Should You Really Be Taking Fish Oil? | Chris Kresser

Should You Really Be Taking Fish Oil?

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Fish oil might not be the cure-all it’s often advertised to be, and in some cases, it may even cause problems.

is fish oil bad for you?
Is there any real value in taking fish oil? DmitriyDanilchenko/iStock/Thinkstock

Note: This article was originally published in June 2015 and was updated in January 2017 to include the latest research. My original recommendations still stand, and the case for high-dose fish oil supplementation has become even weaker.  

Fish oil supplements continue to gain in popularity, but the research supporting their efficacy is shaky.

For over a decade, fish oil has been touted by doctors, nutritionists, and armchair health enthusiasts alike as a near cure-all for health. Whether you have heart disease, depression, diabetes, or joint or skin problems, or you just want to stay healthy and prevent nutrient deficiencies, somebody has probably told you to take a fish oil supplement.

The general notion was that it might help, and at the very least, it couldn’t hurt. Unfortunately, that isn’t necessarily the case.

Does Fish Oil Really Prevent Heart Disease?

It’s safe to say that the benefits of fish oil supplementation for heart health have been significantly overstated. As I mentioned earlier, studies initially found that fish oil was beneficial for heart disease, particularly over the short term and for secondary prevention. (1)

But a majority of the evidence available now suggests that fish oil provides no benefits for preventing or improving heart disease.

For example, two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in 2010 found that in adults with preexisting heart disease, long-term supplementation (three-plus years) with fish oil had no significant impact on cardiovascular end points. (2, 3)

A few other trials looked at the effect of short-term fish oil supplementation on atrial fibrillation, and none of them found that fish oil improved patient outcomes. (4, 5, 6)

A meta-analysis of RCTs in 2012, focusing on cardiovascular end-points, found that fish oil did not reduce cardiovascular events or death and concluded that the evidence does not support using fish oil supplements for the secondary prevention of heart disease. (7)

Three other meta-analyses published since then came to similar conclusions. (8, 9, 10)

Some studies do still come up with positive results. For example, one meta-analysis published in 2013 found a protective effect of fish oil for preventing cardiac death, sudden death, and myocardial infarction. (11)

Is it possible that fish oil is beneficial for one person and harmful for another? #fishoil

But there are also studies with negative results. Back in 2010, I wrote an article highlighting one study where long-term fish oil supplementation resulted in an increase in heart disease and sudden death and another that found increased LDL levels and insulin resistance in people who took 3g per day of fish oil. (12, 13)

Overall, the majority of studies show neither benefit nor harm from supplementing with fish oil for heart disease.

Does Fish Oil Improve Metabolic Syndrome?

Metabolic syndrome is a collection of symptoms and biomarkers that often precedes heart disease or diabetes.

On the positive side, a recently published RCT found that in adults with metabolic syndrome, supplementation with 3g/d of fish oil along with 10 mL/d of olive oil for 90 days improved several blood markers. This includes a statistically significant lowering of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, an improvement in LDL/HDL ratio, and improved markers of oxidative stress. (14)

It’s interesting to note that the fish oil plus olive oil group had better results than either the fish oil or olive oil group alone. One possible reason for this is that olive oil is rich in antioxidants and may have protected against the potentially greater risk of oxidative damage from consuming more polyunsaturated fat.

On the negative side, a recent study in women with metabolic syndrome found that 3g/d of fish oil resulted in an increase in LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, and markers for insulin resistance after 90 days, although they did observe a decrease in blood pressure. (15)

And in overweight men, supplementation with 5g per day of krill and salmon oil resulted in increased insulin resistance after eight weeks, compared with a canola oil control. (16)

Finally, an impressively large RCT involving over 12,500 patients with diabetes, elevated fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance found that supplementation with 1g/d of omega-3s for six years did not reduce disease endpoints compared to placebo. Endpoints measured included incidence of cardiovascular events, death from cardiovascular events, and death from all causes. (17)

As you can see, the evidence for fish oil supplementation for metabolic syndrome is mixed, with some studies showing a benefit, others showing harm, and still others showing no significant effect either way.

