The Acid-Alkaline Myth: Part 1 | Chris Kresser
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The Acid-Alkaline Myth: Part 1

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Many of you have probably heard of the "alkaline diet." There are a few different versions of the acid-alkaline theory circulating the internet, but the basic claim is that the foods we eat leave behind an "ash" after they are metabolized, and this ash can be acid or alkaline (alkaline meaning more basic on the pH scale).

acid alkaline, alkaline myth
Smoothies containing vegetables are alkali forming. Derkien/iStock/Thinkstock

According to the theory, it is in our best interest to make sure we eat more alkaline foods than acid foods, so that we end up with an overall alkaline load on our body. This will supposedly protect us from the diseases of modern civilization, whereas eating a diet with a net acid load will make us vulnerable to everything from cancer to osteoporosis. To make sure we stay alkaline, they recommend keeping track of urine or saliva pH using pH test strips.

In this two-part series, I will address the main claims made by proponents of the alkaline diet, and will hopefully clear up some confusion about what it all means for your health.d

Will eating an alkaline diet make you and your bones healthier?

Foods Can Influence Our Urine pH

Before I start dismantling this theory, I want to acknowledge a couple things they get right. First, foods do leave behind acid or alkaline ash. The type of “ash” is determined by the relative content of acid-forming components such as phosphate and sulfur, and alkalis such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium. (1, 2) In general, animal products and grains are acid forming, while fruits and vegetables are alkali forming. Pure fats, sugars, and starches are neutral, because they don’t contain protein, sulfur, or minerals.

It’s also true that the foods we eat change the pH of our urine. (3, 4) If you have a green smoothie for breakfast, for example, your pee a few hours later will likely be more alkaline than that of someone who had bacon and eggs. As a side note, it’s also very easy to measure your urine pH, and I think this is one of the big draws of the alkaline diet. Everyone can probably agree that it’s satisfying to see concrete improvements in health markers depending on your diet, and pH testing gives people that instant gratification they desire. However, as you’ll see below, urine pH is not a good indicator of the overall pH of the body, nor is it a good indicator of general health.

Foods Don’t Influence Our Blood pH

Proponents of the alkaline diet have put forth a few different theories about how an acidic diet harms our health. The more ridiculous claim is that we can change the pH of our blood by changing the foods we eat, and that acidic blood causes disease while alkaline blood prevents it. This is not true. The body tightly regulates the pH of our blood and extracellular fluid, and we cannot influence our blood pH by changing our diet. (5, 6) High doses of sodium bicarbonate can temporarily increase blood pH, but not without causing uncomfortable GI symptoms. (7, 8) And there are certainly circumstances in which the blood is more acidic than it should be, and this does have serious health consequences. However, this state of acidosis is caused by pathological conditions such as chronic renal insufficiency, not by whether you choose to eat a salad or a burger. In other words, regardless of what you eat or what your urine pH is, you can be pretty confident that your blood pH is hovering around a comfortable 7.4.

A more nuanced claim has been proposed specifically regarding bone health, and this hypothesis is addressed somewhat extensively in the scientific literature. It supposes that in order to keep blood pH constant, the body pulls minerals from our bones to neutralize any excess acid that is produced from our diet. Thus, net acid-forming diets (such as the typical Western diet) can cause bone demineralization and osteoporosis. This hypothesis, often referred to as the “acid-ash hypothesis of osteoporosis,” is what I will discuss for the rest of this article. I’ll address some of the other health claims in part two.

The Kidneys—Not Bone—Regulate Blood pH

While more reasonable than the first claim, the acid-ash hypothesis seems to completely disregard the vital role the kidneys play in regulating body pH. The kidneys are well equipped to deal with “acid ash.” When we digest things like protein, the acids produced are quickly buffered by bicarbonate ions in the blood. (7) This reaction produces carbon dioxide, which is exhaled through the lungs, and salts, which are excreted by the kidneys. During the process of excretion, the kidneys produce “new” bicarbonate ions, which are returned to the blood to replace the bicarbonate that was initially used to buffer the acid. This creates a sustainable cycle in which the body is able to maintain the pH of the blood, with no involvement from the bones whatsoever.

Thus, our understanding of acid-base physiology does not support the theory that net acid-forming diets cause loss of bone minerals and osteoporosis. But just for argument’s sake, let’s say that our renal system cannot handle the acid load of the modern diet. If bones were used to buffer this excess acid, we would expect to see evidence of this taking place in clinical trials. Alas, that is not the case.

Clinical Trials Do Not Support the Acid-Ash Hypothesis of Osteoporosis

At first glance, some of the studies may look convincing, because higher acid diets often increase the excretion of calcium in the urine. Some researchers assumed that this extra calcium was coming from bone. (8) However, when calcium balance (intake minus excretion) was measured, researchers found that acid-forming diets do not have a negative effect on calcium metabolism. (9) Some studies found that supplementing with potassium salts (intended to neutralize excess acid) had beneficial effects on markers for bone health, which would tend to support the acid-ash hypothesis. However, these results were only observed in the first few weeks of supplementation, and long-term trials did not find any benefit to bone health from these alkalizing salts. (10)

Finally, even though the hypothesis holds that higher intakes of protein and phosphate are acidifying and therefore detrimental to bone health, multiple studies have shown that increasing protein or phosphate intake has positive effects on calcium metabolism and on markers for bone health. (11, 12) Summarizing the clinical evidence, two different meta-analyses and a review paper all concluded that randomized controlled trials do not support the hypothesis that acidifying diets cause loss of bone mineral and osteoporosis. (13, 14, 15)

So, it appears that neither physiology nor clinical trials support the acid-ash hypothesis of osteoporosis. But again, just for argument’s sake, let’s suppose that these trials are imperfect (which they are, of course; no science is perfect!), and thus we can’t depend on their conclusions. If the acid-ash hypothesis of osteoporosis were true, we would expect to see an association between net acid-producing diets and osteoporosis in observational studies. Yet again, this is not the case.

Observational Studies Do Not Support the Acid-Ash Hypothesis of Osteoporosis

Observational studies have not found a correlation between dietary acid load and bone mineral density (BMD) or fracture risk, nor have they found a correlation between urine pH and BMD or fracture risk. (16, 17, 18) Additionally, higher protein intakes are correlated with better bone health in multiple studies, even though high-protein diets are generally net acid forming. (19) In fact, animal protein in particular (the most acid-forming food of all) has been associated with better bone health. (20, 21) Imagine that! One study included in a recent meta-analysis did find an association between higher protein intake and greater risk for fracture (22), but compared to the numerous more recent studies showing the opposite, this evidence isn’t very strong. Overall, the acid-ash hypothesis of osteoporosis is not supported by physiology, clinical trials, or observational data.

Hopefully I’ve given you a decent understanding of how our bodies handle pH balance, and have reassured you that you don’t need to worry about the acidity of your urine with regards to bone health. Click here for part two, where I tackle some of the other claims of the alkaline diet!

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  1. Chris,

    Thanks for addressing this issue. Would you please address the use and supplementation of alkalizing foods like Apple Cider Vinegar, Bicarbonate, etc.., and how such use relates to your conclusions and an overall health protocol?

    • Hi Jake,

      I would like to address your question.

      First of all, every food stimulates the same alkaline response. Lemons for example, as well as apple cider vinegar, are acidic but we have all heard stimulate an alkaline response. Did you know though that steak, fish, candy bars, cake, pie, fruits and vegetables, etc. all stimulate that same exact alkaline response? In short, all foods are made acidic in the stomach by stomach acid. The mixture of food, stomach acid and enzymes is known as chyme. When the acidic chyme is released in to the intestines the pancreas releases alkaline bicarbonate to neutralize the acid in order to protect the intestines. The release of bicarbonate from the pancreas is known as the “alkaline response”.

      Bicarbonate is not a food, nor is it safe to ingest. Not only will this raise your sodium levels significantly, but the neutralization of the stomach acid can lead to all sorts of health problems from acid reflux in the short run due to increased fermentation to problems such as cancer in the long run due to decreased methylation.

      See:

      http://medcapsules.com/forum/showthread.php?tid=2632

      http://medcapsules.com/forum/showthread.php?tid=2945

  2. I was never aware of any osteoporosis claims in regard to an acid/alkali imbalance. However, I was always under the assumption that communicable diseases, even as simple as the common cold, were better able to flourish in an acidic environment. So my attempts to remain alkaline balanced was for a general well being and protection from illness. Also, curious about your opinion/evidence concerning what is covered in the book “Alkalize or Die?” Thanks again for insightful topics!

    • Hi Ken,

      The cold virus thriving in an acidic environment is just more sales nonsense.

      Viruses are not living to begin with, they are just packets of genetic material.

      But viruses can still function exceedingly well in an alkaline environment. For example, the vast majority of cancers have been linked to viruses inserted in to healthy cell genes. The internal pH of cancer cells though is more alkaline that the internal pH of healthy cells.

      Viruses are not the only pathogens that do fine in an alkaline environment. Most pathogens thrive in an alkaline environment and are killed or controlled by acids. For example, the ulcer and cancer causing bacteria H. pylori secretes highly alkaline ammonia to neutralize stomach acid to protect itself from the acidity. And Candida growth is inhibited by flora acids that turn off the Candida growth gene and keep the Candida in tits benign yeast form. Alkalinity turns on the Candida growth gene and coverts the Candida in to its pathogenic fungal form.

      One role of stomach acid is to destroy ingested pathogens. The flora that inhabit various parts of our body such as the skin, sinuses, intestines and vaginal cavity produce various acids that kill potential pathogens.

      The whole alkalize for health thing is nothing but sales hype.

  3. Leaving aside questions of blood or body pH, have you seen the latest studies regarding larynx type problems responding well to a less acidic diet?

  4. Dr. William Davis mentioned the acidity of wheat in his book in terms of bone health. I don’t remember the details but was his hypothesis incorrect? What about the early grain with poor bone health? What explains that? Thanks for research and input!

    • “What about the early grain with poor bone health? What explains that?”

      I believe that refers to wheat consumption inducing rickets via vitamin D deficiency.

    • > What about the early grain with poor bone health?

      Phytic acid contained in cereals chelates calcium and other minerals which are essential to bone health.

      • Phytates have gotten a bad rap including the claims that they rob the body on minerals. This is not true. This just came up in an e-mail sent to me the other day and here is a copy of my response that explains why this is a myth:

        You are right, the information is very misleading. Phytic acid does bind minerals, but does not rob the body of minerals. Phytic acid binds with minerals the plants pick up from the soil. Since the phytic acid is already saturated the phytic acid would have to give up the minerals it has first in order to remove any minerals from the body. Since phytic acid has a higher affinity for dangerous free iron and toxic heavy metals it is also beneficial to the body, not dangerous. I addressed this various times when writing about soy myths:

        http://medcapsules.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?fid=106

          • It would be nice if instead of just posting research studies you state what your point is with these studies. It takes too much time to read though all the studies and trying to figure out what your point is.

            As for this study though it actually provides evidence to my point. Here is a quote from the study:

            “Tervilä-Wilo et al. (1999) and Bohn et al. (2007) demonstrated that wheat phytate globoids consist of phytic acid and protein in greatest relative proportion but also other minerals especially K, Mg, Ca and Fe in decreasing order of concentration.”

            Note that as I pointed out the phytic acid within the plant is already bound to minerals. Thus in order to remove other minerals from the body the phytic acid would first have to give up the minerals it is already saturated with. And we have to keep in mind that phytates have a higher affinity for toxic metals than they do beneficial minerals.

            If you read further in the study you posted they do point out that the addition of FREE phytic acid to the diet resulted in a loss of minerals. This is because the phytic acid is not already saturated with minerals the plant has already taken up from the soil. This is like claiming water robs the body of minerals since truly pure water is highly corrosive and will take minerals from the body in an attempt to saturate. On the other hand already saturated water such as spring water is not corrosive and would have to give up the minerals it is already saturated with in order to remove other minerals from the body.

            Free phytic acid (inositol hexaphospahte, IP6) is sold in health foods stores for among other things as a cancer therapy because it has a high affinity for free iron that can promote cancer and cancer pathogens.

          • I’m so glad someone with actual peer reviewed evidence is posting. Thank you Ted.

            I actually do suffer from a very acidic body due to years of abuse in eating wheat (in response to the question about wheat being different – it is because most of it is genetically modified), eating white sugar (way too much), white flour, etc.

            For awhile I went to many specialists. No one could find out what was wrong. They thought for sure that I had Lupus because my ANA titers were 1-320 homogenous and 1-320 speckled. It was ruled out with SS-A and SS-B. So I was sent on my merry way.

            All the while, as my tongue continued to burn with no relief, I tested my Ph via urine and saliva – both were as alkaline as baking soda -10. Tell me, is that normal? No. What was happening was my body was so acidic that it was pulling any mineral that it could from my bones and doing a dump to keep my kidneys from burning.

            I finally got someone to listen to me and was tested for a fungal overgrowth – sure enough, candida with a blood ph of 5.5!!!

            Diet and supplements DO affect pH and are so important. But until you have actually dealt with it personally, it is easy to throw around everything you have read and studied.

            And while everyone is different, let me be bold in saying this, you and every person that chooses to believe that acidity and alkalinity are not affected by lifestyle, including what one chooses to eat are dead wrong! Forgive my rudeness. But if I hadn’t listened to my internal voice as my body that was telling me that something was wrong, I may have just joined the ranks with all the people that live with the ambiguous diagnosis of “You have some kind of autoimmune disease but we don’t know which one” or I may have taken the Fibromyalgia diagnosis and joined the ranks of those supporting the pharmaceutical companies. No thanks! I already take enough medical toxis, I don’t need to add another.

            Be blessed!
            Mindy

            • Hi Mindy,

              You are basing so much of your self diagnosis on bogus information. For example, if you had a blood pH of 5.5 you would have been dead. Death occurs below a blood pH of 6.8.

              Neither saliva, nor urine reflect blood pH. Salivary pH can be altered from simply thinking about a certain food. It can also be altered by saliva flow, if you brushed your teeth recently, etc. Urinary pH can be altered by urinary tract infection, certain medications, etc. The ONLY way to determine blood pH is by testing the blood itself.

              As for the bones being demineralized to buffer the acidity, as I pointed out bone minerals are only used as a last resort by the body to buffer acids.

              As for Candida, EVERYONE has Candida. It is normal part of our bodies. But Candida is a dimorphic microbe, which means it can exist in two forms. In an acidic environment the Candida growth gene is turned off and the Candida is kept in its benign yeast form. In an alkaline environment the Candida growth gene is turned on resulting in candidiasis. In addition, the alkalinity results in the conversion of Candida in to its pathogenic fungal form. In its fungal form the Candida forms finger-like projections called hyphae that allow the Candida to dig in and damage tissues resulting in conditions such as leaky gut syndrome.

              In fact, what you said in your post supports this fact. You mentioned the Candida overgrowth and the highly alkaline environment in conjunction with each other. Thrush occurs when the levels of acid forming flora, which keep Candida in control, are reduced. The resultant alkaline environment again leads to the overgrowth of fungal Candida.

              There is no such thing as an “alkaline diet”. The foods considered alkaline also contain a variety of acids and the simple sugars, amino acids and fibers in these plants are all metabolized to form acids.

              The health benefits of consuming more plant material comes in the form of nutrition, such as ascorbic acid and pantothenic acid that support adrenal function. By the way, adrenal dysfunction plays a primary role in autoimmunity:

              http://www.medcapsules.com/info/Auto_Immunity.htm

              It is virtually impossible to alkalize the blood through diet. You would have to overwhelm the body’s pH buffering systems starting with stomach acid to do so. And this would be extremely dangerous and would lead to all sorts of other health issues.

