While the scientific community has widely accepted celiac disease as a condition caused by gluten and other related proteins, non-celiac gluten sensitivity has remained a topic of heated debate in the media and among the general public.
In this article, I’ll talk about the reasons I have acknowledged non-celiac wheat sensitivity as a real condition for many years, and I’ll describe the results of a new research study performed at Columbia University that adds supportive evidence. Before we jump in, though, let’s review the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac wheat/gluten sensitivity.
Celiac Disease vs. Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity
Celiac disease and non-celiac wheat sensitivity are two distinct conditions, with a few major differences.
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by an inflammatory immune response to wheat gluten, rye, barley, and related proteins. It results in marked disruption of normal gut tissue structure, including atrophy of epithelial cell projections called villi and an enlargement of intestinal crypts where new epithelial cells form from stem cells. CD is strongly associated with the haplotypes DQ2 and DQ8 of the HLA gene (1). In terms of blood markers, transglutaminase 2 (TG2) autoantibody is considered the most sensitive marker for celiac disease (2).
Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS, and also called non-celiac gluten sensitivity) is a term applied to individuals who experience symptoms in response to wheat or gluten ingestion but lack the characteristic markers of celiac disease. Symptoms can range from GI discomfort to fatigue and other neurological issues. These people tend to improve on a gluten-free diet (3). Unfortunately, many are mocked or ridiculed for avoiding wheat and told that their sensitivity is “all in their head.”
New research confirms gluten intolerance is real—and the haters are wrong.
Wheat Sensitivity: Is It All in Your Head?
In response to continued suggestion by the media and some of the medical community that wheat sensitivity is merely psychological, I have written extensively on my blog in support of NCWS as a real condition. For one thing, a variety of different proteins in wheat can elicit an immune response beyond gluten. NCWS might even be more serious than celiac disease, as many people who test negative for celiac disease continue to eat wheat and put themselves at serious risk for developing autoimmunity.
However, as I addressed in a previous article, the researchers chose whey protein for their control group, a pretty poor choice considering that many of their subjects likely had inflamed guts and multiple food sensitivities. The evidence, both on paper and from my own clinical experience, clearly points to the existence of NCWS.
The Latest Research Study
Still not convinced? In a recent study, researchers at Columbia University Medical Center sought to obtain objective evidence to determine if NCWS is real (4). They enrolled 80 individuals with self-reported non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS), 40 individuals with celiac disease, and 40 healthy subjects for the study. NCWS patients were excluded if they showed any of the characteristic diagnostic markers of celiac disease (celiac-specific IgA, anti-TG2 autoantibody, or celiac-like histology).
The researchers took blood samples and intestinal biopsies from all 160 patients. The blood samples were used to look for particular signaling molecules and proteins in the blood, while the biopsies were used for histological analysis of the tissue microstructure. In addition to comparing these measures between conditions, they also took a subset of 20 NCWS patients who had adhered to a gluten-free diet for six months and compared their blood and biopsy samples before and after gluten avoidance.
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Gluten-Sensitive Individuals Have Leaky Gut
This is not really all that surprising, since we know that gliadin, a component of gluten, can affect tight junction proteins (5).
In addition, subjects in the NCWS group had systemic immune activation. Serum levels of both lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and sCD14 were significantly elevated in individuals with NCWS in comparison with individuals with celiac disease and healthy controls. These are sensitive markers of microbial translocation. In other words, they indicate that bacteria and other microbes from the gut interior are “leaking” into the bloodstream, inducing a low-grade, chronic inflammatory response from the immune system (6).
Histological analysis of biopsy tissues showed that the NCWS group also had epithelial cell damage similar to the celiac disease group, a result supported by elevated levels of serum marker FABP2 (7). Moreover, in the subset of NCWS individuals analyzed before and after adherence to a gluten-free diet, they found that inflammation and cell damage markers improved significantly after six months of gluten avoidance.
Gluten Sensitivity Exists—Here’s How to Know If You Might Have It
Evidently, there are certain individuals who possess non-celiac wheat sensitivity and would benefit greatly from avoiding wheat. It’s unfortunate that so many people who might benefit from a gluten-free diet never try it or don’t stick with it because of the lack of support from media, the medical community, and the general populace. I hope that this new research study (and others that will surely follow) will make it just a bit easier for people to make the right choice for their health.