Can Fish Oil Prevent Cancer? Or Does Fish Oil Cause Cancer?

Many of you probably recall headlines from 2013 proclaiming that fish oil may increase the risk of prostate cancer (18). But despite the extensive media attention garnered by the study, it’s actually one of the weaker cases that have been brought against fish oil.

Believe it or not, the study in question actually had nothing to do with fish oil, or even omega-3 supplements. The researchers simply measured circulating levels of omega-3 fatty acids in men with and without prostate cancer and found that men with prostate cancer tended to have higher concentrations of omega-3s in their blood.

There are several reasons this could be the case; for instance, some evidence indicates that having prostate cancer might itself increase blood levels of omega-3s, or that certain genetic polymorphisms can increase both circulating omega-3s and cancer risk.

It didn’t take long for other researchers to publish a slew of comments pointing out these possibilities, but the media had already taken the “fish oil causes cancer” stance and run with it.

More recently, a meta-analysis found that in general, omega-3 consumption is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, but that the correlation is too weak to be statistically significant. (19) In 2016, a massive meta-analysis looked at 44 studies and concluded overall that higher omega-3 supplementation had no effect on prostate cancer mortality (20).

A handful of reviews found that fish oil intake was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, although no distinction was made between fish oil supplements and fish consumption. (21, 22) And one RCT published in 2012 found that supplementation with 600mg of omega-3s per day had no effect on cancer risk in men, but increased cancer risk in women. (23)

As with heart disease and metabolic syndrome, the research on omega-3 and fish oil supplementation on cancer is decidedly mixed.

High Levels of Oxidative Products Found in Fish Oil Supplements

Recently, attention has been drawn to the quality of over-the-counter fish oil supplements. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, including DHA and EPA, are especially susceptible to oxidation due to double carbon bonds at multiple locations.  Light, oxygen exposure, and heat can all contribute to oxidation. Oxidized lipids have been linked to a number of health issues, including organ toxicity and accelerated atherosclerosis—the exact opposite outcomes usually desired by those who supplement with fish oil. (24)

In 2016, the top three selling fish oil supplements in the United States were shown to have oxidation levels up to four times higher than recommended “safe” levels. (25) One caveat of this alarming study is that oxidation levels were normalized per 1g of omega-3s in the supplements, instead of the industry standard of normalizing per 1g of fish oil. Although this does inflate their three measures of oxidation, all three fish oil brands were still above acceptable levels of peroxidase and TOTOX levels, while one (instead of the study’s reported two) was above acceptable anisidine levels if instead normalized per 1g of fish oil.

As oxidation level measurements of omega-3 supplements have increased over the last several years, this has been the common finding. Studies examining fish oil supplements available around the world, including in Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa, consistently show that a vast majority (up to 80 percent!) exceed at least one of the measures of acceptable oxidation levels. (26, 24, 27) Also noteworthy is that most of these supplements contain lower levels of DHA and EPA than the labels claim, probably partly due to oxidation.

Furthermore, the most recent study from 2016 demonstrated that over-the-counter omega-3 supplements had a decreased ability to inhibit small, dense LDL oxidation in a laboratory setting compared to pure omega-3 fatty acids. (25) This means that whatever supposed benefits omega-3 supplements should have on blood lipids could likely be completely counteracted by the oxidized lipids also contained in the pills. Overall, I am quite wary of most over-the-counter products out there.

Should You Take Fish Oil?

To avoid making this article so long that nobody will read it, I haven’t included research on fish oil and other aspects of health, including mental health, skin health, pregnancy, and cognitive function. As you might imagine, the research on fish oil supplementation to prevent or improve these conditions is also somewhat mixed, with some studies showing significant benefit and others showing no change.

