Important Update on Cod Liver Oil
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Important Update on Cod Liver Oil

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An independent analysis of Green Pastures Fermented Cod Liver Oil suggests that it may not live up to its claims. But is the analysis sound? Get the nitty gritty details and my recommendations.

best cod liver oil
One of the best ways to get a daily dosage of cod liver oil is in capsule form. obewon/iStock/Thinkstock

As many of you know, I’ve long been an advocate of cod liver oil. In addition to being a good source of long-chain omega-3 fats like EPA and DHA, it’s rich in vitamins A and D, which are difficult to obtain elsewhere in the diet.

For several years I’ve recommended Fermented Cod Liver Oil (FCLO) from Green Pasture. I took this product myself, and my wife took it throughout her pregnancy and while she nursed our daughter, Sylvie. I recommended it to my patients, readers, podcast listeners, and friends and family.

About a year ago, I received an email from a new company called Rosita Real Foods regarding a new cod liver oil product (called Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil, or EVCLO) that they were bringing to market. Leading up to the launch of their product, they sent out a series of emails explaining how it is manufactured, processed, tested, and produced.

I was impressed by their transparency: they provided test results for fatty acids, vitamins, dioxins & PCBs, rancidity, and oxidation by-products on their website, along with a list of institutions that performed the testing as well as the dates of the tests.

As soon as the EVCLO product became available, I ordered some. I noticed right away that it smelled, looked, and tasted fresh. This, together with Rosita’s transparency and third-party testing, was enough to convince me to switch over to EVCLO and begin recommending it to my tribe.

Independent Analysis of Green Pasture Fermented Cod Liver Oil

Last weekend I received an email from Kaayla Daniel, a nutritionist who has been involved with the Weston A. Price Foundation (WAPF) for many years. She had grown increasingly suspicious of the Green Pasture product recently, and she requested that the WAPF conduct independent analysis of it to determine whether it lived up to its claims. The WAPF voted not to conduct this testing, so Kaayla took matters into her own hands.

My take on the recent report on Green Pastures Fermented Cod Liver Oil.

The result is a 110-page report with test data from multiple independent laboratories both in the United States and abroad with expertise in testing marine oils and nutrient levels. You can read the full report for free here. But in short, these were the conclusions from her report:

  • One of the three batches of FCLO that were tested was found to be rancid, based on free fatty acid values.
  • Levels of vitamins D, A, and K are lower than Green Pasture claims on its website.
  • DNA testing of the livers purportedly used to make FCLO suggests that it is not made from cod, but from Alaskan pollock. Oils from Alaskan pollock liver have a different nutritional and fatty acid profile than those from cod livers (which explains the next finding).
  • While all other cod liver oil products contain more DHA than EPA, FCLO contains more EPA than DHA. This EPA-to-DHA ratio is consistent with what you would find in Alaskan pollock liver oil.

Kaayla’s report certainly raises a number of issues that deserve attention. However, I do have some concerns about the data she presents. They arose out of research I did over the weekend, as well as discussions with colleagues in the fields of biochemistry, nutritional science, and lipid science.

Are the Fat-Soluble Vitamin Tests Results Reliable?

Testing for fat-soluble vitamin levels is incredibly complex and not yet standardized. I am concerned that the approach to quantifying them in Kaayla’s report was oversimplified. This is based on communications I’ve had with Dr. Chris Masterjohn, a nutritional scientist and an expert in fat-soluble vitamins.

Chris has noted that there are likely at least half a dozen (if not more) vitamin D compounds in cod liver oil, and it may be that the preponderance of biological activity comes from compounds other than vitamin D3 or D2. (This is the case with cow’s milk, where most of the vitamin D activity comes from 25(OH)D and very little comes from vitamin D.)

In fact, one vitamin D expert has remarked that a scientist could spend an entire career simply characterizing the factors responsible for the vitamin D activity in cod liver oil. Clearly there’s a lot more to this than comes across in Kaayla’s report.