So how can you know if you have NCWS? The biological markers used in this particular study may be used in the future to help diagnose NCWS, but at the moment, they are purely used for research purposes. Nevertheless, there are two ways to determine your gluten tolerance:
- A Cyrex panel: Cyrex Array 3 is a panel that tests your potential for wheat and gluten protein reactivity and autoimmunity. It must be ordered by a healthcare practitioner.
- A self-experiment: Eliminate gluten from your diet for 60 days and then perform a gluten challenge, taking careful note of any symptoms. I still hold that this is the best way to determine your tolerance for gluten.
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I know NCWS exists because of my own upbringing…
1. The first 5 or so years of my life I had VERY little wheat (if we did it was what my mom made from scratch. Never store bought). We lived on a farm where we ate mostly fresh vegetables and meat. Never had any issues.
2. I developed intestinal issues when we moved and my family’s diet changed and we started eating more breads and pastas.
3. I researched diets and tried a gluten free diet long before it was a fad. Nobody was even talking about being gluten free back then except for a small group I found online. It literally took me years to even find out anything about it. So no way was it ‘psychological’.
4. Gluten free was the only diet that helped.
Unlike celiac disease, gluten sensitivity doesn’t damage the intestine. There’s no accepted medical test for gluten sensitivity, so you should tell your doctor about your symptoms.
Of course you won’t post a scientifically backed rebuttal to your fictitious claims. Especially when that rebuttal is backed up with links to scientifically sound and peer reviewed articles.
Shame on you.
You’re nothing but a quack.
Why don’t you post one then?
While Celiac disease is real, Gluten Intolerance IS NOT. There are many studies showing this to be the case that are not funded by those who would profit off of the gluten-free craze, and are done by CREDIBLE scientists and doctors, and published in Peer-Reviewed journals. Stop the misinformation. Just two links, for example. Please read the articles in their entirety.
And there are many, many more.
John Hicks, did you read the article? The study you posted is the one referenced in the article. Whey protein doesn’t make a suitable placebo, as many people are sensitive to it.
Hi I have inhereted autoimmune gluten actually Gliadin & Transglutenmate sensitivity. I have inherited familial SLE on My mothers side.Not that un common in those people like me of Irish descent w Anti Rho SSA autoantibodies. One of my daughters has MCTD and One possibly Hashimotos Thyroiditis and that daughter was born with Neonatal SLE. Very rare. She was only the 70th case in history of the Anti Rho SSA autoantibody jumping the placental barrier. I’m sure there is a medical paper out there on her birth. One lucky daughter is unaffected. I have been doing a Gluten Gliadin free diet since 2011 when I showed up with a blistering rash around both ankles that would not go away. Later diagnosed as Non Tropical Sprue . I am thinking of going Paleo but I know I have a D2 deficiency which is hard to budge, low stomach acid,poor iron absorption and have to take vegan B12 dots every day. I do eat some fish salmon, shellfish and organic chicken and 2 or 3 times a year organic lamb . I already went through a year long bout with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia. My hemocrit dropped like a stone after I had a bad virus. Went from 12 to 2 in a 10 day period. I don’t want to repeat that. I eat a bit of brown rice once a week organic white corn tortilla twice a week, Teff tortillas occasionally ,rice noodles once and a while, and quinoa several times a month.I eat a lot of veggies and berries mostly raw or lightly steamed.I am afraid if I go Paleo it might trigger Autoimmune hemolitic anemia again. I have got to avoid getting in that position again.Any suggestions?
I visited a gastroenterologist 02/2017 who said my symptoms and medical profile were textbook for Celiac. He had me do a ten week gluten challenge and then performed an endoscopy/colonoscopy. The tests showed no evidence of Celiac, so my gastro diagnosed me with NCGS. I am trying to learn more about it and am getting incredibly frustrated at the absolute lack of information out there….would love to learn of some trustworthy sources….
Was this 10 week gluten challenge eating gluten?
Yes. My GP had told me to stop eating gluten if it bothered me back in 12/2015 so I know I wasn’t 100% GF, but I was extremely gluten reduced for over a year.