This is certainly an important topic, and I’m glad to see such a strong interest in it in the research community. I will continue to follow the literature and update my recommendations if and when new evidence comes to light, but for the time being this is what I would suggest:

If you are generally healthy, the best strategy is to consume about 12 to 16 ounces of cold-water fatty fish or shellfish each week. When possible, whole foods are always my first recommendation. Most studies show an inverse relationship between fish consumption and heart disease and mortality, so while fish oil may not protect you, eating fish does seem to. Perhaps this is because fish and shellfish contain many other beneficial nutrients that fish oil does not, including selenium, zinc, iron, and highly absorbable protein. (Fortunately, most cold-water fatty fish and shellfish are also low in mercury and other toxins, and mercury in fish may not be as big a problem as some have led us to believe.)

If you don’t eat fish (for whatever reason), I’d suggest supplementing with 1 teaspoon of high-vitamin cod liver oil. In addition to about 1.2 g of EPA + DHA, it is rich in the active forms of vitamin A and vitamin D, both of which are difficult to obtain elsewhere in the diet. There are very few studies suggesting the possibility of harm from supplementation with 1 gram or less of fish oil per day, and so I think one teaspoon of cod liver oil a day is likely to be safe even for those eating fish regularly—and beneficial for those not eating liver or other foods that contain active vitamin A. My current favorite cod liver oil is Rosita Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil, as this company has consistently demonstrated very low levels of oxidative products from independent laboratory testing.

Based on the evidence I’ve reviewed in this article, I would not recommend consuming high doses of fish oil (i.e., more than 3g/day) over the long term. If you do choose to take a higher dose of fish oil, I would make sure to consume plenty of antioxidant-rich foods, like olive oil; blueberries; nuts; dark, leafy greens; and dark chocolate.

I think we still have a lot to learn about this subject. One of the challenges is that the effects of polyunsaturated fats on overall physiology are complex and probably depend on multiple factors that can vary individually, including uncontrolled oxidation, eicosanoid production, cell membrane effects, and signal transduction via specialized fatty acid receptors (i.e., PPAR receptors).

This could explain why we see such a wide variation in study results. Is it possible that 3g/d of fish oil is beneficial for one person and harmful for another? Absolutely. Unfortunately, at this point it’s difficult to predict that individual response with accuracy and certainty, so I think the conservative approach I suggested above is probably the most sensible until we learn more.

525 Comments

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  1. I agree that all the evidence supports the fact that cold-water fish consumption is very beneficial to overall health and longevity. But what would be recommendable for somebody who lives where there is absolutely no cold-water fish available? And I mean NONE, neither fresh nor frozen, imported or local. In this case could a moderate dose of fish oil together with some other vitamins and lots of vegetables help offset the deficiency?

    • One option would be ordering canned wild salmon and other fish from a company like VitalChoice.com. We do that, in addition to consuming local fresh fish.

    • Brains. If you trust the source and if you are not squeamish, they are another excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids.

      Canned fish must be cooked to ensure proper conservation, if it is overcooked (thing that is very likely) PUFAs will be gone already. I wouldn’t consider canned fish a reliable source.

  2. This article leaves a lot to be desired and is confusing. You show Numbers for references, but no references are shown.
    It is more important as to who did these studies as many are slanted of downright wrong due to groups that are either for or against a product. Also which fish oils were used in these studies, most are rancid. What brand was used, the two best IMO are Nordic naturals and Carlson and Liquid is best.
    The part about eating fish is not so good as radiation is now an additional problem due to Fukushima.
    Taking a cod liver supplement is is excellent advice.

  3. hi Chris,

    This information is so confusing! What abouth the positive effects of fish oil on inflammation and getting the omega ratio closer to 1/1? I’ve been taking a fish oil from a company called SFH which I’ve found to be a quality product – http://www.sfh.com/shop/omega-3-oil/

    Does this new information mean I should stop taking this product?

