The Weston A. Price Foundation and advocates of the Paleo and Primal lifestyles favor bone broth for its wide array of nutrients that are difficult to find in any other food source. In her book, Gut and Psychology Syndrome: Natural Treatment for Autism, Dyspraxia, A.D.D., Dyslexia, A.D.H.D., Depression, Schizophrenia, Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride has made bone and meat stock the foundation of the GAPS protocol because of its ability to heal and seal the gut lining and reduce overgrowth of harmful microbes. (1) Broth made from chicken bones may also reduce the migration of immune cells during sickness. These are just some of the many reasons to love bone broth.
Bone broth is mentioned in dozens of articles on my blog, but I haven’t really provided a thorough analysis in a single, convenient place for my readers. So here it is: everything you need to know about bone broth benefits. In this research-dense article, I will cover the role of broth in traditional cultures, the nutritive components of bone broth, the numerous health benefits, and the best ways to source it.
Bone Broth in Traditional Cultures
A South American proverb says, “Good broth will resurrect the dead.” While this is certainly a stretch of the imagination, the ability of broth—and chicken broth, in particular—to treat the common cold has long been touted as ancient folk wisdom.
Check out this article for the latest research on the benefits of bone broth.#bonebroth #collagen #guthealth
Scientists at the University of Nebraska sought to test this folklore in 2000 and found that in vitro (in a Petri dish), some components of chicken soup were able to inhibit the migration of innate immune cells called neutrophils, effectively acting as an anti-inflammatory that could, in theory, reduce symptoms of illness. (2) Whether this effect occurs in vivo (in a living organism) is still unclear, but this preliminary data suggests that our ancestors may have been onto something. We’ll explore how bone broth benefits the immune system more in a later section.
The Global Appeal of This Superfood
Evidence of the existence of soup dates back 20,000 years. (3) It’s well-accepted that broth of some sort was, and remains, a staple in many traditional cultures. In Danish and German culture, large hens were specifically reserved for making soup, and the cooked meat was retained for other dishes or added back to the soup. In East Asian diets, dishes like miso sometimes contain meat stock. In Greece, beaten eggs mixed with lemon are commonly added to chicken broth as a traditional remedy for colds and digestive upset. Chicken soup in Hungary usually included organ meats, like chicken liver and heart, while in Vietnam and the Philippines, beef bone marrow was used as the base for making beef bone broth. In India, chicken soup is popularly sold by roadside vendors in the winter and takes on many different forms.
Unlocking Bone Broth Benefits With Nose-to-Tail Eating
A core component of functional medicine is using whole foods to nourish your body and get the nutrients you need to stay healthy. Traditional cultures achieved this by practicing nose-to-tail eating and consuming all parts of the animal, including the:
- Other gelatin-rich cuts of meat
This provided a balanced intake of all the amino acids necessary to build and maintain essential structures in the human body. Some anthropologists have even suggested that in some regions of the world, early humans were scavengers rather than hunters, using tools to crack open the bones of carcasses left by lions and other large predators to expose the rich bone marrow. (4)
Unfortunately, many modern cultures have lost the practice of whole-animal eating. The age-old tradition of having a hot pot of bone broth constantly cooking on the hearth has been lost in favor of modern convenience, microwaves, and highly processed canned soups. Bringing bone broth back into the modern diet offers an easy and delicious means of obtaining the nutrition from parts of the animal that traditional cultures prized.
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A Nutrient-Rich Gold Mine
Bones contain an abundance of minerals as well as 17 different amino acids, many of which are found in bone broth as proteins like collagen and gelatin. Though the exact nutritional content varies based on the bones used, cooking time, and cooking method, the following nutrients are consistently found in most bone broths.