              Research how digestion works. All foods are made acidic in the stomach. Then they are all alkalized as the chyme leaves the stomach. This is the so-called “alkaline response”. Proteins are broken down in to amino acids, which are then broken down in to highly alkaline and dangerous ammonia. To protect the body the ammonia is neutralized with carbonic acid to form uric acid, one of the body’s primary antioxidants. Excess uric acid is hydrolyzed for safe passage through the kidneys for excretion and is also eliminated in feces. Fats are broken down in to fatty acids for use by the body. Simple sugars are metabolized for energy producing carbonic acid used for various beneficial purposes in the body. Excess is reduced by exhalation of carbon dioxide. Fibers are digested by cellulase and hemicellulase produced by the intestinal flora. The resulting sugars are fermented by the bacteria top produce a variety of beneficial acids that help destroy pathogens and aid in nutrient absorption.

              The so-called “alkaline diet” is rich in its own acids, and simple and complex sugars as well as proteins and fats that all metabolize in to acids. This is why there is really no such thing as an alkaline diet. Just a more nutritional diet.

    • I just read Wheat Belly and noticed his acid/base chapter also. He does give protein a green light, acknowledging that it paradoxically increases bone health despite being an acidic food, and he uses tha acid base argument to argue further against wheat consumption. Unfortunately, foods I consider healthy are caught up in the acid/base nonsense and called “bad”. Still, it was disappointing to see this argument in a book I liked overall given the research available that Chris has gathered here.

      • And PS., since I changed my diet (slowly because it was so bad – and I did go through a wheat withdrawal [no, I did not cut sugar out at the same time]), my ANA titers went down to 1-160 homogenous and speckled.

        The swelling and pain in my hands have also gone away. This, after years of pain and not know why.

        What I was eating was killing me. We are what we eat.

  5. Chris,

    Want would this mean regarding theories that cancerous tumors grow in an acidic state? By eating an alkaline diet you are able to keeping cancer from growing?

    • The alkalinity kills cancer and acids promote it claim is a myth I have addressed many times. If you read the research you will find that the internal pH of cancer cells is actually alkaline. The cancer cells cannot tolerate the acidity and therefore export the acidic hydrogen ions from inside the cell to the external matrix to protect themselves. Therefore, the alkaline pH inside the cancer cells helps them to survive and thrive.

      In addition, various acids such as betulinic acid and chlorogenic acid to name a few have been shown to have powerful anti-cancer properties.

  6. Very good article and comments/questions. I would be interested in a reply to CDSA 2.0 question as many of us are trying to fix gut issues. Mahalo from HI!

  7. Maybe the whole mineral/electrolyte balance topic needs a blogpost unto itself? Over consuming phosphorus (as in dark soda consumption) is associated with increased parathormone and blood calcium, so much so that I have had several patients refered to me to be tested for parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma when it was simply way too much cola.

  8. Hi Chris,

    If the alkaline diet is not supported scientifically and the urine pH is not a good marker, it’s nonetheless a matter of fact that the Paleo diet promotes mainly alkaline food. You can argue that you eat proteins but, if I refere to a recent article of your friend Mark Sisser, the amount of eggs/meat to make the Paleo diet healthy is relatively low (around 80gr proteins a day) compared to the vegetables.

    This makes me feel perplex about the objective of your article and I don’t see where you wanna go…

    It would also be interessant to make a parallel with the food combination diet promoted by Shelton whom avoid to mix acid food with alkaline ones in the same meal. So maybe the alkaline diet is not good but it’s scientifically preferred to concentrate on one type of acidity at each meal and, I repeat myself, as the Paleo diet promotes mainly alkaline food you will finish to follow a quasi-alkaline diet 🙂

    • From what I have read, paleo diets should have generous amounts of vegetables with moderate frult, so the claim that it is by default alkaline is difficult to support and certainly not a matter of fact.

    • I think the point here is that a food’s “acid” or “alkaline” effect is largely irrelevant. Just because the Paleo diet supposedly emphasizes “alkaline” foods doesn’t argue for the scientific validity of the acid-alkaline theory.

    • Hunter gatherers lived pole to pole, sea level to 16,000 feet, so their diets varied tremendously. Some ate almost all animal foods, some at almost all starches, and none were observed to suffer osteoporosis. I point this out because the paleo diet is not just one diet, but a variety of diets. Some included vegetables, some didn’t.

      • Um… you do realize that people until the last century or two did not live long enough to develop osteoporosis, don’t you? Comparing the development of osteoporosis today to people 10000 years ago is a bit absurd. An acidic diet may have been okay back then, because few people reached the age of 40. Peak bone mass for males is 30 years old. Osteoporosis only becomes a major risk factor after the age of 50, in the modern age. Furthermore, the lack of Vitamin D due to lack of sunlight also contributes to bone and heart illness. Previously, people would’ve gotten much more sunlight. The drastic change in lifestyle as well as people moving across the globe to places to which their bodies are less suited obviously contribute to modern illnesses. For example, dark-skinned people tend to be more Vitamin D deficient in the U.S., but also tend to have less osteoporosis, probably due to a combination of relative obesity (a protective factor against osteoporosis) and their genetics making it so they do not break down bone as easily.

        • LL,

          Primitive man had a significant elderly population. If a child survived to 15, his average life expectancy rose to 54. And again, 54 is an average, this means that for every one that died at 45, another lived to 63… and every one that died at 30, another lived to 78.

          In other words, LOTS of people lived to 40 and well beyond.

  9. This article made me think of my Grandma who has to limit salt for kidney issues (or warned she could be on dialysis) AND she has osteoperosis. It made me wonder if these two things could be related.

    • The only correlation would be indirect. Osteoporosis is often incorrectly linked to bone mineral loss. Osteoporosis though is not the result of mineral loss though but rather is a loss of collagen matrix, which reduces mineral binding sites in the bone.

      The most common cause of collagen loss is declining levels of silica, which is required not only for collagen synthesis but also the actual mineralization of the collagen matrix. As silica levels decline there is a loss of the collagen matrix and less bone mineralization.

      Silica does not absorb as silica, nor is it used in this form. Instead silica has to react with water, especially in the presence of acids to form orthosilicic acid (OA), which is the form the body absorbs and utilizes. Normally stomach acid aids in the conversion of silica in to OA, but stomach acid levels naturally decline with age inhibiting this conversion. The use of products such as antacids, acid blockers and alkaline waters further aggravate the problem since these not only interfere with OA conversion but they also interfere with the production of more stomach acid by blocking the absorption of the nutrients needed for methylation needed for stomach acid formation.

      The role salt plays is that the salt is dissociated in the body in to sodium, which is used to form bicarbonate and chlorine that is used to form stomach acid. Therefore, a lack of salt can interfere with stomach acid formation leading to decreased collagen synthesis and impeding the absorption of nutrients needed for building bone.

  10. – if this had been written 30 yrs ago, when the doc stated,’You’ve got Rheumatoid Arthritis’ and ‘Dietary changes are of no use’ then that wonderful 86 yr old garage customer’s advice on switching to brown rice+veg, no dairy,no meat,no beer& no coffee, would have gone unheeded…& i’d still be in 24/7 Oxy Acetylene torch full body joint pain…But no sooner was the alkaline diet reluctantly implemented, the fire in all the joints slowly extinguished itself. You can’t run a car engine on contaminated fuel. Y’all couldn’t pay me any amount of money to regress to the SAD. So theorize away, but when you’re stuck in the bottomless,black well of dis-ease, Results are what matters.

    • Perhaps just the no dairy (casein), no beer (gluten, alcohol) part would get the same results? Keep the meat and coffee.

      • I agree, David. That’s the trouble you run into when you eliminate so many foods or food groups [presumably] all at once. If your health issues diminish or go away, you don’t know which foods were the triggers for the problem. It’s quite possible that Dar has a gluten sensitivity and a dairy sensitivity. If Dar were to do a blood test from Cyrex Labs (no, I’m not affiliated, but they are the only ones offering this particular test and both of my young sons have had it done), he/she might learn that they have a sensitivity to one or more of the proteins found in dairy products, gluten, and perhaps even coffee. I’m glad they have experienced restored health, but it sounds like they’d have trouble pinpointing exactly which of those foods were causing the Arthritis. I’ve heard story after story of people whose symptoms diminished or went away completely after they went on a gluten-free diet and sometimes eliminated dairy as well.

    • Rheumatoid arthritis has nothing to do with acidity. It is a bacterial induced autoimmune disorder. The autoimmunity results not from an overactive immune system but rather an immune suppression though the adrenals. This leads to the over production of low affinity (nonspecific) antibodies also known as “autoantibodies”.

      The change of diet would have decreased inflammatory promoters such as arachidonic acid from meats and would have provided more anti-inflammatories such as plant based omega 3 fatty acids and bioflavonoids. The increase of vitamin C and pantothenic acid from the plants would support proper adrenal function.

    • *** Dar i went through the same issues, when I suffered MELAS
      (mitochondrial encephalopathy Lactic acid stroke like symptoms) just after eating a yogurt, where the ER Dr. told me to go see a psychiatrist (he almost got a free dental adjustment)
      I went OFF dairy, within weeks I was OFF my Puffers and my Fibromyalgia grew wings. My theory is cow dairy Lactic acid is first cousins with our cellular Lactic acid. We were over x-p to Methanol from Pulp Mill emissions the Chemical chain is > Formaldehyde > Formic acid (liver) > Lactate (cellular) Folate IV can be used in ER It roadblocks the Formic acid in the liver from metabolizing to cellular Lactic acid. It is converted to carbon dioxide & exhaled or peed out.
      1 1/2 years later i tried goat dairy at the suggestion of my Naturopath with no issues. If by mistake i ate cow dairy my brain and left side are not home. So results from real experience counts.

  11. Thanks, Chris! Once again another useful article. The acid/alkaline diet has always struck me as fishy and I’m glad you’ve taken the time to lay out the scientific evidence. The paleo diet and lifestyle is admittedly out on the fringes of mainstream medicine, where a lot of other diet hypotheses are also hanging out. As a lay person with limited time, it’s hard to find out which ones are beneficial and which are not worth the effort. You are a great resource. Thanks for doing all the leg work!

  12. Wow! I’ve been waiting several years for clarification on this topic. Thank-you so much! Looking forward to part 2.

    • Wouldn’t be so sure of that, Breanna. They do an awful lot of damage, osteoporosis being one of the many links to soft drinks.
      ~~~

      • Hi Jake,

        Osteoporosis is not a result of soft drink intake. This is a very common misconception.

        Before explaining why I need to clarify some different forms of bone loss.

        Contrary to popular belief osteoporosis does not result from mineral loss to the bones. Osteoporosis results from a loss of collagen matrix, which decreases surface area for bone mineralization.

        Loss of minerals from bone result in osteopenia and osteomalacia, not osteoporosis.

        Not all sodas lead to mineral loss from bones. It is the colas that are an issue. The difference is that all sodas contain carbonic acid, but only the colas contain phosphoric acid.

        When we ingest carbonic acid much of it quickly decomposes releasing the carbon dioxide, which we burp up. Any carbonic acid making it in to the blood can be utilized by the body for things such as maintaining circulation, dealing with highly alkaline and toxic ammonia and stomach acid formation.

        Phosphoric acid in excess can lead to mineral loss from bones, but this has NOTHING to do with acidity. The problem is the phosphorus. When we consume excess levels of high phosphorus foods or drinks such as red meat, dairy or colas the phosphorus levels rise above normal in the blood. This leads to a calcium-phosphorus ratio imbalance. In response the parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone (PTH), which releases calcium from the bones raising serum calcium to balance out the ratio to phosphorus. This is known as pseudohyperparathyroidism.

        • Perhaps I have some constructive criticism. James, you speak with authority yet give little few references. You are giving health advice yet you don’t give your name and therefore have no responsibility. I started to read your entries but then realized I have no reason to trust what you say. I read and follow Chris because I know he actually exists and uses this stuff in practice.
          There again, maybe you have a reputation that precedes you that I am unaware of and others may be thrilled with your posts.

          • Mary,

            Perhaps you’d like to read the full thread and modify your comment. James Sloane both gives his name and links his sources.

            Yes, he DOES have a reputation that precedes him.

            • I really was trying to give constructive feedback. I actually restrained myself, as I am now in responding to you. I have a hard time not being snide. Maybe I don’t cover it up as well as I should.
              I only read the replies James gave to the first few comments at the top of the list. I don’t consider this to be a thread, it is not part of newsgroup, so I don’t feel like I should have to read all the entries to reply to one. Besides I think there are at least two James making comments. I hadn’t seen the comment where YOU introduced him. Even on the web site he runs he’s not very forthcoming with his name.
              I have been convinced too many times about too many things by people who it turns out had no standing. Now when I come across someone professing they know all, I am leery.
              You might like James’ assertiveness but I find it rude and questionable.
              Bottom line is I don’t even know what his opinion is because I didn’t want to read it.
              So not arguing, just making an observation.

              • Mary,

                If it were a news group, it would be a FEED, not a thread. A thread is ANY conversation with the ability to reply directly to other comments. In other words, this one. No one expects you to read all of the comment before you comment on the article. But it’s pretty disingenuous to accuse another commenter of being vague, un-credentialed or unidentified without reading through the thread to see if that’s actually the case. How many times should a person identify themselves and give their credentials in an ongoing conversation? Do you feel that James should have given his full name and background with every single comment just so someone like you could come in at the 11th hour and not be put-on to read a conversation before responding to it?

                I don’t know James, only his work. He has given several citations as evidence of his argument (and these are to RCTs rather than pro-pH-mythology books written by woo gurus) and his tone doesn’t change the value of his information. If you really want to learn the truth, stop basing your knowledge in others credentials and start looking at the evidence itself.

                • I appreciate you taking the time to give me feedback,
                  thanks (not disingenuous).
                  And yes, if Mr Sloane had provided his full name I might have given him more respect. Same as I give you, with a constant moniker, more respect over a Mary like me.
                  Not so much about credentials but reputation.
                  Thinking about it, maybe I should read more of your posts. It seems like you were much more aggressive toward me than my comment to James. Maybe that’s your reputation.
                  (okay that last bit was slightly snide)

                • while others have been giving an open statement, james have been giving a close ones.
                  he uses words that imply its simply not possible.
                  maybe thats where it started generate hate from readers

                • Mary: “And yes, if Mr Sloane had provided his full name I might have given him more respect. Same as I give you, with a constant moniker, more respect over a Mary like me.
                  Not so much about credentials but reputation.”

                  First of all this blog IS NOT about me. Secondly, not everyone wants people to know who they are. I have a had several kook internet stalkers that have even sent me threats because I discredited their information with real science. And finally, even if I did give my full name this does not mean you know me just like I do not know you. You should be a lot more focused on the scientific facts presented and less worried about who is posting those facts!!!

                • Bean: “while others have been giving an open statement, james have been giving a close ones.”

                  Posting scientific fact is not even close to posting closed statements.

                  I realize you are upset Bean at the fact that I keep pointing out your errors. And I am sure you will be really upset when you read my last post to you since you claimed to not be able to find anything on the collagen loss-osteoporosis relationship yet I found two studies backing this in less than two minutes. There is yet more I could have found, but again it is not my job to do your homework for you. As we can all see though I base my statements on known scientific fact while Bean relies on speculation and poor or absent research skills.

