age.
My 16 year old son has terrible trouble with sleep. At this age it can be natural for a teen to stay up late and want to sleep late. Schools do not accommodate for this. Then throw in normal high school stress and drama. On top of that he has anxiety and I also believe some level of depression. Recently his dad (my husband) suffered a massive stroke and is having to reside in a nursing home. We also had to sell our home because of this. Lots of sad and stressful things going on right now. I have tried all the suggestions above and then some, including talk therapy and supplements. Nothing is working. Even though the last thing I want for him is prescription medication, I feel like I am out of options and resources.
So on topic as i argued with my teenage kids last night. Love this article and i will forward to all, including school Deans to try and get support on this from adults. Great article thank you.
Not related to the article but my outlook.com flags the email subscriptions as phishing and actively blocks me from following the links saying that they are unsafe. Likely due to the email marketing system used.
Are there any natural sleep support herbs with proven efficacy and safety? Our 19 y/o college student has had sleep struggles for years beginning with homework keeping her up till 1 in HS. She now struggles sometimes till 4 am to fall asleep. Have you any thoughts about this supplement? “Gaia Herbs Adrenal Health Nightly Restore Vegan Liquid Phyto-Caps Herbal Supplement, with Adaptogens (Ashwagandha, Vervain, Magnolia bark, Mimosa bark) for Sleep Cycle Support, 60 count”
I like your suggestions and they’re important, but the real issue, in our world at least, is homework. My 14-year old daughter often has 5-6 hours of homework a night, and although we’re working with her school to come up with strategies around that, schools are really reluctant to reduce homework. Last night she worked diligently and didn’t dawdle, but at 10:45 I had to tell her to go to bed with her work unfinished, because she gets up at 5:45 to get to school on time. I don’t think it’s great to send her to school with her work unfinished, but she needs to sleep too! :-/
Totally agree, in our case it’s also school – with insane amount of homework and very early start (lessons beginning at 7:30 a.m.) which makes sleep routine more difficult than it should be. We try to compensate for this at weekends and on holidays.
Same in our house- it is ridiculous and tragic! So much of the homework is busy work, too. Our schools are burning our kids out before they even get to college and leaving little time for them to be healthy kids and to develop well socially. Between AP classes and dual credit classes, my oldest will graduate high school with 28 hours of college credit. Why can’t college wait for college? Those courses are the expectation now if you want to get the best teachers and get accepted into a good university and major.
I think her health is more important. We’re basically teaching our kids to put our health second and work is priority. I’m with Kresser on this stance. Sleep is crucial and accounts for high levels of stress, depression, & anxiety. It’s best to feel rested and have a healthy brain to function optimally so that you or your kids can think clearly, focus, and have a positive mindset. If you’re brain is constantly running on 6 hours of sleep, you’re going to face burn out, overwhelming feelings and stress. These feelings are not conducive for productivity and learning.
Unbelievable (not that I don’t believe you). I never did homework until I commenced tertiary education. At school I crammed or cheated my way through when required e.g. vocab tests.
Some models of education don’t believe in doing homework. I’d be tempted to give her a hand though not do it for her or get some coaching for a turbo-charged way of learning. I think when I was at school, half an hour of homework per subject was considered reasonable. This poor lass is missing out on her childhood!
You may not want to add the homework battle to your plate. However, it may be worth the effort. There is a great deal of research that shows homework is unhelpful for improving student academic success. Solid research could be gathered and presented to the powers that be. Sad to say there are educators, administrators and school boards who just don’t stay up with the recent reasearch. Obviously, this isn’t limited to just education, medical care too!