With 28 different types, collagen makes up about 30 percent of the protein in your body. (5) It’s the main component of connective tissues like:
It is also present in the blood vessels, cornea, and the lens of the eye. The name collagen comes from the Greek “kólla,” meaning “glue,” and the suffix “-gen,” which means “producing.” (6) In fact, early glue was made from collagen more than 8,000 years ago, likely by boiling the skin and sinews of animals. (7) In addition to providing structure, collagen also plays an important role in tissue development and regulation. (8, 9)
When collagen is simmered, it forms gelatin. This hydrolysis of collagen is irreversible and results in the breakdown of long collagen protein fibrils into smaller protein peptides. However, its chemical composition is very similar to its parent molecule, collagen. (10) Gelatin is what gives bone broth or stock its Jell-O-like consistency once it has cooled.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex carbohydrates that participate in many biological processes. They can attach to proteins in order to form proteoglycans, which are integral parts of connective tissue and synovial fluid, the lubricant that surrounds the joint. (11) If the connective tissue, such as tendons, ligaments, and cartilage, is still attached, the bones in broth will provide our bodies with raw materials for skin, bone, and cartilage formation, including:
- Keratan sulfates
- Dermatan sulfates
- Chondroitin sulfates
- Hyaluronic acid
Glycine is an amino acid that makes up more than a third of collagen. It also acts as a neurotransmitter, binding to glycine receptors present throughout the nervous system and peripheral tissues. Signaling through this receptor is particularly important in mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the brainstem and spinal cord. (12, 13)
Proline is an amino acid that makes up about 17 percent of collagen. The addition of hydroxyl groups to proline significantly increases the stability of collagen and is essential to its structure. Though small amounts of proline can be manufactured in the body, evidence shows that adequate dietary proline is necessary to maintain an optimal level of this amino acid in the body. (14, 15) Proline is not typically thought of as a neurotransmitter, but it is able to weakly bind to glutamate receptors and glycine receptors. (16)
Glutamine is another important amino acid found in bone broth and is the most abundant amino acid in the blood. (17) It is one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood–brain barrier. (18) Intestinal epithelial cells and activated immune cells eagerly consume glutamine for cellular energy. (19, 20)
Inside the center cavity of the bone is the bone marrow, consisting of two types: red and yellow. Both types contain collagen.
Red bone marrow is the manufacturing site for new immune cells and red blood cells, while yellow marrow consists of healthy fats. (21, 22) It is thought that important nutritional and immune support factors might be extracted from marrow during cooking, but the bioavailability of these factors has not been studied.
Bone is also full of a variety of minerals, including:
- Zinc (23)
An acidic medium is necessary to extract these minerals from your meal. When making broth, always add a splash of vinegar or other acids in order to extract the most minerals from the bone.
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At this point, I hope you have a solid understanding of the components of bone broth. Now, let’s get on to the health benefits.
Skin is composed of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis, or upper layer, is made of keratinocytes and is largely responsible for skin barrier function. Underneath is the dermis, which is a dense matrix of collagen and GAGs that provides structural and nutritive support. (24) Keratin, collagen, and GAGs are abundant in bone broth, particularly if the skin from the animal is included in the cooking process.
Multiple studies have shown that collagen and gelatin, which are both found in bone broth, can benefit your skin’s health. In a 2014 randomized and controlled trial, collagen consumption significantly improved skin elasticity and tended to improve skin moisture content. (25) Collagen scaffolds are widely used in medical applications to promote tissue regeneration and heal wounds. (26) One study in mice found that supplementing the diet with gelatin was even able to protect against UV-induced skin damage. (27)
GAGs also offer additional skin benefits. The GAG hyaluronic acid has been shown to promote skin cell proliferation and increase the presence of retinoic acid, which improves the skin’s hydration. (28) Dermatan sulfate has been shown to aid in cell turnover and wound repair. (29)
Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health
Remember glycine, an amino acid that is particularly abundant in bone broth? Glycine plays a role in blood sugar regulation by controlling gluconeogenesis, the production of glucose in the liver, and has even been suggested to counteract some of the negative effects of dietary fructose consumption. (30, 31) Glycine has also been shown to reduce the size of heart attacks. (32)
Furthermore, glycine balances out methionine intake. Muscle meats and eggs are high in methionine, an amino acid that raises homocysteine levels in the blood. High homocysteine is a significant risk factor for serious diseases like heart disease, stroke, mental illness, and fractures, and it increases our need for homocysteine-neutralizing nutrients like vitamins B6, B12, folate, and choline. (33) People who eat lots of animal protein need adequate glycine to balance out the methionine from meat, and you’ll get that from bone broth. For more information, check out Denise Minger’s 2013 presentation in which she discusses this very issue.