    So Confused,
    Emma

  4. I was disturbed to find out when visiting my elderly parents that they were not keeping their fish oil supplements in the refrigerator. I saw a study on this issue, but I can’t find. Logically, taking rancid fish oil could be much worse than not consuming enough omega 3s.

  5. I have been supplementing Green Pasture Fermented Cod Liver Oil/Butter Oil blend for the past 5 months.
    Until I took an MRT blood test for food sensitivities, the test results showed I was moderately reacting to Cod Fish. This was the only seafood I was reacting to.
    Here I was thinking I was doing something good for my body.
    I am still a little puzzled as to why my body would react if it is said to be such a powerful and beneficial product.
    Should I definitely discontinue using it??
    Any comments or suggestions would be helpful!
    Thanks in advance.

    • Allergy tests commonly show reactions to substances we ingest (food, supplements) every day. I mean, EVERY DAY. It may be that our bodies are dealing with that food all the time, and may make antibodies to it, so a reaction shows up. The reaction can be very mild or extreme. It doesn’t mean we’re allergic to the food per se; it just means we should space out our consumption of it so the body can handle it before receiving the next hit.

  6. “There are very few studies suggesting … harm … with 1 gram or less of fish oil per day, so I think one teaspoon of cod liver oil a day is likely to be safe.”

    Chris, can you please clarify? 1 teaspoon of CLO is about 5 grams, is it not?

    • EVCLO contains about 1.2 g of combined EPA and DHA. We’re talking about the measure of those particular fatty acids, not the total amount of oil.

  7. Thank you Chris for an excellent round-up on where the science currently “sits” with regards the role of fish oil supplementation in health and disease prevention. I would love to hear your review comments on the role of fish oil in endurance/sports performance. Thank you for your continued education – fabulous!!!

  8. My fiancee is Sicilian (but has lived on the American east coast for the last ~20 years). She still eats more fish than the average American.

    She says her family has always had high triglycerides and knows FO brings that down for her. She takes 4000mg/day and consumes a lot of the antioxidant foods you mentioned. She noticed if she misses a few days that her energy level seems to go down and she feels really tired.

    She can’t speak on any other benefits.

      • Aw, now you’re getting the difference between fish oil which can cause harm and eating fish. They are way different, Omega-3 (EPA/DHA) from fish is 320 times more oxidizable the the plant based 18 carbon (ALA) Omega-3, therefore, cooked fish is actually a negligible source of Omega’s because they will have degraded.

        • Not now, several year ago 😉 That’s why I prefer my fish raw, marinated or lightly cooked.

          Lean fish: I boil it, sometimes I roast it or do stews, anyway there is not much to spoil in terms of fatty acids. I consider them a source of proteins. For sure I don’t deep fry it (which is the cooking style most people choose and then they pretended they ate fish). Doesn’t make any sense.

          Regarding DHA and EPA you are right, they deteriorate faster. Nevertheless only 5% of the population can efficiently make them from ALA. For sure I am not one of them and it is not just a matter of statistics: I am of italian ancestry and since generations we had fish, so for us it is a required food. I can’t thrive on linseed oil or chia. Making DHA and EPA doesn’t come for free, the body tends to avoid metabolic burdens when possible.

          • Could you provide the paper that claims only 5% of the population can make DHA, etc. from ALA? This would be quite helpful in this discussion.

  9. Would really love it if you could do another segment focusing on mental health. My naturopath prescribed it for my OCD & anxiety, but in some of the comments here I’m reading that it can create anxiety?

    Also, I’ve used fermented cod liver oil from Green Pasture. Do you recommend fermented cod liver oil at all, or only cod liver oil?

    Thanks Chis you’re the best!

  10. I’ll be straight up front, I work for a lab that does testing for fatty acids for clinical assessment and also very actively involved in research studies. I’ve read a lot of articles on fish oil and have seen what you have seen where the results are mixed. What is starting to stand out to me though is that it shouldn’t be about the “fish oil” and it should be about the biological level of omega-3s in your cells, which are a good predictor of levels in your tissue. When omega-3 levels are measured and participants are placed into groups based on omega-3 levels and then outcomes measured, time after time I see positive results of higher omega-3 levels.