I gave up gluten after an abnormal endoscopy showed eosinophilic esophagitis. I had to have my esophagus stretched because it was causing problems with swallowing. Last endoscopy was normal (within a year of the first one). As a bonus no more hugely bloated stomach and the inflammation that I started experiencing in my knees (which I attributed to the beginning of arthritis) went away. I’ve also noticed less heart palpitations and much less anxiety.
If you stopped eating gluten for a little while, wouldn’t your body naturally downregulate the enzymes/proteins needed to process gluten so that, when you reintroduced gluten you wouldn’t naturally feel good and simply deduce you have gluten intolerance when you caused it yourself in a sense?? I’m very much curious about this phenomenon! Thank you!
My hubby seems to have more intense gastrointestinal issues after two years more or less off gluten. More violent diarrhea, about the same “heartburn” sensation, worse cramping. My three day headaches seem about the same. From time to time, less frequently over time, I do try gluten. We both can still tolerate noodles. Raised wheat foods are a problem.
Based on Gen testing I have gluten sensitivity and Celiac gene. After 2-3 months on a grain free diet my symptoms did not improve. But my symptoms are not necessarily related to gluten sensitivity but functional said they were. I can eat a piazza or a grain free snack and my symptoms will be the same. So right now I’m gluten free (95%) can’t guarantee is 100%. This is like everything else, is differenet on each of us. In my opinion I ould have prefer not to know and eat semi-healthy like I always did anyway. 😉 No stomach issues besides moderate bloading which could be from gastritis.
I haven’t eaten gluten (or grains, rice, soy or beans) regularly for well over ten years. Recently I had to give up corn as well. I don’t see any ease of my reaction to any of these despite being pretty darn good at not eating them most of the time. When I do “cheat” the reaction is tough and lasts for at least three days, sometimes longer.
All grains free, legumes free, nightshade vegetables free, improved my autoimmune issues. Drugs free now. Digestions’ troubles didn’t get well until, with tears running down my face, I bet the bullet and went dairy free.
Doing well now.
Humans can’t process gluten very well. It’s more about microbiome and immune system and the interaction between them. Some bacteria are slightly better than our enzymes to degrade gluten but I still believe that nobody can make it a good protein source for humans. Even though you don’t manifest apparent symptoms right away, the silent inflammations is likely to take its toll within decades.
Why it doesn’t happen with meat? If I don’t eat for a while and then “reintroduce” it my protease enzymes work very well!
Probably because most humans can eat meat and digest it easily.
Don’t forget: modern wheat is really different from wheat from even fifty years ago in terms of gluten content. Also, consider that farming practices have radically changed the earth the plants are grown in, depleted from poor rotation practices and inundated with chemicals and pesticides. Another thing is that wheat used to lie in the field for a bit before it was picked up for drying. That may also have changed its nutritional profile and its digestability.
You hit the target, meat is easily digestible because is a species appropriate food for humans. Unfortunately also grainfed meat is quite unhealthy.
During the agricultural transition our ancestors ate ancient wheat but it made them sick anyway. I agree that modern hybridization, glyphosate ecc. make things worse, but they just exacerbate a preexistant problem with a food that is poorly adapted to human consumption.
Actually it’s been shown that humans not only digest it well, but many strains of gut bacteria have evolved to feed on it (no surprise after 10,000 years). Generally speaking, if you can eat gluten, its better to eat it, otherwise digestive issues may show up.
Yes you’re right. I have been battling wheat sensitivity for quite a few years now but never it is seriously nor tried the remedies due to all the media frenzy surrounding.
Thanks for the info Chris, this definitely clears a lot of the questions i had.
Thanks a ton for this information. This finally clears up a whole of questions I had in my mind related to my gluten sensitivity.
Do you think anger, depression etc. too plays a part in it? If yes what’s the best way to combat it?
It certainly has for me. I use Emotional Freeing Technique, Tapas Acupressure Technique, EMDR and Reiki to work with and heal my emotions. My body is MUCH healthier for this! Plus, they’re easy to use and EFT and TAT are free to learn off the net! I definitely recommend finding a good therapist with experience in these modalities and in your specific issues so as to get the best results but once you know what you’re doing you can do a great deal on your own. I have links if you’re interested.