                  Bean: “he uses words that imply its simply not possible.
                  maybe thats where it started generate hate from readers”

                  More speculation rather than fact from Bean. The hate is generated by the fact I keep disproving certain people’s belief systems with REAL science, which these people do not take kindly to. Take Bean for example. Bean started out cordial enough, but the more I expose Bean’s assumptive nature with real science the more angry Bean becomes and the more Bean lashes out at me with comments like Bean’s comment above. It will be interesting to see how Bean lashes out after reading my post providing proof to the collagen loss in osteoporosis resulting in decreased bone mineralization rather than loss as I kept stating. Especially after Bean claimed to not be able to find anything on this anywhere on the internet and it took me less that two minutes to pull of two of the various studies backing this fact on the internet. Based on past history Bean is definitely not going to be happy about that.

          • Yes, I agree. I hear lots of opinions from him and he writes flippant poorly researched remarks. I guess we were to take seriously Paleo Huntress’s warning that we dare not argue with him about ANYTHING.

            Btw, funny how she showed up out of no where last month to buttress his schtick, huh?

            • They are not poorly researched remarks. I’ll bet I read more medical journal articles in a week than you do in a decade. So how wold you know if they are poorly researched when you rely on propaganda and sales sites for your health information rather than actual research?

            • The fact that I joined THIS conversation recently most certainly doesn’t mean I showed up out of nowhere. As I said, if this fear of yours is really getting under your skin, plug my ID into any search engine and note how far back my comments go and where they intersect with James’ work. Otherwise quit making suggestions of inappropriateness, its juvenile.

              When you have to attack the people making the argument, (“You must be drinking”?!) it’s pretty clear that you can’t attack the argument itself.

              Ad hominems abound… Grow up.

            • Contrary to the claims of those who resent a good argument, a troll is not someone who posts prolifically and happens to disagree with you.

              If that were the case, you’d all be trolls.

          • Mary, don’t listen to James. He’s got his own agenda, which is contrary to the subject as we perceive it.

            • What agenda John? Pointing out the myth that you have to alkalize the blood, which the body already maintains in an alkaline state? Well I guess you should put me in front of the firing squad for wanting holistic medicine legitimized by squashing the various myths people keep repeating that makes holistic medicine look like quackery instead.

              Or are you against my agenda to protect people’s health from false and potentially harmful information? Don’t you care about people’s health and safety like I do? Apparently not!!!

              • Hi james
                i think the main problem so many contradicts in this page is that we are not on the same page.
                we do know that our body keeps the pH at a normal range, however at what stakes ?

                If our body uses more alkaline forming elements to neutralize the acids in our body each day, more than what we take in, one day, these elements are going to run out. Only then our body wont be able to keep the pH in normal range. IT IS ALREADY A DISEASE.

                the theory of alkaline diet is to lessen the burden of our body to neutralize the pH to help our body adjust it easier. To prevent these from happening.

                • Bean: “i think the main problem so many contradicts in this page is that we are not on the same page.
                  we do know that our body keeps the pH at a normal range, however at what stakes ?

                  If our body uses more alkaline forming elements to neutralize the acids in our body each day, more than what we take in, one day, these elements are going to run out. ”

                  And thus the basis for the problem with your claim. As has been pointed out so many times already the body’s primary means of pH regulation are respiration followed by ion retention or elimination by the kidneys. These account for VIRTUALLY ALL the pH regulation in the body, yet NEITHER one of these require any type of alkaline reserve and thus WILL NOT ever run out as long as we are living. The alkaline reserve thing is just another common MYTH that keeps getting circulated by the alkaline diet myth supporters because they refuse to learn the facts of how the body really works.

                  Bean: “Only then our body wont be able to keep the pH in normal range. IT IS ALREADY A DISEASE.”

                  Alkalosis is also a disease, but also does not involve the depletion of any type of alkaline reserve. In fact, very few diseases have anything to do whatsoever with acidosis or alkalosis. Again, if people would simply learn how the body really works then they would stop perpetuating these myths.

                  Bean: “the theory of alkaline diet is to lessen the burden of our body to neutralize the pH to help our body adjust it easier. To prevent these from happening.”

                  It IS NOT a theory. It is a DISPROVEN HYPOTHESIS.

          • I guess I cannot win. People are claiming I am not posting references when I do. For example:

            James

            September 2, 2013 at 9:09 pm

            The body has various fuel sources including glucose, lactate, glutamine and yes ketones. But cancer cells also use these same fuel sources.

            http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047616/

            And in part two someone else was complaining about the same thing. Even though it is not my job to do people’s homework for them I went ahead and posted references backing what I was saying. When I did the lady requesting the research accused me of spamming the board for posting the medical abstracts she requested in the first place.

            Some people will never be happy regardless of what I do.

            • James, it is obvious to most everyone that it is not the information you are putting forward that is the problem, it is the rude manner in which you put it forward that is turning everyone off. You sound dismissive, arrogant, contemptuous and like you think you know it all. “Follow those who seek the truth….but run from those who have found it!” You sound like someone who owns the truth and the rest of us are just dummies. It’s very insulting. Facts are, you may know more about this than they do, but that still doesn’t mean you own the truth. Show some respect first, and you may get some respect back. My two cents. BTW, thank for your information, which is enlightening and thoughtful. Please just remember to state this information as “the theory is…” the balance of evidence is…”, given these facts, it seems probable that… and especially do not resort to personal insults, which you do often. There could be a discovery next week that shows you are wrong, and also if you are so smart, why haven’t you personally cured cancer yet? You should be world famous, but you are not, are you? So, there must be something more for you to learn, and something you don’t know yet, same as for all of us. I hope this is helpful to you. Also, one last point – I agree that if you are to promote credibility for your profession, you should go after that which takes away credibility, and that may not be an easy thing to do nor a popular one. All the more reason to use diplomacy and tact, or you will lose your intended audience.

              • Jon, you obviously don’t get it so let me explain it to you. I treat people the way they treat me. Show me courtesy and I will do the same. Act like the arrogant jerk you are doing currently and I will do the same.

                “and like you think you know it all”

                I will be the first to admit that I do not know it all. Nobody does. But I don’t post facts unless I have researched it first and verified these facts with the research. So what I have been claiming can be easily verified by looking in anatomy and physiology books or by a simple search of Medline. Don’t attack me just because you are too damn lazy to research what I have said and verify it yourself. Again, the evidence backing everything I have said can be easily found with a tiny bit of effort.

                Furthermore, I see you call me a troll further down in your message. I am not the one coming to this blog and attacking the messenger instead of the message. That is being a troll. Same with Robin, who has continually lied about what I have said instead of staying on topic and presenting evidence of her claims. Again, this blog article is not and was never about me. If you think the blog article is wrong then attack the message with evidence to the contrary and stop attacking the messengers, which is trollish behavior.

                ” and especially do not resort to personal insults”

                Why is it the attackers, like you and Robin, that never take their own advice?

                “There could be a discovery next week that shows you are wrong”

                And the world could come to an end next week and none of this will matter. Your same assumption could be applied to everything so do we disregard everything that science has ever taught us just because there is some remote possibility that some new discovery will prove what we previously knew wrong? The world would be in some serious trouble if we did something that stupid. That is why we go with what has been proven until proven otherwise. For example, it is used to be assumed that lactic acid was produced by cancer cells making the external matrix acidic and that muscle burn during intense exercise was from lactic acid. These claims were both proven false a long time ago and most of us have moved on with the corrected information. So as we learn we adapt to the new knowledge. But we don’t just assume that everything can potentially be proven wrong and thus ignore all current evidence.

                “if you are so smart, why haven’t you personally cured cancer yet?”

                If you are so smart then why don’t you realize that people cannot claim curing cancer since this can put them in prison? Clearly you are not nearly as smart as you think you are.

                Do I know how to cure cancer? Yes. Have I seen it done by holistic means? Yes, a number of times.

                “You should be world famous, but you are not, are you?”

                You really are an idiot, aren’t you?

                Research what happened to people who successfully cured cancer with a high rate of success such as Rife and Hoxsey to name a few. Look in to ozone therapy, which is the safest and most effective cancer therapy available. The chemistry of how it works is well known, ozone selectively kills cancer cells and cancer cells cannot build a tolerance to it the way they can chemo or radiation. So why do you think it is not widely used despite being around since 1898 and being proven over and over to work on cancer and numerous other diseases. Maybe when you get your IQ higher than your age you will figure out the answers.

                “All the more reason to use diplomacy and tact, or you will lose your intended audience.”

                Again, I treat people with the same level of respect as they treat me.

                And also again, this blog is not about me so stop making it about me and stick to the topic. If you have evidence to the contrary of what I have said then post your evidence addressing my claims and not me directly with your trollish attacks.

                Same goes for Robin.

                • This whole argument seems silly and childish. James certainly knows what he is talking about and all these complaints about his tone of voice sound like insecure people blaming others for their insecurity.

                  James thanks for the information. I’d appreciate your website link so I can go to your website and take advantage of your research to educate myself. People like you are worth their weight in gold and the reason I go on the internet to research health issues. Thank you for sharing your hours of research and making it easier for those of us who are put off reading actual medical research (or even being able to fully understand it).

                • James, can you direct me to more info on curing cancer. I am trying to learn all I can about HCC new treatment and research on this cancer.
                  thanks,

                • Hi Cheryl,

                  For hepatocellular carcinoma I would recommend ozone therapy over anything. It not only directly kills the cancer cells but also the associated viruses that cause most liver cancers.

                  Here are some links for you to read:

                  http://www.medcapsules.com/info/Cancer.htm

                  http://www.medcapsules.com/info/The%20Chemistry%20of%20Ozone%20Therapy%20on%20Cancer.htm

                  http://medcapsules.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?fid=62

                  http://medcapsules.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?fid=12

                  http://medcapsules.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?fid=130

                  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_gLyDsmndrk

                  And before you ask since I get asked a lot, NO I do not sell ozone units and I do not have any recommendations since I have not found any units I can definitively say are cold corona units, which are the preferential units to use. Many manufacturers have claimed their units are cold corona but are really hot corona. It is impossible to tell for sure without looking at the design, but manufacturers want to keep their designs proprietary and thus do what they can to keep them secret. Testing for pH changes in ozone bubbled in to water is the only potential way to determine if the device is hot or cold corona without opening it up and looking at the design.

                  James

              • It’s not obvious to “everyone” (in regard to James) only to people who regard their “diet” as their religion, and you know what? You are all going to die anyway, regardless of what you eat. One of the most “health conscious” people I know, who believed all of this nonsense about diets, passed away from cancer. He was religious in his approach to “healthy – green, raw eating”. It didn’t get him anywhere, except to make him misearble during special occassions where he was constantly denying himself anything “yummy” and yes, made with sugar – gasp, and he never ate meat or drank any dairy, and among his siblings (who didn’t practice his rigid eating practices) he passed away first! I salute James for trying to bring some reason and counterpoints ton this discussion. Thank you (James) for your input!

                • Yes, I agree. That is one of the reasons I do not follow any strict diets and eat what I want. As I always tell people stress will kill you a lot faster than poor diet.

                  Where diet is most of an issue is in cases where someone has allergies or other issues, such as PKU or Celiac, that may preclude them from eating certain foods.

                  Otherwise the diet should be rather varied and things consumed in moderation.

                  Don’t pig out on meats, or dairy, or sugary foods, or even raw foods for that matter.

                  The other problem I have with strict diets is that can all present issues. High protein diets are hard on the kidneys and can increase the risk of problems such as heart disease and other inflammatory conditions. Most people also associate meats and dairy with high protein diets. But these also contain hormones, even if organic, that can promote cancer. Vegetarian diets can lead to problems from B12 deficiencies, raw food diets are much higher in goitrogenic foods that can suppress thyroid function, which in turn can increase the risk of heart disease, cancer, gout, etc. Again, all strict diets have their limitations.

                • Hi taraveah,
                  there are a lot of causes of cancer. Just 1 person or a few cannot justify the whole picture

                  the theory behind the healthy green diet comes from statistics, mainly interviews and surveys or other information gathering techniques which is used on a population of higher life-expectancy. The findings which is common with other places in the world is found to be the “healthy green diet”.

                  while these can help u to be healthier, it doesnt meant u are free from diseases. Look at the statistics, more people who follow a good diet live a healthier life (life with less diseases/longer life-expectancy) or those that doesnt follow ?

                • Bean: “Look at the statistics, more people who follow a good diet live a healthier life (life with less diseases/longer life-expectancy) or those that doesnt follow ?”

                  Statistics only prove what the person wants to prove. This is why statistics are such a popular alternative to real research since real research is much harder to manipulate or misinterpret.

                  For example, if people really look deep in to the issue the longest lived people in the world have better health not due to diet, but rather the least stress. Stress will kill a person much faster than bad diet anyday.

                  Look at people in the backwoods loading up on pork, moonshine and smoking and yet manage to live to ripe old ages. They did this due to a more stress free lifestyle.

                  Same with George burns who was always smoking cigars and liked his martinis. Yet look at how old he made it. Then look at how calm and happy he always appeared.

                  Two of my grandparents owned a cattle ranch and so were heavy meat eaters. Both died at the age of 96 and both due to doctor incompetence. But again they were always calm, stayed active and were happy. They wold sit outside in the front yard on the swing and my grandfather would tease my grandmother sticking his tongue out and saying “I am going to lick your face”. She would say “You better not” and he would keep pretending he was going to lick her face. I never saw them angry and they had a fun, stress-free lifestyle.

                  But again, statistics only prove what the person wants to prove. So it is easy to find statistics to prove whatever one wished to try and prove since statistics often conflict with each other since different people compiling the statistics often have different views they wish to “prove”. Which is again why I prefer to rely on real science.

                  For example, consider the ads about aspirin supposedly preventing a second heart attack by 50%. These commercials were done based on manipulated statistics by a aspirin manufacturer. Because the claims were false and misleading despite their so-called “statistics” the drug company was no longer allowed to run these misleading commercials.

                  How did they manipulate the statistics? They took 100 people on aspirin therapy. Then out that 100 people they chose 6 cases. Out of those 6 cases 3 had not had a second heart attack by that time and thus they claimed a 50% reduction in a second heart attack. Even if one of these three remaining people who had not had a second heart attack did have a second heart attack a minute later their manipulated study had already ended and thus they would not have been included in the statistics.

                  So what has the REAL research shown about aspirin as a heart attack preventative and during a heart attack? Well, due to REAL research we know that as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that aspirin can actually increase the risk of a heart attack and is one of the worst things a person could do during a heart attack. ALL NSAIDs work by constricting blood vessels, which increases the risk of cutting off the blood supply to the heart thus causing a heart attack. And by causing even less blood flow to the heart during a heart attack studies have proven that aspirin during a heart attack can cause even more damage. So once again REAL science trumps manipulated statistics and sales hype!!!

                • James,

                  “Look at people in the backwoods loading up on pork, moonshine and smoking and yet manage to live to ripe old ages. They did this due to a more stress free lifestyle.”

                  I suspect the backwoods pastured pork was a positive, not a negative. I agree with lifestyle being most important though. 😉

              • Hi Jon,
                while your argument does looks silly ( so does James’), i am standing on your side that james is aggressive on “correcting” or giving his own opinions.

                and he does have to realize that something that havent been proven right doesnt mean that it is wrong and he really need to stop saying everything is false.

                ps: he does sounds arrogant too :p

                • Bean: “while your argument does looks silly ( so does James’), i am standing on your side that james is aggressive on “correcting” or giving his own opinions.

                  and he does have to realize that something that havent been proven right doesnt mean that it is wrong and he really need to stop saying everything is false.

                  ps: he does sounds arrogant too :p”

                  Yes, you are 100% correct Keen when you wrote:

                  “James certainly knows what he is talking about and all these complaints about his tone of voice sound like insecure people blaming others for their insecurity.”