    Everyone responds differently to supplementation, which was shown in http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3886744/ (figure 3) where different doses of fish oil were given and the omega-3 index measured, there have also been other articles that have shown this same outcome. So grouping people together and measuring outcomes/results without measuring the biological levels of omega-3 might not be telling us a lot. I know all these studies do their best to group individuals not eating fish or taking supplements at the beginning of the trial but some people naturally have high omega-3 levels, who could be being put into the placebo group, OR some people that are in the fish oil group might not respond well to fish oil supplementation or not take the pills and they remain with low biological levels of omega-3.

    Also it is probably best to get our omega-3 from fatty fish since you are also getting all those extra added nutrients you mentioned, http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/86/6/1621.long. The overall increase of the omega-3 index was not statistically significant but it was a bit better with fish consumption compared to fish oil supplementation, particularly for EPA in the first 4 weeks. Not everyone likes, eats, or has access to good quality fish so the next best thing is a high quality supplement. Either with fish or supplements though I’m beginning to believe it is really about the biological level of omega-3s and NOT the consumption.

    The B-vitamins or other nutrients in the fish might also be playing a role in bio-availability or physiological conditions. It was shown in this study, http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2015/04/15/ajcn.114.103283.abstract, “The beneficial effect of B vitamin treatment on brain atrophy was observed only in subjects with high plasma ω-3 fatty acids. It is also suggested that the beneficial effect of ω-3 fatty acids on brain atrophy may be confined to subjects with good B vitamin status.”

    Lately when I’ve been reading articles on omega-3 I am giving more value to the ones that measure fatty acid levels than the ones that don’t. I also really believe the outcomes are more from the biological level of omega-3 achieved than from just taking a fish oil supplement and the perception needs to change. As you do, I don’t take large doses of fish oil and I take mine in the liquid form daily and would also recommend 1-2 g of EPA + DHA daily.

    • Thanks for posting. How might an average joe find out whether or not he’s in the group that should supplement?

    • I think you hit the nail on the head. This is why FDA ALWAYS requires pharmacokinetic studies. These profiles are done early on. Data on formulation is required for any prescribed drug. It would be nice to have pharmacokinetic data on individual supplements but there is little incentive to do these studies in the current market. As the consumer population grows and becomes more educated that may change. That said, it is unfortunate that most of these university studies do not contain any pharmacokinetic data on the formulation used. I don’t know that it is fair to say it negates the entire study but it certainly does make one question what the results mean. Drug studies always have to be backed up with pharmacokinetic data and the standard should be the same when studying supplements. Such a waste of time and money.

  11. you lost me at “for those who don’t eat fish, I recommended a supplement of cod liver oil”, which I’m pretty sure is made of …… Fish.

    • Some people don’t eat fish because they don’t like the taste rather than an ethical objection and so supplementation with fish oil is one way to address that. Not appropriate for veggies/vegans though of course which is when you’d look at plant-based sources instead.

  12. Hi Chris, and thanks for this information.

    I have been taking 4 products, 5 if you include the Green Lipped Mussel Powder, which equates to over 5g per day!

    I suffer from lower back pain when I walk, which I think is to do with posture, although I didn’t manage to control it with the Alexander Technique or Pilates.
    The pain becomes so severe as to render me in tears and then I cannot walk any further. I did get relief from a McTimoney Chiropractor but at £40 for half an hour this was more costly than the fish oils and she said that she was amazed that I was in such pain as she could hardly find any problems. So I put it down to too much inflammation.
    When I take the fish oils my pain totally disappears and if I stop then within a month it returns.

    I did research the products and got CoA’s for most of them but hadn’t really given that much thought to the fact that these oils are polyunsaturated!