Muscles and Performance
Glycine is also important for the synthesis of hemoglobin and myoglobin, which transport oxygen throughout the blood and muscle tissue, respectively. (34) Glycine also increases creatine levels, which leads to an increase in anaerobic (high-intensity) exercise capacity and stimulates the secretion of human growth hormone, which may enhance muscle repair. (35, 36, 37) Recent evidence suggests that proline may play a role in regulating the mTOR cellular signaling pathway, which integrates signals from nutrients, growth factors, stress factors, and cellular energy status to affect cell function and growth. Proline, together with other amino acids, activates mTOR, resulting in enhanced muscle protein synthesis. (38)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical form of energy in the body that can be used to perform work. Phosphorus is required for the formation of this compound, and ATP cannot be biologically active unless it’s bound to a magnesium ion. Phosphorus nutrient deficiencies have been shown to reduce muscle performance. (39, 40) Both phosphorus and magnesium are present in bone broth in modest amounts.
Bones and Joints
It should be pretty obvious that the best way to get the nutrients necessary to build bone is from consuming bone-based foods. Drinking bone broth provides all of the raw material for building healthy bones, including:
- Amino acids
- And more
As for joint health, lubrication by GAGs is the key to a full range of motion. GAGs allow part of one bone to slide smoothly and painlessly over part of another. Sure, you could buy expensive supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to keep your joints healthy, but why, when these and a host of other beneficial nutrients can easily be obtained from bone broth? After all, GAGs are not the only component of broth that improves joint health. Collagen may also benefit the joints. In one study, researchers found that athletes experienced less joint pain after taking collagen supplements. (43)
A healthy colon contains a single, tight layer of epithelial cells, a thick mucus layer, and a diverse collection of microbes. Microbial dysbiosis and a thinning of this mucus layer can quickly compromise the integrity of the epithelial barrier and cause a leaky gut. In people with a leaky gut, microbes and dietary proteins can “leak” into the bloodstream and invoke an inflammatory response by the immune system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of bacterial cell walls, stimulates a particularly robust immune response. (44)
Eating bone broth is an effective way to heal your gut. Gelatin absorbs water and helps maintain the layer of mucus that keeps gut microbes away from the intestinal barrier. In a mouse model, gelatin supplementation reduced the severity of colitis by strengthening the mucus layer and altering gut microbiota composition. (45) Gelatin and glycine have also been shown to reduce the inflammation LPS causes. (46, 47) Glycine has been shown to protect against gastric ulcers as well. (48) Glutamine also helps maintain the integrity of the gut mucosa and intestinal barrier. (49) These are just a few reasons why nearly everyone should eat gelatin, glycine, and glutamine.
Bone broth has so many benefits to gut health that I had to make digestion its own section. Drinking broth with meals is an excellent way to aid digestion. Glycine stimulates the production of stomach acid, which is essential for the proper digestion of any meal. (50) Low stomach acid (hypochlorhydria) is surprisingly common in developed countries and can lead to a number of health issues, including heartburn and GERD.