                  The evidence to this is overwhelming. Just look at how the more I post REAL evidence against claims made by people like Bean the more aggressive and frequent their personal attacks become. They obviously feel completely insecure since scientific evidence contradicts their bogus claims. But they cannot attack the message so they attack the next best thing, which is the messenger. If a person really knows what they are talking about and can prove it then they provide the proof, not attack the messenger. After all, what a better way to shut someone up. If a person posts solid, REAL evidence to back their claims then the opposing party has nothing to come back with contradictory. If they only posted complete BS then their only hope to shut up the person providing real evidence is to try and attack their character as we have seen so many people here do with me.

                  As a final note here I want to remind these people yet once again that I AM NOT the topic of discussion. If you want to argue the topic of the alkaline diet myth then be prepared to back your claims since if the claims are made up I will provide evidence to the contrary. But don’t make me the topic of debate unless you wish to prove Keen’s claims about your insecurities.

              • Careful everyone… James has revived his alter ego Paleo Huntress after 2 months because he needed back up in his recent skirmishes.

                I’ll be darned if she is not his dear friend and cheerleader again… go figure!

                • Guest: “Exactly correct. I sent an email to THE James Sloane asking for a simply “yes, that’s me o this page”… and I also told the James who claims he is THE James Sloane (I say that he is well-known or reputable,) and I have not received confirmation that they are the same. ”

                  I have not been around much the last few days. Have been out doing other things so I have not even checked my e-mails.

                  And actually I am tired anyway of people trying over and over to make this blog article about me.

                  If you or anyone else has a problem with PaleoHuntress then take it up with her personally preferably elsewhere since she is not the topic of this blog article either.

  13. Thanks for the info, Chris. Your article may make me change my thinking on this topic. But there’s one thing that isn’t clear. You say “This reaction produces carbon dioxide which is exhaled through the lungs, and salt, which is excreted by the kidneys.” But aren’t those “salts” being excreted by the kidneys the main issue? If you’re excreting extra calcium (or other mineral) salts, doesn’t that correlate with the potential bone loss that alkaline diet proponents are talking about?

    • Hi Chris.
      Very interesting dissertation about the observations regarding acidity and alkalinity.
      You are correct in asserting the kidneys being the organs in charge of the blood composition.
      The medulla in the brain is in charge of the support structure of our bodies – the bones.
      A person’s feeling of ‘self worth’ is the governing criteria for the medulla. A “self-devaluation biological conflict”, perceived by the Psyche, creates a bodily response to take away cartilage and bone mass in preparation to rebuilding same, after the biological conflict is resolved, with denser material. Thus, the observations, while correct, are having the effect of ‘tapping around’ in the dark.

    • Hi Ronald,

      I know you asked Chris, but I would like to address your question.

      To start with the body almost never goes acidic except in extremely rare cases such as some poisonings and diabetic ketoacidosis. In the case of malignant tumors there can be acidic microenvironments around the malignant tumors as the tumors export acidic protons to maintain the highly alkaline internal pH they need to survive and thrive.

      Even if acidosis occurs, acid buffering by the bones is only used as a last resort. Respiration is the primary means the body uses to maintain pH. Other means include bicarbonate buffering, excretion of hydrogen ions through the kidneys, protein binding, etc. It requires pretty severe acidosis before bone minerals would be utilized to buffer the acids.

      The primary causes of bone loss are the lack of exercise, some medications such as thyroid hormones or steroids like Prednisone, which decreases bone mineralization, cancer metastases to bone, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohyperparathyroidism. None of these have anything to do with acidosis.

      The later two though can increase urinary excretion of calcium as the kidneys excrete serum calcium to maintain calcium homeostasis. Keep in mind that high serum calcium can be very detrimental to health. Hypercalcemia can lead to high blood pressure, decreased circulation increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke, muscle cramps/spasms, constipation, mental fogginess, etc.

      Excess sodium intake can also displace calcium as sodium is more reactive than calcium. But potassium is also more reactive than sodium helping to regulate sodium levels. Therefore, there is a lot more involved than simply sodium intake.

  14. When I was magnesium deficient my urine tested acidic as did my blood. Magnesium deficiency causes potassium loss (or the other way around). When you have a deficit of these two electrolytes you will be dehydrated at a cellular level and will be acidic. Serum magnesium and calcium levels will remain stable until their is a deficit in the diet and then tissues and bone stores will be utilized potentially effecting bone density. Diet CAN increase magnesium and potassium levels and correct this intracellular problem and keep the cells sodium/potassium pump working properly… thus making you you more alkaline. Worked for me.

    Perhaps an “Alkaline” diet needs to be called “eat your greens diet”?

  15. In the book, The Blue Zones by Dan Buettner, it is documented that people who eat a plant based diet are the longest living people on the earth – most of these populations have access to “hard” water full of minerals.

    • Julia,

      confusion reigns. You say plant based diet = longevity. Can you show me where this can be proven? The Hunzas are Muslim and eat meat. The French with amazing longevity eat everything. (I’m becoming a webskeptic the more time I am on the net) and your 2nd comment about hard water seems to overlap your plant based fact. Are you suggesting that people not on a plant based diet who drink hard water live less long than the plant based people, or are you saying that they live longer because they drink hard water?

    • When you remove deaths from violent crime from the statistics, Americans are the longest lived people in the world. The Japanese drop to 9th.

      • dear laurie,
        what u said is not possible unless those that die from violent crimes are very old, possibly 80 years old and above. If not, whether they die from disease or crimes, it doesnt affects longest lived people.

        and america actually has pretty bad statistics. It ranked 26th by life-expectancy (not longest lived), by Organizations for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in year 2013.

  16. The acid-alkaline theory of nutrition and health has been circulating for some time, apparently. In my edition of “Nutrition and Physical Degeneration,” Weston Price addresses this issue in personal correspondence of a talk he gave to a Dental conference in New York in 1934. Price argued that the notion high acidity diets cause disease is undermined by the evidence of primitive people free of dental caries and modern diseases who ate high acidity diets of meat, fish and cereals.

    • Dental caries are the result of damage due to acids primarily produced by bacteria in the mouth, not produced by food. The only foods that affect tooth enamel directly would be high acid containing foods such as if you are sucking on lemons, which ironically are considered alkalizing.

      The truth is that the alkalizing effect of lemons occurs from the bicarbonate release from the pancreas as the chyme leaves the stomach. But this is true of ALL foods whether it be lemon, steak, cake, candy bars, lettuce, fish, turnips, etc.

      As far as “modern diseases” and high acidity diets this is complete BS. The only diseases that I can think of that are the result of an acid are gout and pseudogout. And there are some diseases, such as cancer, that rely heavily on alkalinity. Studies have shown that excess alkalinity of healthy cells causes them to morph in to a cancerous state. Studies have also shown that cancer cells have an internal pH more alkaline than healthy cells. It is this internal alkalinity that allows the cancer cells to survive and thrive. When the proton pumps on cancer cells are blocked they cannot export the acidic protons produced during energy production and their internal pH becomes acidic killing the cancer cells.

      People keep confusing the external matrix with the actual cancer cell. The external matrix around cancer cells does become acidic as the cancer cells export the protons out of the cell in to the external matrix to protect themselves from the acidity. Thus the area around the cancer cells becomes acidic while the cancer cells themselves remain highly alkaline so they can survive and thrive.

  17. Chris,

    Thank you for the article! I understand this is a two-part article and you may be discussing this in tomorrow’s article, however I will ask my question now.

    How then does pH affect the overall gut integrity? Or more specifically – I recently has a CDSA 2.0 and in that test it was reported that my gut pH was 5.2 whereas the “Healthy” or ideal pH was around 6.4 if I recall correctly.

    Wouldn’t the flora and other microorganisms in my gut be more or less “happy” in a specific pH? Is it my dietary intake or is it the overall picture of the flora in my gut that is causing the pH to become more acidic?

    What foods, supplements, or treatments are most affective at raising the pH of the gut environment to optimal levels?

    Thank you,

    Jeremy Gilsoul – Acupuncturist

    • Jeremy, I don’t know what kind of test this is that you had or where exactly in the GI track it was taken. The pH varies in different parts of the GI track. The stomach, being highly acidic, has a pH around 2. The upper duodenum (small intestine) has a pH around 5 and lower duodenum around 6.5. I wonder the validity and significance of the test you had.

    • Jeremy – Don’t worry about measuring pH in your guts. All you have to do is to follow an alkaline Atkins diet, and your body will reach homeostasis by itself. Proteins/fats, minerals, antioxidants, omega oils and polyphenols, are the major nutrients needed to maintain health, and of course there are the minor nutrients as well, which can be covered by the use of supplements.

  18. I enjoy your articles but, frankly, there is an endless rash of studies and expert advice first touting some new diet or approach to food, then shortly thereafter new ones that debunk it all. The other day I read a big study debunking paleo, noting that humans continue to ‘evolve’ and as such what was good for our ancestors 10,000 years ago isn’t necessarily good for us now. We live in a different environment, we have relocated to all parts of the globe, etc., etc., and as such our bodies change. Eat for your blood type, pH is key, paleo is it, carbs are it, vegetarianism is it, vitamins help, vitamins kill, jogging is crucial, jogging destroys joints, and on and on and on it goes.

    For me at 50? I try to ‘listen’ to the body itself and see what it is asking of me. What’s good for others isn’t necessarily good for this body.

    • Hey Doug,

      If you look at Chris’ beyond paleo he is all about biochemical individuality. Basically the same thing you said, listen to your body, see how you feel sort of thing. So you are on the same page as him, just thought I’d clear that up.

      • I have to say your both not that smart… i apologies but do you know anything about copper deficiency. the list goes on and your body is not going to tell you anything if you cant read your body. vitamins will not kill you as a matter of fact.. if you dont know by now you need 90 essential vitamins and minerals every day. i mean every single day. 60 minerals 13 vitamins, 18 amino acids, and 3 essential fatty acids. or you can die in you 30’s 40’s and 50’s

        • I make it a habit to not criticize another commenter’s spelling or grammar, but when you open with, “I have to say your [you’re] both not that smart”…, I make an exception.

          …..”i[I] apologies [apologize] but do you know anything about copper deficiency.[?]…

          Your comment doesn’t appear to have anything to do with pH, so maybe you could fill us in on what it is that you believe you’re correcting with your comment?

    • I don’t agree with the listening to your body theory as you may hear something really bad way too late.

      Imagine relying on listeneing to your body while eating a high sugar diet for years, only to find out that you now have liver/pancreatic cancer which often is completely devoid of symptoms until it’s too late. Not a good strategy as I see it.

      • Fred, I couldn’t agree more. Listening to your body as your pigging out on bad carbs and junk food doesn’t happen. We have to be conscious about what were eating and sticking into our mouths, then you can pay attention to how you feel. I could care less about my body and how I felt before consciously making a change to better my health. For many people it’s too late once the cancer hits or a heart attack takes a life. Not many people I know listen to their body, they just live with their obesity, diabetes, allergies, gerd, etc., like it’s just a part of life.

        • Fred & Brandon, you are doing the wrong kind of listening…..not to your sugar cravings….deep down you DO know what is good for you and NOT good for you. Listen to THAT voice, not the hungry candida monster living in your gut. And also measure how you feel after you eat and several days after……eat clean for a while. You will know the difference.

      • What Dr. Kesser says is illogical. We depend upon negative ions (alkalinity) in the form of minerals and antioxidants to restore our acid/alkaline balance, otherwise we cease to function. Our flesh is comprised of proteins (amino acids) which is held together by the skeleton (alkaline minerals), so we exist as a balance of the two. The acid/alkaline balance controls the functionality of the body. All the food that we eat turns into acid waste products after it is burned for our survival. There is no end to acid wastes, unless you stop eating. It’s obvious that the scale will always be tilted toward the acidic side, which means most of us are living on the edge of slow debilitation. Without an alkaline diet of plant and animal foods with supplements, you’re just asking for trouble sometime in the future.

        • The skeleton is not just alkaline minerals. The collagen matrix that makes up most of bone and gives bone the majority of their strength is composed of amino acids, ascorbic acid, hyaluronic acid and orthosilicic acid. Bone osteoblasts produce citric acid to dissolve bone for bone remodeling.

          And not all acids are wastes. As we can see we need a variety of acids just for formation of tissues including bone and organs. Acids are also required for cellular energy production, detoxification, to control blood pressure, to allow the release of oxygen to tissues, as an antioxidant, etc.

          Bottom line is that we cannot function or even exist without acids.

          • I didn’t say that we can exist without acids (amino acids, etc). I said that the acid/alkaline balance controls the functionality of the body, and alkaline foods are the only source of minerals that neutralize acidic wastes that are the product of burning food. We cannot stop eating, therefore there will always be acidic wastes that must be eliminated.

            • I never said you did. You missed my point. You said “All the food that we eat turns into acid waste products”, which is blatantly false!!! What you are calling “waste products” are the amino acids that build our tissues, hormones and neurotransmitters. And carbonic acid that is a primary antioxidant for the body, dilates blood vessels to help with circulation and helps prevent heart attacks and strokes, helps to control pathogens in the urine, is used in the formation of essential stomach acid, allows the release of oxygen to cells and protects us from the highly alkaline and highly toxic ammonia produced in our bodies. And the citric acid and malic acid that allow ATP formation in cells and help prevent calcium precipitation in urine preventing calcium oxalate stones and malic acid that dissolves uric acid preventing uric acid stones. The chlorine atom from the metabolism of salt becomes hydrochloric acid that protects us from pathogens, allows proper protein breakdown, allows the proper absorption of minerals and the vitamins B6, B12 and folate that without we would be seriously ill or dead. The list goes on and on. To claim these are “waste products” just shows a complete lack of understanding of how the body really works and how the body regulates its pH.

              For example, the body’s main means of pH control is respiration, not minerals from the diet. The main mineral used for dealing with acidity below respiration is salt, which is also used to form acid. The alkaline component salt is used to form is sodium bicarbonate. Minerals such as calcium from bones are only used by the body to buffer acidity as a very last resort and requires severe acidosis, which is EXTREMELY rare. Most bone loss in humans is due to lack of exercise, lack of orthosilicic acid and ascorbic acid or from hyperparathyroidism or pseudohyperparathyroidism both of which have NOTHING to do with acidity.

      • I would have to believe that passing acidic foods through our body puts a lot of unnecessary stress on our organs. If we worked with our bodies and gave it what it needs we would be at far better health advantage. Why would anyone want there body to have ph imbalances anywhere.

        • There really is no such thing as acidic foods. Even the so called “alkaline foods” can contain beneficial acids and their simple sugars, amino acids and fibers are all metabolized in to acids.

          The whole alkaline food myth is based on the measurement of the ash content of foods. This totally ignores the acid content of these plants as well as the acids formed from the metabolism of these plants.

    • I don’t know how other people’s body’s respond to junk food and stuff that it doesn’t like. But I think after doing research, listening to your body does play a role in managing your health. I can feel that my body lacks energy and feels generally yucky when I eat certain foods, and while this isn’t the end all of how I learn about what I should and shouldn’t eat, I think that listening to how my body responds plays an important role. It’s a tool, just like everything else I use to manage my health.

    • I guess part of it is true, but the question is why does our body contain pockets of acidic environments where cancer cells thrive? That would only mean that the body’s defenses against acidic body levels does not succeed all the time. And so here goes the need to help the body once again and that I think is one of the main reasons why there is a need to “Help” our body maintain it’s natural ph levels.