This may explain why Dave Wetzel, the owner of Green Pasture, has been attempting to quantify the fat-soluble vitamin content of FCLO for many years but has never been entirely successful. It seems that there are many different vitamin-D-like or vitamin-K-like compounds in FCLO (and other cod liver oils) that cannot be easily measured with current analytical methods. Measuring the biological activity of vitamin D compounds by feeding the substance in question to rats may be a better method of determining vitamin D content than quantifying the levels of D2 and D3. (Green Pasture did this kind of testing in 2009, and the results indicated that FCLO contained roughly 400 IU of vitamin D per tsp, which is in line with what you would expect for cod liver oil.)

Is FCLO Really Rancid?

If FCLO were truly rancid, we would expect to see very low levels of EPA and DHA in the oil. Once fatty acids (like EPA and DHA) undergo peroxidation, they cannot be regenerated from their peroxides. However, on page 102 of Kaayla’s report, the lab results show that FCLO has approximately 315 mg/tsp of DHA and 685 mg/tsp of EPA, for a total EPA/DHA content of 1,000 mg. According to Rosita’s website, EVCLO has approximately 1,200 mg of EPA/DHA combined. So, while the batch of FCLO tested in Kaayla’s report contained less EPA/DHA than EVCLO, it still contained a substantial amount—which would not be expected if the oil were rancid as claimed.

The claim that FCLO is rancid was based on high levels of free fatty acids found in the oil. Kaayla suggests that this is an accurate way to determine rancidity in marine oils. However, according to most lipid scientists, hydrolysis of triglycerides and other esterified lipids into free fatty acids is completely unrelated to oxidation and is therefore not an accurate measure of rancidity.

Instead, TOTOX, anisidine, MDA, and TBA/TBARS are better indicators of whether an oil is rancid. In Kaayla’s report, FCLO received good scores from all of the labs on TOTOX, and all but one lab (which was not able to obtain a result at all) on anisidine. Two of the labs reported normal TBA values. One lab reported a TBARS value that was high, and another reported an MDA value that was 10 times higher in FCLO than in other cod liver oils.

These results are somewhat mixed. The majority suggest that FCLO is not rancid, while two of the test results suggest that it is. I think more investigation is needed on this before any firm conclusions are drawn.

Variability in Test Results from Lab to Lab

There was significant variability in test results from lab to lab and test to test. The samples Kaayla sent in for testing had manufacture dates ranging from 2012 to 2014. It’s conceivable that Green Pasture changed its production methods during that period of time, which could explain the variation in the results.

Another possibility—and one that is likely—is that the variability is at least in part explained by different methodologies and techniques used by different labs. Unfortunately, this is difficult to verify and investigate further because Kaayla was not able to name the labs in her report (due to legal agreements).

Though this seems to be common practice in this field, I feel that the omission of the names of the labs that performed the analysis weakens the reliability of the findings. Given the known complexities involved in this kind of testing, as well as the variability between labs, it’s unfortunate that we can’t ascertain which lab did which tests. This isn’t a criticism of Kaayla, because I imagine it was beyond her control, but I do see it as a downside.

Summary and Recommendations

Kaayla’s report does raise some concerns, but clearly there is a lot more to it than initially meets the eye. Rather than viewing her report as the final word, I hope that it’s the spark for an informed and forthright investigation into the issues that she has raised.

Green Pasture has issued a preliminary response here. Interestingly, it makes some of the same points I have made in this article (that biological activity may be a better measure of vitamin D content than quantifying D2 or D3 levels, and that free fatty acids are not an accurate measure of rancidity in marine oils). They are also working on a more detailed response, which I look forward to reading.

One of the lingering issues that Kaayla raised in her report is the finding that the livers used to make FCLO were not from cod, but from Alaskan pollock. I certainly hope Green Pasture addresses this in their upcoming response.

Frankly, I feel that I don’t have the information I need to make a clear decision about whether to continue recommending FCLO. I am in touch with several people with expertise in marine oils, lipid science, and nutritional biochemistry in an attempt to better understand the implications of Kaayla’s report. I will report back to you as I learn more.