Glycine is also an important component of bile acid, which is released to aid in the digestion of fats in the small intestine. (51) Bile acid is important for maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels. The presence of gelatin in the gut also draws fluid into the intestine, which improves gut motility and supports healthy bowel movements. Low blood levels of collagen have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. (52)
Detoxification, Liver Function, and Kidney Health
Recently, there has been some concern regarding bone broth and lead toxicity. However, the vitamins and minerals that are abundant in bone broth, and in Paleo diets in general, can protect against the harmful effects of environmental toxins like lead. Glycine also stimulates the production of glutathione, the body’s master antioxidant. (53) In animal models, glycine has been shown to speed recovery from alcohol-induced fatty liver disease, protect liver cells against hypoxia, and improve survival after liver transplantation. (54, 55, 56) In humans, glycine reduces oxidative stress in people with metabolic syndrome. (57)
Proline plays a role in apoptosis, the process by which the body breaks down old cells, clears up waste products, and recycles raw materials for use in healthy cells. (58) Proline can scavenge free radicals, effectively acting as an antioxidant. (59) Glutamine, on the other hand, acts as a nontoxic nitrogen transporter, carrying amine groups safely through the bloodstream to the kidney. In the kidney, the conversion of glutamine to glutamate regulates acid–base balance by producing ammonium. (60)
Yes, bone broth may help improve eye health. The cornea consists of three primary layers:
- An outer epithelial layer
- A middle layer
- An inner endothelial layer
Hyaluronic acid stimulates proliferation of the epithelial cells that line the cornea and is commonly used during eye surgery to help replace lost fluids. (61, 62) The middle, or stromal, layer is largely made of collagen, keratan sulfates, and chondroitin sulfates. Keratan sulfates have been shown to be essential to the transparency of the cornea, while chondroitin sulfate has been shown to influence the development of neural pathways in the retina. (63, 64) The amino acid glycine has also been shown to delay the progression of cataracts in a rat model of diabetes. (65)
Numerous components of bone broth benefit the nervous system. The healthy fats in bone broth—particularly if it’s made with marrow bones—provide a source of fuel and raw material for the brain. After all, more than 60 percent of the human brain is composed of fat. (66)
Glycine has been shown to protect against neuronal death after ischemic stroke and likely plays a pertinent role in the development of the brain in the womb and during the first few months after birth. (67, 68)
Calcium is essential for nerve conduction. When a nerve cell is stimulated, the influx of calcium triggers neurotransmitter release, allowing the signal to be passed on to the next nerve cell. Calcium deficiency affects this transmission and can result in symptoms of:
Lastly, chondroitin sulfate plays an important role in regeneration and plasticity in the central nervous system, meaning it is essential for learning and memory. (69)
Mood and Sleep
For some people, bone broth helps improve both mood and sleep. Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning it can:
- Decrease anxiety
- Promote mental calmness
- Help with sleep (70)
One study found that three grams of glycine given to subjects before bedtime produced measurable improvements in sleep quality. (71)
Unlike methionine, glycine does not compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood–brain barrier. (72) Tryptophan is the precursor (raw material) for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that contributes to feelings of well-being. Serotonin, in turn, is a precursor to melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep–wake cycles. This is why a diet that includes bone broth and fattier cuts of meat can help prevent the depression and beat the insomnia that some people experience when eating a diet high in methionine-rich lean meat and eggs.
While ancient folk wisdom suggests that a hot cup of bone broth can help soothe the sick and cure the common cold, modern studies have confirmed that the components of bone broth can boost the immune system. For example, glycine receptors have been identified on the outer surface of several different types of immune cells. (73, 74) The effect is a dampening of the immune response, resulting in reduced inflammatory signaling molecules and oxidative stress that may reduce damage to lungs and other tissues. (75) The GAG heparan sulfate has been shown to influence B cell function, T cell function, and macrophage activity. (76)
Where to Source It
To summarize, there are an incredible number of bone broth benefits, and this hot drink is rooted in a long history of human use. It makes an excellent addition to any diet and can be used in a multitude of meals.
Homemade bone broth is simple to make. Ask your local farmers if they have soup bones, or roast a whole pastured chicken and save the bones for cooking broth. Chicken feet, chicken necks, calves’ feet, and marrow bones are particularly valuable additions to broth. You can find a good, easy recipe over at the Weston A. Price Foundation website.
Pre-made bone broth is also a good option. Just be sure to follow these steps when you shop.
Buy Organic, Pasture-Raised Bone Broth
Buying broth that is organic and made from pasture-raised animals or wild-caught fish will minimize the toxins and maximize the nutrients you get from the product.
Kettle & Fire is a good option for packaged, organic broth. The company uses bones of organic, pasture-raised animals along with organic vegetables, sea salt, and herbs, all slow-simmered for 24 hours.
Don’t buy bone broth that comes in cans or other plastic food containers that contain bisphenol A (BPA) or BPA substitutes. BPA is a potent endocrine disruptor that carries a host of health risks.
One more use of a bone broth I often take advantage of is help with Intermittent Fasting. It provides nice support on fasting days, suppressing hunger quite effectively.