      • Cancer cells themselves have an internal pH more alkaline than healthy cells. Studies have shown that not only does excessive alkalinity of cell cause healthy cells to revert to a cancerous state, but also that cancer cells need that high internal alkalinity to survive and thrive.

        The acidity you refer to is the external matrix around cancer cells. The external matrix becomes acidic because the cancer cells export acidic protons in to the external matrix to protect themselves from the acidity. When the proton pumps of cancer cells are blocked the cancer cells die from the build up of acid within the cancer cells.

        The body does an excellent job of maintaining its pH through a variety of mechanisms. Respiration is the primary means of pH balance.

        Here is more information on the alkalizing myth:

        http://medreview.wordpress.com/2013/03/08/top-5-worst-internet-health-information-sites-curezone-org-part-2-alkalineacid-support-forum-part-2/

        • Hi james,
          your facts are outdated.
          american cancer institute has made a statement long ago that cancer cells thrives in acidic environment and cant in alkaline environment. Search about it.

          • Bean: “your facts are outdated.
            american cancer institute has made a statement long ago that cancer cells thrives in acidic environment and cant in alkaline environment. Search about it.”

            ROFLMAO!!!! First of all it is not up to me to prove the claim. If you are going to claim that the American Cancer Institute made that claim then it is up to you to back that claim.

            The funniest part though is where you say “long ago” but claim my facts are outdated. How long ago is their statement because that myth was proven false decades ago!!! So are you referring to the acid hypothesis from the 1930s? My research is way more current than that so if my facts are “outdated” as you claim then what does that make your claim? Precambrian?

    • All the above conversations & discussions show one thing in common; the awareness level of people. I am glad to know that at least 2-3% of the people here believe in listening to their body & also acknowledge the fact that every individual is different. I believe more than listening to the body, we must communicate with it, at every step as its not only the food that we eat contributes to the balance inside but also our thoughts, emotions & several other external factors do.

  19. I am glad to finally see a counter to this way of thinking that has been growing in popularity (with celebrities anyways and fancy water). I thought I read somewhere else on your webpage that there was a link between grain based diets and osteoporosis…. maybe there is but not through blood Ph.

    • It’s a counter to the popular idea sure, but is it true? Who’s to say this counter idea isn’t false? Just because there comes about an opposition to a popular belief does not nullify the legitimacy of the belief or practice. It could very well be true still that what we eat changes our blood PH, who can say for sure? No one.

      • the juries still out for me..this method has been here since the forties…also, Kagan water began efforts to market his product somewhere in the late thirties I think. Using some method to raise your ph to a certain level (on a regular basis),has been said to be done for prevention of a handful of things, and in the last twenty years, pollution, chemicals in the food, water air,..kinda cause your “regular” ph (7.4) to be mis- interpreted.

      • Did you not read the article? We know for sure, because if your blood PH changed with the food you ate, you would be dead. A major change to the blood PH level, kills you. Do you really think that humans would have evolved and survived if something as simple as eating too much meat could kill us?

        Think, for goodness sake.

        Eating meat is what caused us to evolve into modern humans. How could it be the cause of illness?

        • I have not come across even one “alternative” pH blog that asserts our diets change our blood pH. In fact, most of them say upfront that blood pH remains constant regardless of diet therefore this post by Kresser not only doesn’t “dismantle” anything, it appears to just reaffirm what’s out there already.

          Try again.

          • If the outraged arguments from the pH-theory believers made in the comments section of this article are any indication (and of course, they are), regardless of what you yourself have seen, there are clearly many who believed otherwise and have had that belief dismantled. Chris doesn’t need to try again, he already nailed it.

          • If the alkaline supporters are going to claim that the so-called “alkaline diet” alkalizes the body then what exactly is supposedly being alkalized if not the blood? Before you respond with some stupid answer such as “it alkalizes the cells” and completely embarrass yourself, try thinking. What regulates the pH of the tissues? Answer, the blood. Tissues do not alkalize themselves. They generate acids that need to be carried away to prevent acidosis.

            • Blood is just one of many fluids in the body, genius. Water, interstitial fluids, lymphatic fluids, and other extra-cellular fluids all have pH levels that need not be acidic. The “overall system pH” is not just blood.

              • Brad: “Blood is just one of many fluids in the body, genius. Water, interstitial fluids, lymphatic fluids, and other extra-cellular fluids all have pH levels that need not be acidic. The “overall system pH” is not just blood.”

                You completely missed the point genius!!!! Yes the body has various pH levels as I have pointed out enough times in the past. The point is that when we are discussing pH we are talking about blood pH. But since the alkaline supporters since they cannot argue the fact that the diet does not have any significant effect on alkalizing the blood have tried to change the alkalizing concept to the lymphatic fluid, which is kept more alkaline than blood, or tissues such as organs. Thus I wrote: ” What regulates the pH of the tissues? Answer, the blood. Tissues do not alkalize themselves. “. Try reading what was wrote in whole instead of reading a small portion that you can take out of context genius!!!

                • There are several James here, which is part of the confusion.

                  I have several e-mail addresses,one for business one personal and one for sites where I am likely to get a lot of junk from companies. I will be catching up on e-mails soon. Been busy working on my book in between responding to posts.

        • as u all know, the food are broken down into smaller molecules for absorption. And absorption is due to a few mechanisms, eg. due to different concentration of the solutes itself. If the food u eat contains more acidic molecules than alkaline molecules ( eg. amino acids, fatty acids or inorganic elements such as phosphoric acid used in carbonated drinks and also in lots of food preservatives ) and it will still be absorbed by the body due to different concentration gradient of the solutes doesnt that means more acidic food will cause more absorption of acidic molecules into the body and thus making the blood more acidic ?

          the reason our body still keeps blood pH in range is due to our body’s buffer system. And if we keep on taking in acidic food, more and more each day, how long do u think it will last until our body starts to pull out minerals from other reserves like tissues and organs ?

          • Bean: ” If the food u eat contains more acidic molecules than alkaline molecules ( eg. amino acids, fatty acids or inorganic elements such as phosphoric acid used in carbonated drinks and also in lots of food preservatives ) and it will still be absorbed by the body due to different concentration gradient of the solutes doesnt that means more acidic food will cause more absorption of acidic molecules into the body and thus making the blood more acidic ?”

            No. Keep in mind that ALL foods are made acidic in the stomach. And absorption is almost exclusively in the intestines. But when the acidic chyme leaves the stomach the acids in the chyme are neutralized by pancreatic bicarbonate. So the acids do not remain as acids.

            The different effects of digestion of different foods is the different enzymes needed to break the different foods down.

            Acids are needed in digestion to properly break down proteins, to absorb certain vitamins and to increase absorption of some minerals by converting them in to more absorbable salts.

            Bean: ” the reason our body still keeps blood pH in range is due to our body’s buffer system. And if we keep on taking in acidic food, more and more each day, how long do u think it will last until our body starts to pull out minerals from other reserves like tissues and organs ?”

            Again this is not the case. The body’s primary means of pH regulation is respiration. So as long as you are still breathing your body is still balancing most of its pH. Next on the list is hydrogen ion retention or excretion by the kidneys. So as long as you still have functional kidneys the body is regulating virtually all the remaining pH. These two mechanisms account for virtually all the pH regulation in the body. So you are not depleting any type of reserve with most pH regulation.

            The body does not pull minerals from organs. It can use bone minerals as a buffer, but this is only as a last resort and requires EXTREME acidosis, which is super rare. Even at that the body has other buffering systems other than respiration and ion excretion/retention it will use to balance pH long before it will use bones for buffering. Bottom line is that acidosis that bad being so extremely rare and with the body’s various other buffering systems it will use first it is extremely unlikely that you will ever meet anyone in your lifetime that had or will develop acidosis severe enough to cause bone demineralization from the acidosis. It is just so extremely rare to develop severe acidosis, and so much more rare to develop acidosis severe enough to demineralize bone.

            • -Acid/base controlled by both lungs and kidneys

              -People can get an ABG (arterial blood gas) if they are concerned about their blood pH

              -Measuring your urine pH as an overall health determinant is non-sense.

              -I tried the pH diet thing for a while and I felt great. I’m type A blood so I at a lot of fruits, vegetables, nuts, fish, and chicken and very little red meat and processed foods…of course I felt great…but it wasn’t because of my urine pH. It was because the food I was putting in my body wasn’t processed junk and actual wholesome food.

              • I understood that saliva testing between meals is an accurate measurement. I had a ph below 7 for a long time until i added potassium powder (anything but chloride) to my supplement regime. Since then i have become alkaline. Also potassium has “zeta potential” and have normalized my blood pressure. Mr. Kresser is confusing the misinformed and making simple things difficult. Whole body systems is what matters. A live blood test will tell you whether your whole body system is acid or alkaline just by seeing cells separate or stick together.

                • Garry: “I understood that saliva testing between meals is an accurate measurement.”

                  It can accurately tell you the pH of your saliva, but that is it. The pH of saliva does not really tell us what is going on elsewhere in the body.

                  Garry: “I had a ph below 7 for a long time until i added potassium powder (anything but chloride) to my supplement regime.”

                  If you mean a salivary pH of below 7 then you either had too many acid forming bacteria in your mouth or dry mouth.

                  If you mean your blood pH was below 7 then you should have been in the hospital or you would have been dead.

                  Garry: “Since then i have become alkaline.”

                  If your blood was acidic to begin with you would have been in serious trouble and should have been in a hospital. Luckily the blood RARELY goes acidic.

                  Garry: “Also potassium has “zeta potential” and have normalized my blood pressure.”

                  Potassium helps with SOME cases of high blood pressure because it is a sodium antagonist. Sodium, which is also alkaline can cause water retention in people with sodium sensitivities, which is not common. When water is retained there is more fluid volume in the blood vessels raising blood pressure. Therefore, potassium displaces sodium and acts as a natural diuretic eliminating fluid in the vascular system thus dropping blood pressure.

                  Garry: “A live blood test will tell you whether your whole body system is acid or alkaline just by seeing cells separate or stick together.”

                  The clumping of the blood cells shown in live blood cell analysis is known as rouleaux and has NOTHING to do with the blood being acidic or alkaline. Rouleaux most commonly occurs from dehydration, excessive sodium and some medications.

                  Live blood cell analysis is often used as a sales tool to be used on gullible people. One company selling enzymes uses this microscope and claims that the rouleaux is not from acidity but rather a lack of enzymes, which is also untrue. But of course they were selling the enzymes they claim you need. Another company posted a video of live blood cell analysis claiming acidity causes this and you need to eat goji (lycii) berries to alkalize the blood. Of course they sell goji products at process well above you can get them in China town as lycii and these do not alkalize the blood.

                  Here is some of what I posted in response to their video:

                  “Also pay close attention to the slide where they claim the black spots are bacteria and cholesterol. Notice how they do not move when the red blood cells shift. This is because they are not in the blood, they are artifact on the slides. Again they are lying to their audience to sell their product.

                  Then they claim the light colored centers of the red blood cells indicate anemia. More BS. They are lighter because if you ever look at the structure of red blood cells they are concave in the center making the cells thinner in the center and thus the light passes through the center easier.

                  Note where they claim there are uric acid crystals in the blood but again they are not moving, which leads me to believe these are again artifact on the slide. Even if uric acid is present, which is in everyone, uric acid is one of the body’s primary antioxidants. Its present DOES NOT mean the blood is acidic. The uric acid is formed in everyone as a protective mechanism against the highly alkaline and highly toxic ammonia. The ammonia is converted in to uric acid to protect the body from ammonia poisoning.

                  Fungi in the blood is also EXTREMELY rare.

                  Basically the video is loaded with lies and misrepresentations because its sole purpose is to push sales.”

                  Unfortunately most people doing live blood cell analysis are only doing it as a sales tool and they don’t have the faintest clue what they are doing.

                  Another great example was a lady in Reno, Nevada was selling what amounted to bleach in salt water as a cure all. She would also use live blood cell analysis to push her products at meetings. She was pointing to white blood cells on the projection screen and claiming they were parasites for one thing. Again, these sales people rely on the gullibility of people and their lack of knowledge of real medicine to make their sales.

            • hi james
              our stomach only provides an acidic environment so the digestive enzymes can work appropriately for food digestion. The food are still absorbed as acids eg. protein = amino acids, fats = fatty acids, carbs = simple sugar (glucose) etc. What i am trying to make a point is, what food we take in does affects our body pH.

              Our body has 3 main buffer system, and yes, bicarbonate buffer system is the main one which has immediate effect by controlling our breathing rate. But this doesnt meant that other buffer systems are not working at the same time. It is still working at the same time but only at a slower rate. Virtually every processes in our body is never completely stopped. It is always regulated in such a way that when its too much, it slows down and when its too little, it speeds up, always in equilibrium.

              minerals are pulled out from time to time, but it is also replenished at the same time.

              what i am trying to imply here is that, even when our body pH is normal, our body might have already been pulling out too much of these minerals to compensate it. And when it still cant accommodate with it, the pH will continue to decrease, until it reach below 7.2 and thats when its called metabolic acidosis.

              so if we can take in food which has a higher net alkaline pH, i personally think it can help regulate pH, and lessen the burden on our body.

              take a look at the world these days, why do number of patients with degenerative diseases (diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease etc ) keeps on increasing ? there is a link between the food they take in and these diseases, and lots of researches found it to be because of pH and they are trying to educate the world to live a healthier lifestyle by sharing their studies. While there is still no way to prove everything they say is right, the same way goes to u, there is no way u can prove that what they is wrong too. Besides, there is no harm eating more alkaline diet.

              • Bean: “our stomach only provides an acidic environment so the digestive enzymes can work appropriately for food digestion.”

                Stomach acid serves other purposes other than allowing pepsin to digest proteins. Stomach acid also kills most ingested pathogens, reduces fermentation and thus acid reflux, aids in the absorption of minerals and also aids in the absorption of vitamins B6, B12 and folate.

                Bean: “The food are still absorbed as acids eg. protein = amino acids, fats = fatty acids, carbs = simple sugar (glucose) etc. ”

                Glucose is not an acid. And other components of food can be absorbed or not absorbed in different forms. Minerals are reacted with stomach acid to form more absorbable salts, insoluble fibers are not absorbed but rather fermented in the gut, etc.

                Bean: “What i am trying to make a point is, what food we take in does affects our body pH.”

                Yes and no. The main effect ALL foods provide as far as pH goes is the fact that all foods are metabolized in to acids in the long run, many of which are essential to our health, energy production and existence. As far as alkalizing, food has virtually no influence on pH regulation. Virtually all pH regulation within the body is controlled by respiration followed by kidney excretion or retention of hydrogen ions. None of this is directly controlled by diet.

                As for the bicarbonate system of respiration this should be differentiated from the pancreatic bicarbonate since so much of the alkaline hypothesis is based on the alkaline response. The alkaline response is the release of pancreatic bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme. This is not just a response with some foods as is often claimed. It is a response that occurs with ALL foods.

                Bean: “But this doesnt meant that other buffer systems are not working at the same time.”

                Nobody ever claimed they were. But these other sources of buffering only account for a very tiny fraction of the pH buffering of the body. And some such as buffering by bone minerals may never occur in a person being that this is a last resort buffer and wold require a very severe case of acidosis, which is EXTREMELY rare.

                And this does not address the main focus of Kessler’s blog article which really about the mythical “alkaline diet”. The point is that diet DOES NOT really play any significant role in alkalizing the blood. In order for something we ingest to have any alkalizing effect on the blood the person would have to overwhelm the stomach acid with an alkalizer, which is a very dangerous thing to do considering the various roles of stomach acid.