I have a history of thyroid and skin problems. I’ve been taking a PPI for 6 years. Six weeks ago, I eliminated gluten and dairy from my diet. However, I feel anything but better. I have rowdy skin eruptions, painful swollen joints, mouth sores, and I spend nights and mornings on the toilet. Now I’m wondering if I’m on the right track. It would make absolute sense that I have leaky gut after the PPIs and hypothyroidism – but why don’t I feel better yet?
I’d say find a really good Naturopath who understands endocrine system disorders. But, what else are you eating? It’s possible that you have other sensitivities going on. I had to give up grains, rice, soy, beans and finally corn before making real progress on my health. I’ve been working on this for over ten years now! It’s definitely cumulative, though, and I’m much, much better than I was way back when. Good luck!
I believe that gluten sensitivity/intolerance is caused by emotional stress/distress. Repressed fear, anger, sadness. Daily stress. Any and all of it.
I agree with you on that point but I think the diet too plays a big role and getting that right is getting at one of the things that help fight the issue right.
My Functional said I was born with it. I disagree with her and agree that stress may be a BIG factor. Actually, be very carefull with functional, mines told me to eat lots of fat like saturated fat and to use coconut oil amd milk. So I started to use coconut oil and milk daily. Guess what? suddenly my gastritis that was mild for many years is moderate and I have barrets. I do not eat any trigger food and eat very healthy, so only one thing could have caused this and is the coconut oil/milk and saturated fat combines with stress. So be very carefull. 😉 Btw, I just cut 90% of saturated so I will update this post once I get better.
It’s also possible your fat intolerance may be due to poor digestive enzyme levels. But yes, stress, depression and all the rest definitely play a part in gastric issues. If you think of your gut as a second brain it really makes sense. And in eating foods that damage our guts that really impacts our brain. My issues with depression, mood swings and anger are much better since going off all the foods that are bad for me. But I also spent a good deal of time and energy on therapy both with therapists and on my own. My favorite things to use are Emotional Freeing Technique, Tapas Acupressure Technique, EMDR and Reiki. These plus a couple of really excellent therapists and daily work on my own really healed a lot of my problems for me. Good luck!
No, I’m not fat intolerance, but saturated fat is food for Barrett so I was feeding it. So be very careful to have all the details before you jump into a diet like this! I was told by her to eat LOTS of fat. ;-( Now, I have done every possible test and nothing shows, so again I have to assume is the gluten/grain that is damaging me. I will start again another REAL grain free diet/leaky gut diet (without the extra fat) jejeje and see if I get better. I did have a complete blood check ordered by my rheumatologist to check for inflammation and all came out fine except my C3C which showed a little low. Doctor sent me back home!
Thank you for sharing. I am at my wits end with this gastritis. My esophagus is damaged from this and it is very painful.
After facing a health crisis, due to chronic Lyme disease, I went gluten-free and discovered that I probably should have a long time ago. My doctor told me I had a gluten sensitivity and now I believe it.
I feel better if I stay away from all gluten, but can get away with eating it a small amount here and there. Thanks for a great article explaining this topic, Chris.
I stopped eating wheat for weight loss. Worked great. Suddenly found my severe, days long headaches stopped. I have retried wheat (cookies, cake, bread) at least 10 times. Wake up about 8 hours after eating with a 3 day headache. Also that heartburn like ache at night went away. I was going to see a doc, but now symptoms are gone. Hubby tried it. No more heartburn or similar heartburn like ache. For 20 years I did not know how to avoid headaches. Why so many ads for 24 hour heartburn? Talked to a baker today with similar headaches. He Never thought it might be wheat, and it may not be. And there you have the answer to how many of us are/are not sensitive:it has never occurred to many what the problem/solution is.
Tweeks – Perhaps you could tolerate spelt instead of modern wheat, especially if a loaf is raised by the sourdough method instead of yeast.
I have IBS and I just read something earlier that said that it might not be the gluten I am allergic too in the wheat but the FODMAPS. Either way if I avoid wheat, dairy and processed foods my symptoms are manageable.
just make sure that you really are sensitive because a gluten free diet is quite unhealthy due to the elimination of valuable nutrients….Do not adopt it because it is the latest trend..there will be another new gimmick next month.
Gluten is almost exclusively found in foods that have terrible nutrient density anyways. If you stop eating bread you would be hard pressed to replace it with anything as empty as it is.