Great article, Chris. As going back to our roots becomes more and more mainstream (whether it’s through following paleo ideals, reducing processed foods or retracing the practices of our previous generations), the general public will all benefit from the nutrient-dense food sources such as bone broth.
We thank you for putting together such a great article and we’ll be sure to reference our readers to it for its well documented information.
Once everyone changes their consumption practices, then we’ll just have to clean up the supply chain by removing hidden chemicals, etc (but that’s a battle for another day).
Thank you for everything you do! Keep it edgy.
~ Justin @ Edgy
We keep ziplock freezer bags in the freezer that we refer to as our “bone piles”. One for chicken bones, one for meat bones. All of our pork chop, steak, rib, chicken, and roast bones go into the bags. When one is full, we make a large pot of bone broth in the slow cooker. We never have to go out and buy “soup bones” . We store the broth in the freezer and always have some at hand when a recipe calls for it or we want to make soup. We have the best gravies, sauces, soups, and stews!
The latest thing I’m seeing in the health food store is “Bone Broth Protein” – it’s a powder from “Ancient Nutrition” and comes in vanilla and chocolate.
Any thoughts on this product or others like it? I’m guessing the home cooked broth is best but is this still good?
Also, when I get stock bones at the farmers market they come frozen. Someone told me that once a food is frozen all nutritional value is gone. Any thoughts on that?
The couple times I’ve made stock I used the bones for several days putting them in a crockpot with water and a splash of ACV. Then I freeze it and use in soup later (weak but I add other flavorings). Do you advocate using the bones multiple times? And again, any value once frozen?
I have digestive issues and have been told that I suffer after consuming bone broth because of the GAGS. My nutritionist has me trying beef marrow bones and today I did a short simmer for 4 hours only with no ACV. If this works, I will move to longer cooking times. We feel bone broth is so important. Any comments on the trouble some of us have with the GAGS? Glycosaminoglycans (in the connective tissues etc? And how to avoid them?
I have purchased bone broth made here in Australia – no instructions as to how much to use. Do I need to have a cupful daily?? I just added some broth to my home made vegetable and bean soup. Can you have too much bone broth??
It is so good to be reminded of the importance of having bone broth regularly. Thank you, enjoyed it very much.
Thanks for the article, Chris! I’m sipping on a mug of bone broth with two eggs stirred in as I write this – it’s nice to know that the broth is balancing out the eggs (and all the muscle meats I’ll eat later today!)
Bone broth is great, but also high in histamine and arginine. I get puffy and frequent cold sores when i consume it. Not for everyone.
Me too it makes me feel ill. My heart rate goes up I itch and my face goes very red. Then I get very tired and have to lie down. Shame I love it.
Paul Jaminet says you can reduce immune reactions to bone broth by reducing the cooking time from 12-24 hours to a just a few hours
Very helpful article! My husband’s doctor has recommended bone broth to address numerous ailments. Can the same benefits be gained from taking collagen peptides made from grass fed pasture raised beef? A powder that is mixed with water.
VSL#3 a ‘high potenc’ probiotic medical food upregulates the MUC 1 gene, increasing mucus layer thickness
Why did you bring up VSL3, curious, as I did not understand the significance of your post?
Who would have thought that you could use bone broth as a health booster? Definitely going to try it now (because I’m all about testing) and analyze the results.
Hoping for some flavor too!
My IgG test showed multiple sensitivities including tomatoes and apples. My OAT showed high levels of yeast.
So what do I use to get the gelatin off the bones? I can’t use tomato paste, ACV or any vinegar. What do you suggest?
I wouldn’t assume that you’ll have adverse reactions to ACV because apples come up on an IgG test – different preparations of the same food cause different reactions (which is why Cyrex test for cooked and raw versions on foods, for example). Maybe try a careful experiment to see if bone broth made with ACV causes problems?
Otherwise, one option might be gelatin products like those by Great Lakes, for example: http://greatlakesgelatin.com/storefront/
I can’t do avc as it’s high histamine I used to simmer chicken bones for 2 hours and the broth would always gel. You don’t need to add anything. Try it. Filtered water and a chicken carcass.