                Bean: “minerals are pulled out from time to time, but it is also replenished at the same time.”

                Pulled from where? Again, bones are used as a buffering source only as a last resort and so is an EXTREMELY rare event.

                Bones are continually being broken down and rebuilt to keep them healthy, but this has absolutely nothing with pH balancing of blood.

                Bean: “what i am trying to imply here is that, even when our body pH is normal, our body might have already been pulling out too much of these minerals to compensate it. ”

                Again, pulled from where?

                And also again keep in mind that the the bast majority of pH regulation for the body is controlled through respiration followed by kidney activity. Neither of which involve pulling minerals from anywhere. Neither does most of the remaining, minor, pH buffering activities, such as protein buffering.

                Bean: “so if we can take in food which has a higher net alkaline pH, i personally think it can help regulate pH, and lessen the burden on our body.”

                One of the points that keeps coming up is that there is NO such thing as a truly acid or truly alkaline food. Most of the so-called “alkaline foods” are full of naturally occurring acids. Part of the alkaline myth comes from the fact people mistake the release of alkaline pancreatic bicarbonate for an alkalizing effect on the blood. In fact, I am sure we have all heard the claim about how drinking lemon juice is alkalizing. This again is a misinterpretation of the alkaline response, which is simply a release of pancreatic bicarbonate to neutralize acids in the chyme released in to the intestines. ALL foods create this same response though, even a candy bar. And this IS NOT affecting blood pH. The other part of the problem is that the so-called “alkaline food charts” are based on measuring the ash content of foods, which DOES NOT show if a food is acidic or alkaline to begin with. Again, many of these foods called alkaline are loaded with naturally occurring acids. Ignoring the acid content of these foods does not make those acids magically disappear. It just shows how easy it is to manipulate research to make whatever ridiculous claims someone wishes to make.

                These people are also ignoring the fact that ALL foods are eventually metabolized in to acids. So how can one food such as kale, loaded with acids, be alkaline when a spoonful of sugar, which has NO acid in it is considered acidic? Before answering keep in mind that the sugars in the kale will be metabolized in to the same acid as the sugar, plus other acids on top of that. This is a good example of why people need to use some common sense if they are not going to rely on real science.

                Even the people pushing the alkaline diet cannot seem to agree. Have you looked at the various acid food/alkaline food charts? One chart will claim that a food is alkaline while another chart will claim the same food is acid. There is no consensus because there is no real science or facts backing the claims up.

                Bean: “take a look at the world these days, why do number of patients with degenerative diseases (diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease etc ) keeps on increasing ? there is a link between the food they take in and these diseases, and lots of researches found it to be because of pH”

                These have NOTHING to do with an acidic pH.

                For example, diabetes. Type 1 can be either autoimmune, or can occur from alloxan or some other chemicals or result from trauma. None of these are the result of acidity. Type 2 diabetes is from the closing or decreased sensitivity of insulin receptors due to a lack of chromium and/or magnesium, or excessive body fat. Gestational diabetes is the result of a hormone imbalance. Again, none of these forms being caused by acidity. Autoimmune induced diabetes though can be helped with ascorbic acid, pantothenic acid and gymnemic acid.

                High blood pressure has various causes including epinephrine, angiotensin, various medications such as Prednisone or NSAIDs calcium (which happens to be considered alkaline), sodium retention (sodium is also alkaline), elevated insulin and even excess alkalinity since this constricts blood vessels. Carbonic acid in the blood actually lowers blood pressure by dilating blood vessels.

                Heart disease is the result of arterial damage and inflammation, not acidity. In fact, ascorbic acid and orthosilicic acid in particular can help prevent heart disease.

                Other diseases often falsely blamed on acidity include osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Neither of these conditions are caused from acidity, but are helped by amino acids, ascorbic acid and especially orthosilicic acid. Hyaluronic acid is also good for osteoarthritis.

                Bean: “Besides, there is no harm eating more alkaline diet.”

                The so-called “alkaline diet” is more nutritious. But still promoting the diet as alkalizing when it does not alkalize the blood as claimed only makes the holistic community look like a bunch of quacks for promoting ideas proven as scientific quackery. I don’t know what you want, but I want holistic medicine to be taken seriously. And the only way that is going to occur is to stop promoting proven bogus claims as fact.

                • HI james
                  it does sounds to have a different meaning from what i am trying to say when the 2 sentences are pull apart and looked at individually. what i was trying to meant is that stomach acids provides an acidic environment and the food are stilled absorbed as its simplest form. I knew glucose is not an acid its a simple sugar, thats why i wrote it as it is. I just used the term acids to make an impact on our main topic (acidity of food ) and then i just wanna show that i do know what carbs are broken down into and thats why i accidentally made that wrong statement. I am sorry if i confuse u. As far as i know minerals are absorbed in the ionized form. (eg. ca2+, mg2+) it will form salts but when it passes through membranes, it will dissociates and still transported as ions. Either way, salts are neutral, it doesnt change the fact that other acids are absorbed into our body and thus results in a net acidic gained in our body.

                  quoted from your statement,
                  “The main effect ALL foods provide as far as pH goes is the fact that all foods are metabolized in to acids in the long run, many of which are essential to our health, energy production and existence.”
                  doesnt this meant that certain food will increase acids in the body ? i do know acids are essential for us, but too much of anything is never good for our body. And whats happening in our world nowadays (mostly 1st world countries) is that they are taking in way too much of these than is required for the body.

                  While searching for how minerals are pulled out from bones, i accidentally came across this from ncbi.

                  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11446566

                  Eight healthy volunteers underwent a four-day metabolic preparation with two types of diets, one rich in acid ash-forming nutrients, and one providing base-forming nutrients (including bicarbonate-rich mineral water), both having similar contents of calcium, phosphate, sodium, proteins and calories. On the fourth day, a single oral dose of 1 g calcium was given, either as carbonate or as gluconolactate. Serial blood and urine samples revealed that the DIET AFFECTED BLOOD PH (average difference 0.014, p=0.002) and urine pH (average difference 1.02, p<0.0001) in the expected direction, but had no influence on the absorption of the calcium supplement.
                  However this is a study about calcium retention not whether food affects acidity.

                  To focus on kresser's topic, (whether food affects pH), u can skip this part below which is mainly about acidosis.

                  Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Metabolic acidosis is either due to increased generation of acid or an inability to generate sufficient bicarbonate. It dont have to be severe for our body to start looking for other sources of alkali forming substances, because our body already dont have the means to keep the pH in normal range. and we may never know if we had acidosis even when our pH is normal. It might just be normal for a while while our body compensates it and it slowly decreases till below pH 7.35 which doctors may finally start to diagnose it as metabolic acidosis. the reason why people is saying only under EXTREME conditions, that minerals are pulled out is that people can noticed it much easier under such conditions. It doesnt prove that under normal conditions it doesnt happen.

                  osteoporosis doesnt happen in a few days, it takes a very long time for it to happen. while i am totally supportive that its a combinations of few factors over the years that caused it and pH is one of them.

                  to answer your question to NO such thing as a truly acid or truly alkaline food, it is understandable that everyone is talking about whether the food will form more acids than alkalies or the other way around, in other words, net forming acids or alkalies. We all do know food doesnt consists of just one element in its chemical composition. While the way they define alkaline food maybe wrong, it doesnt prove that all the food in this world is not net forming acids or alkalies. and just because there is no real science or facts to prove it doesnt makes it a false statement. It works both ways u know ? it may still be correct or it maybe wrong.

                  If what u are supporting on kresser's theory that food doesnt affects blood pH is right, u can try drinking acidic water produced by enagic's Kangen water machine which is produced through electrolysis (means the pH is regulated by concentration of H+ and OH- of H20). Since u said food doesnt affect blood pH, so these acidic water shouldnt affect u as well. Connect it through a drinkable source so u can be sure that the water is "safe" to drink.

                  continue your eating habits and lifestyle as same. Dont change anything aside from drinking acidic water.

                  Be sure to do a full body check before and after u try this. ABG, renal function test, bone mineral density test, are of particular importance and any other associated tests u can think of. This way u can clear the myth once and for all. We will be very grateful to u to uncover this myth that has been hunting us for life.

                  anyhow this is advantageous for u. If u found out that u are right, u can sue a lot of big companies and powerful people. And in case if food does affects pH, u just helped prove a really significant discovery which can change the lives of billions maybe trillions. I will always respect u as my Hero.

                • Bean: “what i was trying to meant is that stomach acids provides an acidic environment and the food are stilled absorbed as its simplest form. ”

                  Yes, but as I said the acidity serves multiple purposes. As far as digestion and absorption its role is in the breakdown of proteins and acidification of minerals to make them more absorbable and to enhance absorption of some vitamins.

                  As for the absorption of other things, yes they are absorbed in their broken down forms. Not all of these require stomach acid though.

                  Bean: “As far as i know minerals are absorbed in the ionized form. (eg. ca2+, mg2+) it will form salts but when it passes through membranes, it will dissociates and still transported as ions. ”

                  Yes, but some salts are easier to disassociate, which again is why the reaction of minerals with stomach acid enhance their absorption.

                  Bean: “Either way, salts are neutral, it doesnt change the fact that other acids are absorbed into our body and thus results in a net acidic gained in our body.”

                  Not necessarily. You are overlooking the buffering systems for one, which start before absorption. And then look at amino acids, which are actually broken down in to highly alkaline and highly toxic ammonia. To reduce the toxic ammonia the ammonia is reacted with carbonic acid to form uric acid, which is one of the body’s primary antioxidants. And in the process carbonic acid levels are decreased. The uric acid can then be hydrolyzed and passed off as urea.

                  Bean: “quoted from your statement,
                  “The main effect ALL foods provide as far as pH goes is the fact that all foods are metabolized in to acids in the long run, many of which are essential to our health, energy production and existence.”
                  doesnt this meant that certain food will increase acids in the body ? ”

                  Yes, acids we can exist or function without. And yes, there is such a thing as too much of a good thing. But this is why the body has so many redundant systems to maintain its required acidity level. The body’s primary two means are not a reserve and thus we never deplete anything in the process. Keep in mind that the body has been regulating its pH WITHOUT outside assistance ever since humans have existed on this planet. People should be smart enough to realize that when they try to force the body in to an alkaline state when it already maintains an alkaline state is ludicrous and dangerous. This just puts more stress on the body as it has to work much harder to restore the levels of acidity it again needs to survive and function.

                  Bean: “And whats happening in our world nowadays (mostly 1st world countries) is that they are taking in way too much of these than is required for the body. ”

                  Too much of what? There is NO such thing as a truly acid or truly alkaline food. It DOES NOT matter if you consume argula lettuce or a Snicker’s bar. They are both going to be metabolized in the same exact matter by the body and will both be metabolized in to acids in the long run. Ironically, if you think about the science the arugula lettuce will end up providing more acids to the body than the Snicker’s bar even though alkaline supporters will claim the arugula is alkaline and the Snicker’s bar is acidic. Again, alkaline supporters come to these false conclusions because they fail to consider the chemistry of the food and how they are metabolized in the body. They are simply guessing at things, which is also why so many alkaline food charts contradict each other. Lot’s of guessing and opinions going on but no solid science.

                  Bean: “While searching for how minerals are pulled out from bones, i accidentally came across this from ncbi.

                  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11446566

                  Other than the super obvious problems with this study including low number of participants, extremely short testing duration and no collaborating studies there is still one big glaring error they overlooked that can explain their results. And it has NOTHING to do with pH.

                  The body can only utilize so much calcium at a time and the rest is going to get excreted to prevent the very dangerous condition hypercalcemia. The researchers used two forms of calcium. One form that is very poorly absorbed (the alkaline form) and one that is highly absorbed (the acidic form). This higher levels of the acidic form will reach the blood and thus more of the excess gets excreted when the body cannot utilize it. This is basic science and basic human physiology they overlooked. Again, this is why larger, better designed and controlled studies need to be done and to collaborate the findings rather than assuming something based on the findings.

                  Bean: “Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Metabolic acidosis is either due to increased generation of acid or an inability to generate sufficient bicarbonate. ”

                  Which has what to do with what? Have you considered how EXTREMELY rare acidosis really is? Or why the opposite, alkalosis, is considered extremely more dangerous than acidosis? Both conditions are EXTREMELY rare since the body regulates its pH REGARDLESS of what we eat. That is the point of the blog article and has been proven by science.

                  Bean: “It dont have to be severe for our body to start looking for other sources of alkali forming substances, because our body already dont have the means to keep the pH in normal range.”

                  Again, the body DOES NOT have to seek out alkali forming substances since virtually all pH regulation is through respiration followed by ion secretion or retention by the kidneys. NO alkaline reserves required and no having to seek out alkaline forming substances in these methods that account for virtually all pH regulation in the body.

                  Bean: ” It might just be normal for a while while our body compensates it and it slowly decreases till below pH 7.35 which doctors may finally start to diagnose it as metabolic acidosis. the reason why people is saying only under EXTREME conditions, that minerals are pulled out is that people can noticed it much easier under such conditions. It doesnt prove that under normal conditions it doesnt happen.”

                  Proof goers both ways. There is no proof that this does happen either.

                  But explain to everyone here how it is that athletes with high protein consumption, which is considered acidic, still maintain a high bone density if your hypothesis is true?

                  Bean: “osteoporosis doesnt happen in a few days, it takes a very long time for it to happen. while i am totally supportive that its a combinations of few factors over the years that caused it and pH is one of them.”

                  Evidence? A lack of ascorbic acid, amino acids, and especially orthosilicic acid will lead to osteoporosis, but that is as close to having to do with pH as it gets.

                  Research bone anatomy and physiology for a while and you may finally figure out why.

                  Bean: “to answer your question to NO such thing as a truly acid or truly alkaline food, it is understandable that everyone is talking about whether the food will form more acids than alkalies or the other way around, in other words, net forming acids or alkalies. ”

                  And as I pointed out earlier arugula lettuce, considered alkaline, will generate more acids than a Snicker’s bar, which is considered acidic. Do you know why? When you figure out the answer you will realize how ridiculous the whole acid food-alkaline food hypothesis is.

                  Further adding to the ridiculousness of this hypothesis is the fact I pointed out several times in the past that the whole hypothesis is based on measuring ONLY the alkaline ash content of plants. So they ignored the acid content to begin with, which assuming this is an indicator of pH is just EXTREMELY poor science to begin with.

                  This also failed to take in to account the rest of the chemistry of the plant that can affect the alkaline mineral content. For example, oxalic acid found in high levels in various plants such as kale, spinach, parsley, purslane, etc. will block the absorption of alkaline calcium. Again, assuming alkaline ash content equates to alkaline effect in the body is just extremely poor science.

                  In fact, milk is loaded with calcium, which is considered alkaline. Yet the alkaline diet myth supporters claim raw milk is alkaline, even though milk’s proteins interfere with calcium absorption and that pasteurized milk is acidic even though it has the same exact alkaline ash content as the milk they claim is alkaline. Again, there is a whole lot of guessing and assuming going on propagating the alkaline diet myth, but no real science.

                  Bean: “While the way they define alkaline food maybe wrong, it doesnt prove that all the food in this world is not net forming acids or alkalies.”

                  And there is NO real scientific evidence proving it does. On the other hand science has proven that foods are all metabolized in the same manner and that ALL foods, even the so-called “alkaline foods” will metabolize in to acids.