In the meantime, I do feel confident in recommending EVCLO from Rosita Real Foods. As mentioned above, they are transparent about their manufacturing process, they post independent lab results (including the names of the labs that performed the tests) on their website, and their product smells, tastes, and looks fresh. They also have an extensive FAQ with answers to many questions about their product and process.

How Concerned Should You Be If You’ve Been Taking Green Pasture FCLO?

Kaayla’s report identifies some issues that deserve further attention, including lower-than-reported levels of vitamins A, D, and K, possible rancidity, and a different ratio of EPA to DHA than would typically be found in cod liver oil.

However, it’s worth pointing out that I have numerous patients whose health noticeably improved after taking FCLO. I’ve heard similar reports from hundreds of readers and podcast listeners, as well as from women who went through my Healthy Baby Code program. In fact, my wife would count herself among this group, and if you search around on the internet, you’ll find testimonials from many people with similar stories.

So, while I do think this report warrants more investigation, I don’t think it is cause for panic. I will continue to investigate this issue and update you when new information becomes available.

Dr. Chris Masterjohn, a nutritional scientist with expertise in fat-soluble vitamins, published his preliminary thoughts on Kaayla’s report. It’s worth reading.

476 Comments

Join the conversation

  1. I am a Nutritional Therapy Practitioner and GAPS Diet Practitioner with a private practice here in the Bay Area. I have had Green Pasture Products FCLO capsules in my supplement stock for the past 5 years and have been supplying it for many of my clients. Many of us were waiting for your take on all of this Chris, and I am so glad you posted this response. In addition to my clients, my husband and I have been taking the Green Pasture Products FCLO capsules for at least 5 years and we both feel it has improved our overall health. That said, we do not take large amounts of it – no more than two capsules a day, and we often skip our daily dose, and in addition we take a 2 day break from it every few weeks. I do not believe the GP FCLO is rancid – if it was, I feel that my husband and I would have a noticeable reaction to it, as we are both very aware of our bodies and eat a very clean, well balanced diet. We are both very healthy, have excellent blood lipid numbers, and have no need for any type of prescription medication. Kaayla’s findings are interesting, but I am in agreement with your stance that further investigation is needed from all parties involved, and I will continue to take this product with general confidence. Continuing to recommend it for my clients is another matter, so for now, I will hold off on that practice until we get more answers. We are all on the edge of our seats I’m sure!

  2. Thank you for this information. Do you have a product to recommend that is not in liquid form? I prefer the capsules of FCLO because of the taste.

  3. I’ve been taking 5 ml of GP FCLO per day for a couple of years based on your recommendations here, Chris. I also supplement with additional Vitamin D daily in addition to the FCLO. I have not had any issues attributable to the FCLO other than very rapid growth of hair and nails.

    I will continue to monitor your site to see where this topic goes.

  4. When I took FCLO in even the smallest amounts (like 1/4 tsp) I found I had scary rage. It was horrible. I stopped taking it for awhile and tried a small amount again to the same reaction. So, I stopped taking it. I asked around, and no one heard of that issue. I thought there was something wrong with me for a food that is supposed to be so good for me to cause such an emotional state in a normally calm, easy-going personality. I wonder if the EPA/DHA ratio is to blame, the Polluck instead of Cod, or what. This report helps me understand that it’s not just me.

    • I am interested in knowing if you used unflavored FCLO or a flavored form. The flavorings can trigger the type of reaction you describe.

      • Initially, it was the cinnamon tingle, and I later saw that they used Cassia cinnamon, and stopped that, since I get a heightened heartbeat and sweat with Cassia Cinnamon. But I also had their unflavored and reacted similarly.

        • This is an interesting reaction – I’ve heard that those with “pyroluria” need to be careful with essential fatty acid supplements (from any source) due to difficulties metabolizing same. I wonder if that’s what your rage is about?

          • That is possible. Thanks for opening a window. My 23andme results do say I have the TT pair for that gene/snp. I do have other symptoms similar to pyroluria as well.

            • Renee, do you recall the SNP rs number of the gene you are referring to (for pyroluria)? I’d like to look at my own 23andme report and see if I’ve got that defect.