    Not sure if it’s okay to name the products I take.
    The mussel powder is from a reputable company in New Zealand and is produced very quickly and with minimal heat.
    I also use an oil from the same company who are happy to send the CoA for the batch before I order and that consists of NZ Hoki and selected Tuna.
    Another product consists of oil from Sardine, Mackerel and Anchovy.
    And the last two are Fermented Cod Liver Oil and Krill Oil.

    Your article has led me to re-evaluate things as I do not want to be causing new problems by eliminating existing ones.

    Since starting them I have also made many drastic changes to my diet and along with wheat and sugar (apart from red wine) I have cut out all vegetable oils for cooking and now cook in coconut oil, butter, and sometimes goose fat. I use cold pressed organic virgin olive oil (almost everything I consume is organic and has been since 1995) either alone on my salads or in dressings that I make myself.

    I was taking the fish oils with coconut oil as I have a drink each morning of green tea with 2tbsp raw coconut oil and a large heaped tsp of organic raw cacao powder – so a few antioxidants there. The cacao has been part of my solution to my hypertension since I refused to continue on the drugs.

    What am I going to do now?
    I was taking two capsules of each oil and I now will take one of each and on any day that I am having salad, which is most days I will take them with that rather than with my morning drink with coconut oil but will be looking out for any evidence of them being more effective with coconut oil as well as with olive oil.

    I think I will also have a general blood test 3 months after this change to check my cholesterol levels and other markers.
    If this lower dose of 2.5g per day keeps my back pain away and I have no problems with my cholesterol levels then all will be well and I’ll be saving some money. If my cholesterol levels alter for the worse then I will lower my intake further and keep an eye on the situation.

    Thanks again

    • Hi Lois, for your back pain and any other skeletal issues I would highly recommend checking out the work of Katy Bowman, biomechanist extraordinaire. She talks about the importance of whole-body alignment and movement all day every day in a way that’s more thorough than anybody else I’ve heard.

    • Lois,
      See http://brianpeskin.com/BP.com/reports/CAMB-Fish-Oil-Fallacies-Report.pdf
      Read the other PDFs at this site

      This could be useful according to customer reviews:

      http://www.amazon.com/Doctors-Best-Potency-Serrapeptase-90-Count/dp/B003QW3GCI#customerReviews
      Doctor’s Best High Potency Serrapeptase (120,000 Units), 90-Count $24.14
      Doctor’s Best Serrapeptase is protected by the serratic process which is a molecular coating designed to protect enzyme molecules from destruction by stomach acid. Once the enzyme-serratic complex reaches the intestines, the bile salts of that environment can break down the serrateric coating and free the enzymes to be absorbed.

      This supplement changed my life! By Glenda Lynne on October 9, 2012
      A dear friend recommended this supplement, because my back and knee pain was so severe that there were days I could barely move, much less walk or exercise. I take 3 capsules a day and also take organic crystal sulfur, and now I can walk again and do my normal household chores with almost no pain. More importantly, I no longer wake up at night with terrible pain. For me, it has worked miracles! You must take them on an empty stomach, either one hour before eating or two hours after, so I take them late at night or first thing in the morning. I am hypersensitive to meds and some supplements, but I have had no ill effects that I know of. I LOVE these supplements. They have literally given me back a higher quality life. It took about a month to fully kick in, and I’ve been taking them for 5 months now. I have hope again for a much better future and a full life. My MD and pharmacist both approved before I started them and told me that would not interfere with my meds. At the age of 70, finding something that improves your quality of life is nothing short of a miracle. I couldn’t be happier with this product. Oh, and Amazon is the least expensive source I’ve found for it.

      Call me at 316-993-6893
      I wrote The Owner’s Manual for the Human Body 700 pgs

    • Lois, thank you for such a clear overview of your current health regime!! As a Kiwi moving strongly towards progressive Paleo, a blow by blow account of your daily consumption really helps. Thanks all for the comments and thanks Chris for the rigourous but practical Summary.