I have diagnosed ,a bowel biospy result:chronic duodenitis with partial villous atrophy ,.,,.iga nd igg blood test are negative ,.,what shloud i do
I haven’t eaten grains, rice, soy or beans for over ten years now and recently gave up corn as well. I’m MUCH healthier than I was, have lost about 25-30 pounds so I’m well within a healthy weight range for my height, my IBS is hardly noticeable anymore, my skin is good, my hair is shiny, my nails grow well and I have a wet nose. Well, no, that’s not true! 😀 My nose isn’t wet at all! I’ve also been tested up one way and down the other by MDs and NDs and all my blood tests are exceedingly healthy. Eating veggies, meats, quinoa, potatoes and a little bit of fruit works really well for me. I do miss things like good bread and chocolate cake but there are some decent alternatives that don’t make me sick for days at a time the way the things I’ve cut out used to. It’s perfectly possible to be very healthy eating a variety of diets including vegan, vegetarian, “paleo,” Mediterranean, etc. but it’s really all about what works for each person’s individual body. Still, I don’t think anyone needs to eat grains, especially modern ones. But, as I said above, it’s a very individual thing.
I once thought it was an “all in your head” issue, but after going gluten free/Paleo to address my elevated cholesterol, I found , unmistakably, that the very few times (like once a year when I allowed myself a slice of traditional pizza) I ate a gluten item, I experienced a 2-3 day fallout that felt similar to a hangover from alcohol. I had a headache, nausea, and gastrointestinal upset. I know now that I definitely have a sensitivity, and avoid gluten at all times. Thanks for the great article! Side note…all of my cholesterol numbers are normal, now.
that is great to hear!
Chris, can I follow the same if I am pregnant?
I feel terrible after I eat heavy carb meal mainly consisting of bread!!
Before trying any new diet you should consult your doctor, doubly so if you’re pregnant. Having said that, if you feel bad from eating bread you can likely stop eating bread quite safely. Bread is not necessary for a good diet anyway.
Eat foods that are whole and minimally processed like vegetables and organic/grass-fed meats and quinoa or potatoes. Get plenty of good fats such as coconut oil, grass-fed butter or ghee, avocado oil and cod liver oil (Carlson’s is a really good brand) and avoid vegetable oils and soy. Also avoid processed foods (no fast food, for example) and drink plenty of filtered water.
I hope your pregnancy and birth experiences are happy and trouble free!
I can vouch for a gluten free diet.I have had a tremendous amount of benefits from being gluten free.My asthma has improved,my energy level has improved,my skin ,my arthritis and so many other things .My fiancée and I both have given up gluten I was skeptical at first until I got hardcore gluten free and reaped the benefits,being gluten free also helped my tummy it is not a fad,a myth nor a rumor.It works it also helped me lose weight ?????????Tru Story
The denial by credentialed individuals is really beyond the pale and speaks to the degeneration of our scientific education. All living things have evolved and they evolved strategies to avoid being eaten. Big predators have teeth and claws, small animals run away. Things that grow in the ground can’t fight or run and must stand their ground. They developed more subtle tactics, such as thorns on trees and bushes, neurological toxins or other discouraging chemicals. Grains developed chemicals which interfere with the metabolisms of their predators, such things as Phytates which bind and inhibit the absorbtion of essential nutrients not only from the grain itself but also from other foods eaten by the predator. Vegetarian predator mammals evolved fermenting digestive systems to counteract some of these defense measures. Grain also evolved proteins not only essential to their well-being but so similar to mammal proteins they confuse and destabilize the predator’s immune system. We so liked the effectiveness of these natural pesticides that we relatively recently selectively bred grains to have higher levels of them and thus make the grain more pest resistant. This is why we have seen a recent increase in not only gluten sensitivity but also sensitivities to other natural toxins. Its silly to deny how evolution works but many will do so out of ignorance. There is no question these defensive measures exist, it would be astounding if they did not, the intelligent question is what are the chemicals, in what concentrations and to what extent do they affect different people.
First of all, we have to specify granivores animals (seed predators) able to handle such a toxic compounds.
Though we are far from knowing everything, we already know enought about how they work to suggest their avoidance.