                • I don’t want to burst your bubble, but I don’t think that the mutation in the NBPF3 gene can account for all pyroluria. That gene occurs with a frequency of 37% in the general population! while pyroluria is around 10%. Other factors, more than likely including other genes as well as environmental insults, must play a role. People with the NBPF3 gene do seem to tend towards lower levels of vitamin B6 in their blood, so definitely could be contributing to pyroluria. I couldn’t find any specific studies trying to link pyroluria with that particular gene either.

  5. If you read the Rosita website, and it’s a lot of reading, you will come across a bit of info that is found only rarely on other sites that explain the cod liver fermentation process. These livers are fermented not because it was the best method but because it was the easiest and least labor intensive method for extracting the oil from a large quantity of cod livers. The rancidity is generally not from the oil itself (as long as it’s done correctly), but from the burst hepatic cells (liver cells). Please see this page for Rosita’s info: http://www.rositarealfoods.com/cod-liver-oil/2-artisan-extra-virgin-cod-liver-oil

    Take a look at this excerpt from http://blog.ppnf.org/cod-liver-oil-a-historical-perspective/
    “As early as 1841, questions were being asked about the differences between various types. That year, John Hughes Bennett produced a treatise on cod liver oil, in which he described four types of oil (white, yellow, red, and brown) and their traditional preparation methods. (Bennett JH.) Pale (light-colored) oils—those most commonly marketed for internal use—were obtained by cooking fresh livers with water at low temperatures, after which the oil was strained and filtered. The Scots macerated the livers in cold water, then heated them just until the pale oil separated out. In Ireland, the livers were heated in iron pots, then the pale oil was expressed. The process was repeated with the remains, resulting in a secondary brown oil. Bennett’s inclusion of testimonies on the benefits of cod liver oil from European doctors has been credited with furthering its acceptance among the population at large.”

    “Dunglison described several methods of extraction, one of which involved slicing fresh livers and simply exposing them to the natural warmth of the sun, thus causing the first oil to run out. This is what we would call “extra virgin oil” today and, like olive oil, it was of varying shades of yellow and varying degrees of transparency. The clearest type of oil, wrote Dunglison, was ”more used [as a remedial agent] than the darker variety, although several physicians affirm, that they have found the latter more efficacious.” (Dunglison R.) He added, “If the livers are running gradually to putrefaction, the oil becomes of a chestnut brown colour…; and, again, after the oil has been obtained by the above methods, some can still be procured by boiling the livers.” (Dunglison R., pages 339-340.)

    Dunglison explained that the properties of the oil were said to differ among the varieties and stated, “According to Messrs. Gouzee and Gmelin the brightest oil ought to be employed internally; but MM. Trousseau and Pidoux think that the limpid [clear] oil has no medical virtue. They prefer either the second [the secondary pressing, or brown variety], or that which is obtained by ebullition [boiling], and has a disagreeable acrid taste.” (Dunglison R., Page 455.)”

    My take? It’s all good as long as it’s real cod liver oil, not refined to death and all the vitamin A removed and then added back as synthetic palmitate. I cannot stand the fermented stuff, but I do believe that it’s good FCLO because I used it for a year with no inflammation issues such as I get from the rancid wrong oils. I use Rosita, which is expensive but smells and tastes mild, so do what works for you.
    Good Health All!

  6. I’d like to say that I have had concerns to the point that we stopped taking the Fermented Cod Liver Oil. We’ve used it for about 4 years and this time I actually ordered it from Amazon and received it with a date that was past the date on the bottle. Upon calling Green Pastures they said the date on the bottle is the packaged date and would be good for 2 years past the date on the bottle. It is really expensive. I have 4 bottles of it, but intend to discard it……..sad to say!