                  Science has also proven that many of the so-called “alkaline foods” are loaded with naturally occurring acids. A fact the alkaline diet myth supporters keep ignoring. And the scientifically proven fact that ALL foods are made acidic in the stomach and the chyme alkalized in the intestine (the “alkaline response”).

                  Bean: “It works both ways u know ? it may still be correct or it maybe wrong.”

                  A fact that I have been trying to get across to you over an over. Glad to see you finally catching on.

                  But science has shown repeatedly how the body regulates its pH to maintain that very narrow pH required for survival. And thus we know that virtually all the body’s pH regulation DOES NOT involve any “alkaline reserves” as the alkaline diet myth supporters imply so often. So where is your proof that if someone eats a steak that their blood pH will start to acidify or that if they drink lemon juice that their blood will start to alkalize as the alkaline diet myth supporters claim?

                  Bean: “If what u are supporting on kresser’s theory that food doesnt affects blood pH is right, u can try drinking acidic water produced by enagic’s Kangen water machine which is produced through electrolysis (means the pH is regulated by concentration of H+ and OH- of H20). Since u said food doesnt affect blood pH, so these acidic water shouldnt affect u as well. ”

                  Water is not a food. Since you don’t understand that concept I am beginning to understand why you are not grasping the science that proves the alkaline diet hypothesis is a complete myth.

                  Bean: “continue your eating habits and lifestyle as same. Dont change anything aside from drinking acidic water.

                  Be sure to do a full body check before and after u try this. ABG, renal function test, bone mineral density test, are of particular importance and any other associated tests u can think of. This way u can clear the myth once and for all.”

                  REAL science has already proven the alkaline diet is a myth. If you disagree though then you are welcome to follow your own advice and to undergo the testing you describe so you can prove or disprove YOUR point. Of course you will not do it if you have doubts about your own claims. So I doubt you will ever do the testing yourself to find out the truth already backed by science.

                  Bean: “anyhow this is advantageous for u. If u found out that u are right, u can sue a lot of big companies and powerful people. And in case if food does affects pH, u just helped prove a really significant discovery which can change the lives of billions maybe trillions. I will always respect u as my Hero.”

                  I am not out to be anyone’s hero. But again, if you really believe in your claims and want to prove science wrong and maybe win a Nobel Prize then you really should follow your own testing advice. As for me I am not stupid enough to put my hand on a hot stove to find out if it will really burn. Again, science has already proven many things to us so we do not have to put ourselves in danger to prove already proven facts.

              • You are so very ‘RIGHT’ – It’s quite simple really! Common sense tells us the food we eat will impact our health! The same goes for exercise! I’ve been doing my own research on PH levels and find absolutely ‘nothing’ wrong with keeping atop your PH levels while eating the right foods in addition to changing your eating habits and or life style in order to be healthy! Why not? – afterall, there is so much to gain from it even IF nothing has been proven! Either way, you are jump starting your body when you start thinking ‘POSITIVE’ and begin eating healthy foods! There will ALWAYS be someone to contradict a theory, it’s ‘human nature’ So be it! Smile and make it a ‘powerful’ day!

                • Robin: ” Common sense tells us the food we eat will impact our health!”

                  True, but not because of changing pH since they don’t alkalize the blood. The benefits from healthy foods come from the higher nutritional content and the various beneficial phytochemicals that include a number of acids, phytoestrogens, quinones, glucosinolates, sterols, saponins, etc. Again, foods DO NOT alkalize the blood unless what you ingest dangerously overwhelms the body’s natural pH buffering systems.

                  Robin: “I’ve been doing my own research on PH levels and find absolutely ‘nothing’ wrong with keeping atop your PH levels while eating the right foods in addition to changing your eating habits and or life style in order to be healthy! Why not?”

                  Because the body maintains its pH REGARDLESS of what you eat again unless you dangerously overwhelm the body’s natural pH buffering systems. Otherwise diet plays no significant role in alkalizing the blood.

                  Robin: “There will ALWAYS be someone to contradict a theory, it’s ‘human nature’ ”

                  People don’t disprove theories. Real science does.

                  Theories though disprove hypotheses such as the alkaline diet hypotheses, which has already been definitively disproven.

                • Good morning James! 🙂 Quite frankly your comment doesn’t even warrant a response, simply because you missed my ‘point’ 10 fold! Not uncommon for those that feel the need to be ‘right fighter’s’ – and for what??? Is it that you want to save the world and it’s people for harmlessly wanting to check their PH levels??? Not such a terrible thing now is it???? Haaaa! I’m certain you will spend a half day now writing a response to my comment – haaaaa! Knock yourself out James – I’ve got an amazing and healthy life to enjoy – you should try it! 🙂 Blessings and best wishes! 🙂

                • Robin: “Good morning James! 🙂 Quite frankly your comment doesn’t even warrant a response”

                  And yet you still felt so compelled so you could get your jabs in. Someone clearly has some suppressed anger issues just wanting to come out.

                  James: “Not uncommon for those that feel the need to be ‘right fighter’s’”

                  LOL!!! “Right fighter”? So because I was agreeing with you that the food we eat impacts our health I am a “right fighter”? Yep, you definitely have some suppressed anger issues. The only thing I disagreed with was your implication that the health impacts are from pH changes, which science, not myself has proven wrong.

                  Robin: ” Is it that you want to save the world and it’s people for harmlessly wanting to check their PH levels??? Not such a terrible thing now is it???? Haaaa!”

                  Checking what pH? Saliva and urine? Which tell them what? Neither reflect blood pH whatsoever. Are you really stupid enough to go get blood drawn to have your pH tested every time you eat since this is the ONLY way to know your blood pH?

                  So is promoting the urine and salivary pH reflects the blood pH myth really harmless as you imply? No, because if people incorrectly think they are acidic based on these tests that cannot tell them their blood pH then they may try to alkalize their systems through dangerous practices such as drinking baking soda or ionized alkaline waters. These can put a lot of stress on the body and worse yet lead to all sorts of adverse health issues. All because they fell for the saliva or urinary pH reflects blood pH myth.

                  Robin: ” I’m certain you will spend a half day now writing a response to my comment ”

                  Nope, you were wrong yet again. Took less that 10 minutes to address your BS!!!

                  You did provide a great example of why people, such as yourself, should not try to argue over things they have no clue about. Thanks for that public service.

                • Beware the man who thinks he knows everything! I went to a doctor who made his living treating Quadrilateral space syndrome… I believe he even named the condition in the 80’s. Its a nerve condition in and around the scapula. It often strikes competitive athletes and and I kid you not… welders that weld overhead. The ex-professional pitcher Rollie Fingers has/had QSS.

                  Anyone with half a brain would put two and two together and determine that the welders and pro athletes SWEAT. You sweat out water soluble vitamins. In my case I was an endurance athlete and hadn’t eaten red meat in 20 years. When I developed QSS my common sense said….GET YOURSELF SOME B12… quick!! The doctor who made his living operating on so called QSS patients didn’t want to give it to me so I got it on my own and began injecting once a week. When I recovered quickly from QSS he said he’d “misdiagnosed” and I never had it after all. He was so disappointed.

                  If I’d followed James’s thinking that dependance on research and studies should determine a course of action I’d be cut open by this idiot that didn’t want to kill his cash cow with the truth to the matter.

                  Studies and research often follow the money and common sense goes out the window. Listen to your body and all the signs it gives you including urinary PH is my advice. Others who ridicule or try to dissuade you from listening to your body are in it for ego reasons, upholding the status quo or they are just internet trolls and should be ignored.

                • finndian: “If I’d followed James’s thinking that dependance on research and studies should determine a course of action I’d be cut open by this idiot that didn’t want to kill his cash cow with the truth to the matter.”

                  ROTFLMAO!!!! If you were not such a complete moron Finndian you would know that real science has already proven the role B12 plays in treating nerve damage. Same reason I also recommend B12 as well as other components needed to heal nerves for nerve damage issues.

                  At least you are finally figuring out what science has been aware of for a very long time!!!!

              • Bravo. The idea buffering systems are taxed – variably – should have been the start of Kresser’s article. Exploring how all three buffering systems work – is work everyone here needs to increase – including Kresser. The better question to ask is “Why and when (under which conditions) does calcium leach out of the bones?” According to the supposed ‘rarity’ that this happens (calcium, phosphate and other minerals leave bones) – then why the hell do so many women lose bone mass? Kresser’s article only breaks the surface – while most of you bicker like jackals – rather than asking more questions. Kresser and all of us need to read WAY more. He and many of you reach conclusions – therefore your inquiry into the subject is stunted and/or ended.

                • James killed it. Final Bravo: The hormonal environment decides it. Ray Peat writes the same thing: “As a result the parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which in turn releases calcium from the bone to balance out the perceived calcium-phosphorus imbalance.”

        • Eating meat has nothing to do with evolution. This article has nothing to do with evolution, so keep your religious views out of the conversation. We eat meat because we need the protein but, as with anything, eat too much and it won’t be good for you regardless of what effect, if any, it has on the ph levels of the blood.

      • There is truth to both. I do know that I reversed kidney damage using the alkaline approach. The article speaks the ideal. What caused disease. I reversed disease with an alkaline way of eating. I was not concerned with the pH of my urine and saliva. I was concerned about my kidney and liver function which are both normal now. Yes the kidneys regulate serum calcium. If your kidneys are diseased they can’t regulate bodily functions idealy.

        • Hi Jane,

          There is no question that the so-called “alkaline diet” is beneficial. The point of the article though is simply the fact that it DOES NOT alkalize the blood.

          The so-called “alkaline diet” is beneficial due to the high nutritional value. For example, you mentioned this diet helped with your kidney disease. Well the two most important nutrients for kidney function that tend to be the most common depleted are ascorbic ACID and orthosilicic ACID both provided by the so-called “alkaline diet”.

          The liver is dependent on fatty ACIDS also provided by the so-called “alkaline diet”. The diet can also provide acidic polyphenols that can destroy viruses that can damage the liver and these polyphenols are great antioxidants.

          In fact, the so-called “alkaline diet” is loaded with beneficial dietary acids and get metabolized in to more beneficial acids. The diet does not alkalize the blood or tissues.

          Calcium regulation involves a lot more that just the kidneys, which are involved in calcium reabsorption and excretion. Calcium balance is also controlled by the parathyroid glands, the intestines, bone remodeling and even sweating.

          James

          • I’ve been reading for hours!!! Still no end of this thread in site… Get it? Sight… I kid

            Thanks all, James, all the James and all other commenters. Quite an interesting personality you must have James to patiently repeat the same thing over and over again, though I’ve seen the unesscessary insults as well. I think it’s hella funny how a lot of people think you wrote the article… Thanks for ‘lurking’ lol

            So many of the questions I hadn’t formulated properly yet have been answered. Namely the one that the article is based on, I was wondering how we were going to absorb alkaline ash when the stomach is acidic.

            I appreciate the chemistry shared here it’s helped me better understand the processs of properly nourishing the body.

            I always knew something was funny with purified water, it’d pass right through me and while sitting on the toilet I’m was bewildered as to why I was thirsty again. Sprinkles kosher sea salt everywhere…

            I hope someone can give me some feedback on this question… James?

            I’ve recently (past year) been eating a more plant based and live diet and though I’ve seen marked improvement in energy my skin has been breaking out in my face where I’ve later learnt that lymph nodules ’empty’ forgive the lay…woman terms please and see if you can sift through to the main idea of what I’m asking. The acne has lead me to research about hormones. I have also realized that my intestinal flora may be out of whack. Greening my diet has helped but I still can’t enjoy a glass of red wine without seeing an increase in white stuff on my tongue and also a creamier vaginal secretion. Maybe that red wine but is in my head though based on the fact that blood ph is not affected by diet.
            So I’ll be making some kimchi to help with the gut flora, not sure how to level the hormones but I’ve started exercising and doing cognitive self help to redesign unhealthy belief paradigms. I’m natural skinny and never had an active reason to exercise before…

            So! What I’m asking is this, what role does diet play in removing toxins from the body (I’m a fine artist and I’ve worked with acrylic and latex paints for 15 years). Is there any chemical truth to the body detoxifying itself when ones starts eating what has been traditionally considered an ‘alkaline’ diet? And if so, how does this work?

    • Hi James….I am enjoying your comments. Regarding grains and osteoporosis…..It is said thru research and the like that grain-based diets do contribute to mineral displacement in the body due to phytic acid content in the grain. This goes for nuts and seeds as well and to a lesser degree beans. (Beans contain mostly enzyme inhibitors, which is still an issue with breaking down foods and assimilation in the gut) Peoples all over the world have been eating grains for thousands of years with no osteoporosis (at least not to our knowledge). These peoples have also been preparing said grains in a way to break down these ‘anti-nutrients’ to make assimilation of minerals more complete as well as eliminating the cause of mineral displacement. So I feel this is a missing element in our modern lifestyle not too mention our food pyramid is set up so grains are on the bottom which I feel is just wrong….grains have a place, but not such a predominant one. It cannot be dismissed though, the amount of caffeine (increases the excretion in minerals from the body) (coffee contains phytic acids too though) and dark sodas consumed also plays a role in mineral displacement and osteoporosis as well as low stomach acidity though poor diet and the use of proton pump inhibitors and H2 antagonists (to a lesser degree). All this contributes to our osteoporosis ‘epidemic’ IMO. 🙂

      • Hi Sara,

        Different James here.

        The first thing people need to realize is that osteoporosis IS NOT a loss of bone minerals. A loss of bone minerals leads to osteopenia and osteomalacia, not osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the result of a loss of collagen matrix in the bone, which is the framework that gives bone most of its strength and allows the bone to flex to absorb force reducing the risk of fracture.

        One of the reasons the osteoporosis “treating” bisphosphonate drugs, such as Boniva and Actonel, increase the risk of bone fractures is because they over-mineralize the collagen matrix so the bone can no longer flex and thus cannot absorb force like healthy bone.

        Anyway, osteoporosis is a loss of collagen matrix. This reduces the surface area by which the minerals can deposit thus reducing bone density.

        The phytic acid claims are a myth I have addressed a number of times.

        First of all phytic acid levels quickly decline with cooking. Most of the phytic acid sources we consume are cooked before consumption.

        Secondly, phytic acid in plants are already bound to minerals the plants picked up from the soil. So how can this phytic acid rob the body of minerals when it is already saturated with minerals? The ONLY way the phytic acid can bind to a mineral from the body is if it gives up the minerals it is already bound to. Therefore, the phytic acid is not “robbing” the body of minerals as is often falsely claimed. The phytic acid is exchanging minerals with the body.

        In addition, most people don’t realize that phytic acid has a higher affinity for toxic heavy metals and dangerous free iron than it does beneficial minerals. Therefore, phytic acid can help remove toxic heavy metals, and can help reduce oxidative damage to tissues as well as reduce iron dependent pathogens and cancer cells by binding the free iron. This is why free phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate, IP6) is sold in health food stores and is often used in the treatment of cancer.

        Enzyme inhibitors are also removed by pre-soaking, or destroyed by cooking and are even reduced during long term storage. Since many seeds, such as beans, can be stored for years before reaching the market their levels of enzyme inhibitors are likely low to begin with.

        Coffee also contains oxalic acid and tannic acids that also interfere with nutrient absorption, such as calcium.

        Dark sodas contain phosphoric acid, which increases serum phosphorus levels. This leads to calcium removal from bones due to inducing pseudohyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT increases the release of parathyroid hormone, which releases calcium from bones to balance out the calcium-phosphorus ratio in the blood.

        Low stomach acid will interfere with proper mineral absorption. Several other causes include antacids, and the consumption of baking soda or alkaline waters.