  13. Pleas read the review article by the German professor of cardiology Clemens von Schacky, one of the inventor of Omega-3 Index, and you might understand the contraversy between epidemiology and some resent clinical trials.

    von Schacky C. Omega-3 Index and Cardiovascular Health. Review. Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 799-814. doi:10.3390/nu6020799
    http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/2/799/pdf

  14. I’ve been taking 10mg per day of Omega 3 (828mg DHA & 1288mg EPA) for years, and also Glucosamine & Chondroitin (1500mg Optiflex & 300 chondroitin sulphate 90%) per day for even longer. I’ve always been in good health but because I had the cartiledge removed from one of my knees after a ski accident in my 20s (I’m now 67) I’ve been concerned about arthritis in my older years. So far I’ve had no knee problems but in the past year I’ve developed what I think is Heberden’s nodes on my two index fingers and my right ring finger. Is there anything I can do to stop this for getting worse. They are not causing me discomfort at the moment but they look ugly and I don’t want them getting bigger.

  15. Thank you Chris. Yet another up to date and informative article and confirms yet again it’s wise to get nutrients as far as possible from a nutrient dense diet.

  16. I started my 12 year old son on high dose fish oils (equazen) when he was seven, for help with cognitive issues. A major, positive side effect to this supplementation was a massive improvement in his very unstable asthma – in fact we were able to drastically reduce his long-term, heavy duty drug regimen and he has not had a single hospitalisation since he started taking them. When I did some research on the matter, I found that studies had been done on the issue, but these had been very limited in number and scope (there is of course a vast amount of money in the asthma/allergy drug market, which may or may not have a bearing on the research issue).
    I’m guessing that, as in so many other things, one size does not fit all and it is not a cure all – but for those who are unable to make the neccessary metabolic conversions of ALA and are therefore EPA and DHA deficient, it is life changing!

  17. Hi,

    I’ve been reading that fish oil may not be as good as ut was assumed. One of the arguments being that it was produced using deep waters fish which tend to accumulate more mercury and other toxic stuff.

    I read here that krill oil may be less polluted since krill is caught in the “pristine waters of Antarctica”.
    https://www.drnewtons.com/blog/avoid-dangers-mercury-pure-krill-oil/

    But I guess the whole point of the article is more towards lack of evidence on the real benefits of taking it isolated, right?

    Thanks,
    Nuno

  18. There are 3 factors that are critical:

    * Quality of the Fish Oil
    * Omega 3 Index
    * Omega-6/3 Ratio

    Quality of the Fish Oil
    ===================
    Most Fish Oil capsules and even many liquids are mostly synthetic and are concentrated by using distillation and Ethyl Esters

    The most effective Fish Oil is 100% natural and made by squeezing the off-cuts from sardines and herrings etc within minutes of them being caught in the ocean. Natural Fish Oil contains a fatty acid complex of over 50 fatty acids, which has a similar beneficial effect just like eating real fish.

    Omega-3 Index
    ==============
    This is a measure of how much Omega-3 you have in your body
    This should be >8% of your total Fatty Acids
    Read more here:
    http://www.omegametrix.eu/?lang=EN
    http://www.omegaquant.com/
    http://www.expertomega3.com/

    Omega-6/3 Index
    ===============
    This is a measure of how much Omega-6 you have compared to Omega-3
    If your Omega-6/3 Index is less than 3:1 you will reduce Inflammation
    Most people eat way too much Omega-6, mostly from corn oil and soy-bean oil
    Read more here:
    http://www.hqt-diagnostics.com/

    The amount of natural Fish Oil that you need depends on your existing levels.
    Today you can measure that with a simple blood test
    Read more here: http://greenvits.eu/collections/omega-3

    Watch my 7-minute YouTube talk here:
    http://greenvits.eu/pages/omega-3

    .

  19. It’s actually pretty easy: No fish oil without Antioxidants. You need tons of Antioxidants in the first place, before you should even think about supplementing fish oil.