  7. I have been using FCLO since 2009 and have also been suggesting it to my clients and students since then as well. I have seen health improvements in myself and others. Interestingly my 25(OH) Vitamin D3 levels increased to 40 pg/ml but my 1,25(OH) Vitamin D went to 85.3 pg/ml in April 2013. This is the active form of D, and since I know I was not getting much sun then, there were no changes to my diet nor was I taking other D supplements It can only be attributed to the 6 FCLO capsules (equivalent to about 1 tsp) I was taking daily at that time. I have since reduced my dosage to 2-4 capsules daily and my D levels came down to 61.2 in August, with daily sun exposure. I will continue to use and recommend FCLO capsules to my clients unless the research shows problems with the current product. I do find that capsules are easier for most people to take than a liquid and would consider switching to the Rosita product if they had an encapsulated version.

  8. Very interesting reports and questions raised, Chris.

    As for just eating fish instead, I eat fish every other day (usually water-packed sardines, occasionally water-packed tuna, and rarely salmon), 3 eggs every other day that I’m not eating fish, 2-3 avocados per week, 1 or 2 T. or handfuls of nuts/seeds daily, 1/2 teaspoon of coconut manna/crème occasionally, olives rarely, some California Olive Ranch brand EVOO, and avoid heated oils in food preparation almost entirely. At age 63 and based on the above eating routine for at least 2 years prior, I had lipids testing that showed my Omega 6:3 ratio as 3:1, with DHA and EPA also ideal. I’m 65 this year and have continued that routine as it feels best for me personally.

    • Carol,
      Most canned tuna has soy oil, even the water type. A few use olive oil instead.

      Plus tuna tends to have too much mercury except for a few types so please be cautious.

  9. Chris, How depressing to read, can’t anything in the health world be EASY?! My kids (3 and 2 yrs old) line up like birds in the morning to take their FCLO/Butter Oil Gel. I think it smells rancid but figured that was because it’s a fish product and fermented. I’d LOVE to just go with REAL FOOD vs. a supplement. Specifically, how much liver and fish should we eat per week to get what our family needs? What’s your favorite liver? Chicken, beef etc…?

    • Hi Leslie,

      If you eat 3-6 ounces of liver a week, and eat about 12-16 ounces of cold-water, fatty fish, you probably don’t need CLO. Of course you’ll need to have your vitamin D levels tested, because each individual is different in terms of their conversion of sunlight to D and their absorption of D from food and supplements. All animal livers are beneficial; chicken liver is a bit higher in folate and I believe beef liver is higher in A (going from memory on the A content).

      • Your opinions, as usual, are not supported by science. Why not poll 1000 people that have been eating for twenty years as you suggest in this comment and give us the details on how many have clogged arteries?

  10. I had to stop FCLO after nausea every time I took it in spite of having food in my stomach. I switched to EVCLO this past winter. It’s much better and I often add a drop of essential oil to cover the fish taste (although admittedly it’s very fresh-like). That said I’ve often been wary of any fish oils when people like Jaminet (and Masterjohn?) advise caution against fish oils. We try to get our vitamin A more from desiccated liver or when I cook it (not my favorite food) and eating whole fish.

    • The nausea is caused directly by consuming rancid oil. Fermentation of oil is generally a bad idea. Also, EPA and DHA do NOT go down when a product is peroxidized. You can test the same oil at the time it is opened, and months later while yielding nearly the same results for EPA and DHA.

      • Corinna is correct. The EPA and DHA levels will barely do down when primary or secondary oxidation occur. However, some of the fatty acids will indeed cleave themselves from their glycerol backbone, resulting in a higher quantity of free fatty acids. A high FFA content is indeed a sign of oxidative degradation.

  11. I have never tried the fermented cod liver oil. This is partly because I failed to grasp the reason for the fermentation. It was partly because of the cost, and my uneasiness about the potential for harmful levels of unwanted organisms.

    When offered a 50% discount, I did try the extra virgin cod liver oil, it tasted good — fresh and fishy, as expected. I also periodically taste the contents of the other cod liver oils and the omega 3 fish oil supplements that I take.

  12. This has LAWSUIT written all over it. The “tests” are irrelevant. What are the lot numbers of the samples? Were they adulterated in any way? Is there possible collusion with a competing product company?

    This is fear mongering, yelling fire in a crowded theater. To name a particular company, damage their reputation and scaring people when nobody has been harmed is probably illegal. This has done untold damage to Green Pasture, which has a perfect safety record.