        • I understand all this James…thanks for reiterating and all….but you are preaching to the choir. I was just giving some examples of how our stomach acids decrease, not a comprehensive list as well as major points regarding phytic acid…yes oxalates can be harmful in regards to mineral absorption and they are in general ‘hard’ on the kidneys if eaten too often. But cooking will break these down pretty readily. Phytic acids, not so much since not all phytic acids are broken down thru cooking. This is plain ole science, but yes, heat, acidity, pH, fermentation and time all break down these ‘antinutrients. It still cannot be explained away in its implication in displacing mineral in the body. Enzyme disrupters are broken down by the same processes and not at all completely broken down unless pre-soaked with added acid and the pH is altered. And in the case of soy, fermentation. You need to cook beans for a very long time if pre-soaking in vinegar and salt is not done prior to cooking. Again, there is science on this too.

          I do think it interesting that osteopenia is suggested as a stage before osteoporosis by mainstream medicine. I always thought this bunk and still do. Interesting about the bone matrix….being that it is a protein, seems stomach acid may come into play here as well….

        • Dear “Different” James,

          I am working on the issue of a possible electromagnetic effect on human body thru means of measuring voltage and pH if possible. pH measurement is technically possible with liquids only and pH is forcefully regulated in blood so then do I need to measure liquids from tissue? Secondly, although EM energy is net charge neutral, its effect may create charge movement and changes in electricity (and naturally magnetism) of the body. For optical and UV part, the issue has been checked by one of my friends in another PhD dissertation successfully. But as you know UV and high frequency EM radiation has higher energy and it may cause such effects much easily {such as electron removal, DNA strand breaking etc}.
          I am not sure on my work how it would be.
          Please kindly comment/advise since I am far from medical science.
          Kind regards…

        • don’t all sodas, whether dark or light have phosphoric acid whether 7UP, Ginger Ale or Coke and therefore leach calcium? Don’t you think that is part of the epidemic – the insane quantities of soda pop that kids and general population drink?

          • No, all sodas DO NOT contain phosphoric acid. Only colas contain phosphoric acid. All colas do contain carbonic acid though.

            Still, neither carbonic acid nor phosphoric acid leach minerals from the bones. This is another myth.

            Hi levels of phosphorus from acid or alkaline sources can lead to bone loss though, although this has nothing to do with pH. High levels of phosphorus.can make the body think there is an imbalance between calcium and phosphorus. As a result the parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which in turn releases calcium from the bone to balance out the perceived calcium-phosphorus imbalance.

        • Hi different james,

          In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a bone mineral density of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass

          osteoporosis is not loss of collagen only

          • Bean: “In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a bone mineral density of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass

            osteoporosis is not loss of collagen only”

            Actually osteoporosis is a loss of collagen matrix, not a loss of bone minerals. A loss of bone minerals results in osteomalacia or osteopenia.

            Is there a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporosis? Yes, but not from mineral loss from bones. With the loss of collagen matrix (or “bone microarchitecture” as you put it) there is less surface are for the DEPOSITION (opposite of loss) of minerals resulting in a loss of BMD. So the decline in BMD is the symptom of the osteoporosis, not the cause.

            A simple analogy is with the growth of marine animals on hard surfaces. Let’s say you have a cement wall in the ocean. If you have a wall with 500 square feet of surface area for the animals to grow on then you will have a greater abundance of marine animals than if you reduced the surface area to half that at 250 square feet. Bone collagen is like the cement wall giving a place for the marine life, representing the bone minerals, to deposit. The loss of surface area of that cement wall is like the loss of collagen matrix in bone reducing surface area for mineralization.

            If you still don’t understand this concept then I suggest you research more on how bones form including the role of the collagen matrix including its role in the actual mineralization of the matrix.

            • hi different james

              while i can search on the internet everywhere that says osteoporosis is cased by loss of minerals, i cant seem to find any of it saying osteoporosis is loss of collagen matrix. Is it possible that loss of minerals is the main cause that results in loss of collagen ?

              maybe the knowledge is too deep that everyone explains it as loss of minerals or u are explaining it using your own understandings which is different from others

              • while i can search on the internet everywhere that says osteoporosis is cased by loss of minerals, i cant seem to find any of it saying osteoporosis is loss of collagen matrix. Is it possible that loss of minerals is the main cause that results in loss of collagen ?”

                I have found the information before, so I already know it exists. If you cannot find it on the internet then I suggest you try a medical library. Not all health information and studies can be found on the internet.

                As for the last part of your comment the answer is no. A loss of minerals is not going to affect collagen levels. Again, learn some bone anatomy and physiology so you understand how bone forms and you will see why.

                Bean: “maybe the knowledge is too deep that everyone explains it as loss of minerals or u are explaining it using your own understandings which is different from others”

                It is not “deep” at all, it is super simplistic. I even gave you an analogy to help you to understand the principle just in case you still did not get the overly simplistic concept of how osteoporosis forms.

                You know what, just to prove my point I did a search on collagen loss in osteoporosis. You claim you could not find anything anywhere on the internet. Yet is took me less than 30 seconds to find this:

                http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15951132

                And it took less than another minute to find the study: The role of collagen in bone strength Osteoporos Int (2006) 17: 319–336 In a PDF on the internet. In this study you will find statements such as:

                “To illustrate the role of the crosslinking
                process of collagen in bone strength, clinical
                disorders associated with bone collagen abnormalities
                and bone fragility, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and
                osteoporosis, are described.” And: “In postmenopausal and
                idiopathic osteoporosis, there is increasing evidence that
                a high remodeling with a negative bone balance induces
                bone loss and modification of the microarchitecture,
                such as decreased trabecular thickness and loss of connectivity,
                decreased cortical thickness, and increased
                cortical porosity. The high remodeling rate is associated
                with decreased bone mineralization that may reduce
                bone stiffness and may be associated with a modification
                of the content of collagen crosslinks.” Note where they clearly state “associated
                with decreased bone mineralization”. Where have we heard that before? Ah, that’s right, it is what I said numerous times earlier. And: “Several biochemical studies performed on bone
                specimens taken from patients with osteoporosis have
                shown abnormalities in posttranslational modifications
                of collagen. An overhydroxylation of lysine residues and
                an overglycosylation of hydroxylysine have been reported
                [145–147], resulting in the formation of fibrils of
                small diameter [148] that may affect the collagen fiber’s
                ability to mineralize normally”. Wow, again a reference with IMPROPER MINERALIZATION as I said, not mineral loss as you claim.

                I could go on and on finding the evidence for you and pointing these things out for you. But it is not my job to do the homework for you. But the fact you could not find any of this information anywhere on the internet when it took me less than a few minutes to find two studies shows you are either really terrible at research or you simply did not put any effort in to trying to find out the facts.

                • to james,

                  regarding the ncbi study shown by you, the researcher himself/herself said it was a hypothesis. And while it is proven that corticosteroids reduces ca2+, T3 regulates mineralization, growth hormones increases mineral density in bones, none has been proven to have a direct effect on collagen. The collagen loss is due to loss of minerals and not the other way around

                  from james : “The high remodeling rate is associated with decreased bone mineralization that may reduce bone stiffness and may be associated with a modification of the content of collagen crosslinks ”

                  i dont understand how u can miss the main point of the whole sentence and go to the “may be” part

                  It clearly said “The high remodeling rate is associated with decreased bone mineralization”

                  i guess u really just want to win in every argument

                • Bean: “regarding the ncbi study shown by you, the researcher himself/herself said it was a hypothesis.”

                  ROTFLMAO!!!! At least I am starting to see why it is that you cannot keep up with rational arguments. You CLEARLY do not understand scientific process. Let me put it in a nutshell for you. Scientific process starts with a hypothesis, which is an educated guess. Then evidence is accumulated through research to prove or disprove that hypothesis. If you read the study properly then you would have seen that this is exactly what they were doing. What people, that do not understand science, such as yourself do is to come up with a hypothesis such as foods alkalize the body then just assume it must be true without ever bothering to gather REAL evidence to back your hypothesis.

                  They also ignore scientific evidence presented to them such as the TWO studies I readily found in less than a couple of minutes after YOU claimed to not be able to find anything anywhere on the internet. I guess you have parental control blocks on any credible information sites since the research was readily available and easily found on the internet.

                  Bean: “And while it is proven that corticosteroids reduces ca2+, T3 regulates mineralization, growth hormones increases mineral density in bones, none has been proven to have a direct effect on collagen. The collagen loss is due to loss of minerals and not the other way around”

                  Not even close. Again, learn how the body really works before making such assumptions.

                  For that matter it does not even take scientific reasoning but rather common sense to prove your claim wrong.

                  What minerals make up collagen? Only one, orthosilicic acid, a silica compound. Note first of all than “one” is singular, not plural as the “minerals” you claim.

                  Losing minerals such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, strontium, etc. DOES NOT reduce collagen. In fact, there is collagen found throughout the body in various tissues that are not mineralized. According to your hypothesis none of these collagen sources should exist due to the lack of minerals. Again, learn some basic science and medicine. It will save us both a lot of time!!!

                  And do some real research on osteoporosis. I already provided you with a few of the various studies to start with. Maybe then you will finally figure out that osteoporosis is a loss of collagen reducing surface area for mineral deposition. Not mineral loss. Mineral loss of bone are known in medicine as osteopenia and osteomalacia.

                  Bean: “from james : “The high remodeling rate is associated with decreased bone mineralization that may reduce bone stiffness and may be associated with a modification of the content of collagen crosslinks ”

                  i dont understand how u can miss the main point of the whole sentence and go to the “may be” part

                  It clearly said “The high remodeling rate is associated with decreased bone mineralization”

                  i guess u really just want to win in every argument”

                  LOL!!! That is pretty ironic coming from you since you clearly ignored my point and tried twisting it in to something else.

                  Again, the study CLEARLY states : “The high remodeling rate is associated with decreased bone mineralization”, which backs what I have been trying to tell you all along. But you want to continue with a part of the paragraph that is not relevant and you cannot prove is not true.

                  Tell me Bean, does bone mineral loss reduce bone stiffness or not? Even though bone stiffness has nothing to do with what causes osteoporosis you were insistent on making this a point of contention so let’s see what your answer to this question is.

    • I agree. It is welcoming to hear an opposing view and the more I read about raw and vegan diets, the more I am certain that they are not healthy for you, or at the very least, do not accomplish what proponents of those diets claim and that is to be disease free. Not to mention, proponents of these diets look mal-nourished and skeletal in their appearanace. Far from healthy in my opinion. While I agree that it is a good idea to avoid sugar and processed foods, I think that more evidence is showing that going to extremes in the opposite direction (raw and vegan, for example) provide no real health benefits and in fact can be detrimental to your health, unless you like looking like skin stretched over a skeleton and having to take multi-vitamins religiously.

    • Chris, there appears to be proof that alkalinity can be of great benefit in achieving wellness even if this conclusion was reached from analysing the results of a trial using rats.
      Please consider this. I welcome your feedback. This is not something to ignore. After all rats (and dogs) are the two animals scientists mainly use to test drugs on because of their body system’s similarity to man’s. If a test shows a specific reaction in one of these animals, it is expected that a similar result is to be expected with humans.

      The trial done with rats (shown below) indicates that alkalinity may very well play a BIG part in good health. Of course try
      everything under the care of a caring and trusted health professional including a fully qualified herbalist.

      J Am Soc Nephrol 9: 1242-1248, 1998
      Potassium Citrate/Citric Acid (ALKALINE) Intake Improves Renal Function in Rats with Polycystic Kidney Disease

      Abstract. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has been shown to
      be exacerbated by acidosis or a low potassium intake, and there is evidence that administration of alkali might have a beneficial effect.

      Potassium Citrate intake did not affect body weight or urine flow, but completely prevented the decline in GFR found in untreated rats with PKD.

      In conclusion, chronic intake of Potassium Citrate in young Han:SPRD rats with PKD prevented the fall in GFR that is usually seen in these animals, thus helping to maintain good renal function.

      =========================================================================

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_citrate

      Medicinally, it may be used to control kidney stones derived from either uric acid or cystine.

      ======================================================
      More Notes:

      http://phbalance.wikispaces.com/Lemons+Alkaline%3F

      Lemons are Alkaline Forming

      This is because their acids, such as citric acid, are weak acid and the Lemon’s overall nutrients are alkaline. The End
      Product of Metabolism, otherwise known as Ash and it’s effects on the body make it Alkalizing.

      Citric Acid is a “weak” acid, meaning once it’s done it’s job in providing energy in metabolism it’s eliminated easily via
      sweat and respiration. It is alkaline forming in that it stimulates the formation of calcium carbonate in the body. Calcium carbonate then neutralizes the “Strong” acids in the body, acids that can only be gotten rid of through urination, including uric acid which is the end result of protein metabolism.

      In fruits such as the Lemons… the mineral content is also taken into consideration, and the Lemon’s Alkaline minerals are many, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and Selenium so after the citric acid has done its job and is easily eliminated, one is left with a very Alkaline Ash (end product) from the fruit.

      Proteins… they are acidic, not only in their amino acid content, but also in it’s utilization by the body… it leaves Uric Acids as it’s waste product from its metabolism. And we need Citric acid to help our bodies eliminate this Acidic end product (Ash).

    • OK, I clicked on your name and it pulled up an article full of misinformation.

      I am not going to go over the acidic foods-alkaline foods myth again. It has been covered in depth already.

      He is assuming that acidosis is causing muscle loss with age, which is very simple to disprove. Aging is very common and acidosis is extremely rare. So how can the extremely rare acidosis cause muscle loss in the elderly when the vast majority of the elderly suffering muscle loss do not have acidosis?

      A few things that science has already PROVEN that lead to muscle loss with aging is declining testosterone levels and a more sedentary lifestyle. Neither have to do with acidosis.

      Then he claims that acidity promotes kidney stones while ignoring the fact that so does alkalinity:

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21170875

      And uric acid is one of the body’s primary antioxidants, so I don’t know where he is getting the notion that high uric acid leads to heart disease, etc.

      He also ignores the fact that plants can also raise uric acid levels significantly. Seaweeds and yeasts for example, both considered very healthy also raise uric acid. Fruits, also considered healthy contain fructose, which also raises uric acid.

        • Hello James i came across your website by chance. Your sound scientific advice is very impressive . I am off work with a chest infection which has hung on for a month , i have tried black elderberry and inhalations and lots of juices but as my sisters were worried i finally went to the doctor today who after listening to my chest prescribed antibiotics.I am coughing up lots of mucus but feel its getting better. Could you suggest anything else before i take the antibiotics ? Best wishes eileen o’ connor

          • Just saw your post. For some reason I stopped receiving post notifications a while ago.

            I know it is a little late but for future reference I came up with a formula of mixing equal parts of chaparral, thyme and horseradish powders then putting the mix in ‘OO’ capsules. Recommend two capsules 3-4 times daily before meals. In addition I add 8-10 drops of eucalyptus essential oil (for adults only) in to another capsule. Recommend 1 eucalyptus capsule 3-4 times daily before meals.

            I have seen this work on pneumonia and acute bronchitis and has never taken more than 3 days to work. Although I recommend to continue for a few extra days just to be on the same side.

            Chaparral is a full range antimicrobial and immune booster.

            The thyme has thymol and the horseradish mustard oil that kill a wide variety of pathogens. Same for the eucalyptus oil.

            And since the oils are all excreted through the lungs they get deep in to the lungs and DO NOT kill the flora leading to secondary infections like antibiotics will do.

            If all the ingredients cannot be found then eating a little horseradish or doing the eucalyptus oil are recommended alternatives.