Gluten is just a part of the story…
look at my article about ATIs:
This is the same reason here in NZ a world renown allergergist/gastroenterologist/ecezma/skin connection specialist told my husband who has a raging undiagnosed (by 3 dermatologists, doctors, specialists etc)skin problem that he has inflammatory skin disease and to stop eating all gluten, all grains, seeds, legumes and dairy for at least 6 months to see results but probably for life. He said Paleo eating was good but seeds were suspicious due to their husks,which as you said, is a natural protective barrier to digestion for survival so also cause gut imflammation like grains. Dr David Perlmutter a neurologist in USA and Dr Peter Osborne of the USA gluten society have written very informative books on grains and their inflammatory effect which is the cause of brain/neurological diseases and àll diseases in the body. Drs like them and Dr Kressler are wonderful educators and well worth listening to as they have shown the real science behind this knowledge. Its no myth and fantasy!
You cannot claim to be gluten sensitive unless this has been demonstrated by small bowel biopsy….but, Hey, there is a new fad diet every month and it makes a lot of money for its promoters….OMG
Actually biopsies are not always effective because the damage is not uniform. Furthermore if there’s NCGS you may not have damage. Anyway gluten triggers leaky gut in everyone, there’s no a damn good reason to eat it.
Lack of Inflammation isn’t a fad. I suffered my whole life.
I have brought up this topic with 2 primary care physicians, my hubby with 3. There was no comment, no questions, nada. Crickets. If a small bowel biopsy is the test to be able to consider myself GS, or NCWS, or whatever, I don’t care. I don’t need a name to call it. I can do this the same way humans decided what should or should not be eaten prior to doctors. Its not that complicated. If you can eat wheat without it hurting, yeah for you, but there are so many like myself that had no idea why I had problems, and I think a big issue for many of us is the deafening silence that we get from so many doctors. Btw, I am old enough to have been told by doctors that cramps were all in my head too. Hmph
Jose, My suggestion, if you have not sought the help of a (VERY GOOD) chiropractor AND a (VERY GOOD) acupuncturist with a background in Chinese Medicine, I would do so…
Yes, I did get both and before I saw the chiro I did my search looking for one that can treat me based on the suggestions of my functional medicine. But after 14 therapies and $2000 I was not any better. ;-( I also saw an Acupunt but in his case I only saw him for 3 therapies because he was to far away and again I was not feeling any better and did not wanted to waste another $2000 on a guess. Anyway, apparently my back and chest pain are connected to my back probems so right now I’m just trying to find out what is causing the chest (esopagus area pressure and lack of air) which Reflux, cardio and pulmo (COPD or asthma) has been disregarded by my Doctors. Functional medicine wanted to make me believe that my GS was the reason but after 2-3 months on grain free diet/fodmap diet I desregarded that option myself but I do remain GF. I do believe it might be Vocal cord disfunction which I will check with my ENT. If nothing comes out from this then I’m just going to fire all my Doctors and stay strong on my faith with God. Like I said from day one, Doctors believe medicine is the cure for everything (when we all know it only deals with symptoms), functional believe food and Gluten is the monster of everything and then when nothing happens they just say is anxiety or a mental trauma you had or you just didn’t folow his instructions. ;-(
Jose – If you’re musical, find a singing teacher and learn good posture and deep-breathing technique.
To all who think they need to be gluten free, try spelt bread (preferably sourdough) instead of eating food made with or covered in modern wheat.
Thank you Fiona, very good option (spelt bread, preferably sourdough) I actually took classes on deep breathing and it helped a lot when I was depressed 3 years ago. As for the singing, that is one options I plan to take once I’m cleared by my ENT. I really miss signing Luis Miguel songs. ;-(
I have diagnosed ,a bowel biospy result:chronic duodenitis with partial villous atrophy ,.,,.iga nd igg blood test are negative ,.,what shloud i do
Sunday, are you talking probiotics?
Dr. Sayer. With several autoimmune diseases, neuropathy and no hope from my MDs. Severe reactions to medicaments, I was watching my life going down until a found Bob Wolf. Several books latter, I adopted my paleo life style. I am hiking again and feeling happy energetic once more. Drug free my Rheumatologist keeps tract of my autoimmune activity.
Doesn’t hurt to try it!
Dr Grant Sayer….. Dr of what?
After more than thirty years of chronic illness I have seen many Doctors. I found most to be quite one eyed and ignorant. They were no help at all. Researchers like Chris have done far more good than any general medical Dr ever did.