    As a Board member of both WAPF and FTCLDF, she should have followed the way things are done, which is by vote. The vote to re-test GP products was 7-1 against. She went about it on her own, then went public with a “shocking” e-book.

    I’m pretty sure she should be sued and investigated for collusion with whomever sponsored this “report”. It is meant to scare people away from GP and get them to buy another product, not investigative journalism.

    • I’m confused — how are the test results “irrelevant?” How doy t you know she doesn’t have the lot numbers, etc.?

      An organization like WAPF has the right to pursue research in determining if they will recommend a product. If she gave the board the opportunity to do so, and they chose to pass, does that mean that she personally has no right?

      If her goal was to promote an alternate product, would she have taken this to the board first? Yes? No? Maybe.

      And if the board had decided yes, to pursue the research, and the results were concerning (which they are) — would you still be upset?

      If she had the tests done on her own, what’s the problem? The results are what they are, regardless of who pursued them. And in this case, they are concerning, and the community knows to seek more information, or to make their own choices.

      There are no grounds for a lawsuit, as she hasn’t falsified any information, simply published the findings.

      • It’s called Conflict of Interest.

        “Shocking truth about fermented cod liver oil”. Does this sound like a scientific publication?

        The way this could have been done is 1) taken the information privately to the Boards and discuss it with other Board members. 2) Send in various samples of different CLO brands, not single out one company and tarnish it’s name over possible issues that could be answered before making a public e-book that has obvious commercial connections. This could have been released with company names left out while comparing each brand X, Y, and Z for the results of rancidity and other named tests.

        It was not objective. I can only surmise there is an ulterior motive here with intent to push people away from GP products and toward another product. That’s malice, if so.

      • Well, for starters, she WAS already promoting an alternate product, so apparently she WOULD take it to the board first anyway. As for “the results being what they are,” keep in mind that she cherry-picked which results to give to you. Labs #1 and #3 said this, labs #2 and #3 said that… you read the results she wanted you to read and not the ones she didn’t. While I don’t necessarily agree that this is lawsuit material, I am concerned that so many people are making decisions based off of this biased “report.”

      • The board of WAPF *did* vote to test the FCLO for rancidity in 2014 and it came back as not rancid. What Dr. Daniels wanted was for them to test it *again* and then they voted no:

        http://www.westonaprice.org/uncategorized/questions-and-answers-about-fermented-cod-liver-oil-fclo/

        One of the main problems I have with Dr. Daniels report is she is hiding information. She not only blocks out any identifying information of the labs but also refuses to disclose who paid for the lab tests, other than Dr. Ron. Blocking out information of who the labs are is one step away from rumor-mongering. Who are these labs? Are they trust-worthy? Do they have a good track record? In the WAPF report above, they give full disclosure to their their financial arrangement with Green Pastures (GP contributes a total of 1.1% of the WAPF annual budget) as well the the name of the lab and the full test results.

    • WAPF has every reason in the world to promote Green Pastures as safe. They receive most of their funding from them. If every whistle blower was treated with the same aggression, nothing would ever be revealed or questioned.

      • Sorry, but Kaayla Daniel does not qualify as a “whistleblower” in this situation. She is just a person making malicious accusations based on findings of dubious merit that cannot be scrutinized for accuracy nor authenticity due to the total lack of transparency in her “report.”

      • But they *don’t* receive most of their funding from Green Pastures. In 2014, they received a total of 1.1% of their annual budget from Green Pastures, in the form of advertising and sponsorship:

        http://www.westonaprice.org/uncategorized/questions-and-answers-about-fermented-cod-liver-oil-fclo/

        Quoting Sally Fallon from the linked article:

        “Do you personally or the WAPF receive any compensation from Green Pastures for an endorsement or sale of product?

        WAPF received $20,000 from Green Pasture in 2014 in sponsorship fees for exhibiting at our conferences, plus $360 for an ad and $250 for a membership, for a total of $20,610, about 1.1 percent of our yearly budget.