I would have thought you could add another natural acid such as lemon juice to help leech out the minerals. Anyone know a reason why this wouldn’t work?
I am not sure using Kettle and Fire broth or any commercial broth at all is the best idea. Commercial companies use packaging that is lined with polypropylene or other plastics. I would like to see the evidence this can not leach into food.
Sally Fallon’s Nourishing Traditions recommends simmering beef broth for 12 – 72 hours.
I`m not about to do that – who can leave a pot cooking on the stove for that amount of time?
I’ve taken to cooking my broth in my pressure cooker. The results are fantastic in terms of flavor and consistency.
Does anyone know if this method also succeeds in extracting the secondary substances and minerals?
You can speed up the process with a pressure cooker—2 hours in a pressure cooker with give you an intensely rich and thick stock. Better yet, get an Instant Pot, start your stock in the morning cooking for a couple hours on pressure cooking mode, then it will set to stay warm for the rest of the day. You’ll come home to amazingly thick and delicious bone broth!
What a great idea! I have no instant pot but never thought to do it that way.
Personally, the idea of cooking animal bones for long periods, or until they disintegrate, is offputting and makes the house smell bad. Also, the idea that bone broth is such a powerhouse of vitamins and minerals has been debunked by lab tests (see Mark’s Daily Apple, etc.) Enjoy it for the collagen, but don’t expect miracles from it. You can get the same nutrients from ordinary homemade chicken or beef stock, which take about 30 minutes in an Instant Pot.
That is exactly right!
I put mine on for as many hours as I can every evening usually 6-11pm for a minimum of 4 evenings. I leave it out all day with the lid on and then start the low simmer again the next evening. We live on the Equator, we have high humidity and I’ve been doing this for 9 years.
Fallon’s newer book recommends shorter cooking times! In her 2014 book ‘Nourishing Broth” she recommends cooking chicken or veal stocks for 4 to 6 hours and beef stock for a full day or overnight. (Fish collagen will dissolve into the water at temperatures well below the boil and in as little as half hour.) I consider this good news!!
Best Info resource EVER on broth!
Chris — you rock!!
Paul Jaminet, Ph.D said when making bone broth, one must simmer the bones for an hour, then discard the water to get rid of blood and contaminants. I wonder if anyone else has opinions about this.
Probably depends a bit on where you get your bones from. We make a commercial broth (organic free-range chicken, duck, grass-fed beef, and organic grass-fed beef) – we have had them tested fro heavy metals, and none of them registered above minimum testing levels.
I can only find 100% grass fed beef and lamb bones to make broth. No one has chicken that hasn’t been fed grains and I have celiac disease and can’t have any grains even grains fed to chickens, the meat and bones contain grains.
I purchased Great Lakes gelatin after reading it was 100% grass fed but after contacting them they revealed when they send the cows out to be processed they are fed grains along the way so I can’t drink this either! So I wasted my money and won’t be using it.
I can’t use vinegar, lemon or other acids in making bone broth. Is it still healthy without the vinegar/lemon/acids?
Yes still healthy, you might get a little less minerals from the bones.
I’ve actually had my companies bone broth tested in a lab because I was curious about whether vinegars really do promote more minerals being leached out of the broth during the simmer. I’m not sure how this became such a popular mandatory addition to maximizing the nutrients in a finished broth.
We tested our broth once with organic apple cider vinegar. And another time without adding the vinegar. There was such negligible differences in vitamin and mineral content of the finished broth that I no longer use apple cider vinegar in the recipe.
Hope this helps!
We have just done the same thing, and also found a consistent, but modest increase in minerals with the ACV.
We are now going to experiment with different levels of ACV to see if there is (or isn’t) a sweet spot – where taste is still good, and minerals are significantly optimised.
Thanks for posting that! I always wondered about whether it was truly necessary!
Hi Chris, my question is off subject but I need some feedback. In a past article you spoke of the health benefits of a kitava diet. My question that hasn’t been answered is how do they prevent cu toxicity with mainly sweet potatoes and fish. It would seem that they are eating a cu dominated ratio.. Thanks for your feedback.