        This income from Green Pasture has nothing to do with our endorsement of its products, and WAPF clearly does not need the company’s money. We endorsed these products before Green Pasture became a sponsoring exhibitor. Our rule is that we do not allow anyone to exhibit unless they have a product we approve of. (By the same token, we do not allow any of our exhibitors to criticize another approved product. If they have concerns, they need to bring them to us to look into. They should sell their products by emphasizing their good features. Exhibitors who market their products by criticizing competing products will be asked to leave and will not be invited back.)

        I do not receive any compensation from Green Pasture. My husband and I do sell its FCLO and other products in our farm store (pabowenfarmstead.com), along with other healthy products that we believe in. Gross profit from sales of Green Pasture products probably does not exceed $1,000 per year. All the Green Pasture products for my personal use and farm store sales are purchased directly from Green Pastures; my only discount is for buying by the case.”

  13. I just want to say that i had purchased the past two years many bottles of GP FCLO and distributed them on friends and family members. My brother swear at them and keep him full of energy and awake if he takes them in the evening. I must mention that the last lot I purchased online around Christmas in a cold weather here in the UK, one bottle was rancid and this put me off of taking FCLO so i switched to krill oil for a little while. Now my vit D level is 67 nng although i have not taken any supplement for a while. I beleive if you follow healthy diet made of grassfed products and kefir etc…this will do the trick. Thanks

  14. I have been using FCLO from Green Pastures off and on since 2011. In my opinion, rancidity is most often a result of user failure in storing the product appropriately. It may be that the labs finding markers of degredation stored the samples at high temperatures or there were shipping problems. Rancidity is likely attributable to the source (retailer) from which the product was obtained and/or the shipping method used. FCLO of course can be ordered directly from Green Pastures, but a number of suppliers have been used over the years through Amazon that may or may not store inventory correctly. And the variables for temperature fluctuation are almost endless when one considers the practices of FedEx, UPS, or the USPS. In my experience, try to ensure it doesn’t sit on your front porch or mailroom in high temps, or order multiple quantities during winter months.

  15. I’m sincerely of the belief after reading her 111 page report that all she wanted to hear and do is take what sounded good to her. The report is slanderous, it is goading and it is not written with respect. Much more importantly Green Pastures wants transparency as well and attempted to have her come out to see what hey do and she decided
    Not to even see their production. She outright just took the data and twisted it based on assumption or “other colleagues” and “underground resources”. How is she being transparent? How are the lab reports transparent if she’s blacking out who did the testing? while I’ve heard of Rosita I’m still super skeptical on how they were able to maintain high levels of vitamins and have such clear liquid. I personally would like to see their operation. I believe it’s my understanding that Dr Kaayla did this purely because she had a vendetta of some sort to prove the people in WAPF wrong. She made this her mission. I’ve only been using Green Pastures FCLO for 3.5 years. It restored my daughters tooth decay, it makes my kids happy babies, it keeps my skin healthy and my bowels cleaned out and I believe its an excellent product from a small boutique group who do all they can to remain true to processing.

    • Dr. Daniel took a huge risk by publishing her findings. She put her reputation on the line and she went against her colleagues at WAPF. I think no matter what, her research shouldn’t be dismissed lightly. I’m not trying to dispute whether what she said is true or false. However, I have learned when evaluating information at I can’t really be 100% sure is true or there’s conflicting info, I always ask who’s a lot to gain/lose and who’s hasn’t. I’m not saying this method is infaliable, but in a world of deceits it can be helpful. I’m glad to hear FCLO has helped you and your family. But if we start giving GP carte Blanche like WAPF does, then one day we may find ourselves in trouble.

  16. I have a biology degree and was a high school biology teacher for many years. Now in retirement, I I sell supplements. I advise people to choose several of the highest quality brands of a supplement that they can afford, and then to rotate between them, depending upon what is on sale. In my experience, it’s a good idea to change things up. I took one multi brand for about 4 years and wound up in an unbalanced state as a result. If you rotate between a few reputable brands, you don’t run the risk of overdosing on a harmful substance continuously, or creating ongoing deficiencies. Manufacturing is not a perfect process.

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