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Vitamin K2: The Missing Nutrient


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This bowl of natto is a good source of vitamin K2.

The role K2 plays is still not entirely understood, but research suggests that a nutrient deficiency of this vitamin can have far-reaching consequences for your health.

A study published by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) revealed that increased intake of vitamin K2 may reduce the risk of prostate cancer by 35 percent. (1) The authors point out that the benefits of K2 were most pronounced for advanced prostate cancer and, importantly, that vitamin K1 did not offer any prostate benefits.

The findings were based on data from more than 11,000 men taking part in the EPIC Heidelberg cohort. It adds to a small but fast-growing body of science supporting the potential health benefits of vitamin K2 for bone, cardiovascular, skin, brain, and prostate health.

What Are the Benefits?

Unfortunately, many people are not aware of the health benefits of the K2 vitamin. The K vitamins have been underrated and misunderstood up until very recently in both the scientific community and the general public.

Vitamin K2 can help you maintain cardiovascular health, improve your skin, strengthen bones, and promote brain function. Find out more about this powerful nutrient.

It has been commonly believed that the benefits of vitamin K are limited to its role in blood clotting. Another popular misconception is that vitamins K1 and K2 are simply different forms of the same vitamin—with the same physiological functions.

New evidence, however, has confirmed that the K2 vitamin’s role in the body extends far beyond blood clotting. It may help stave off chronic disease by:

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What Does It Do?

The K2 vitamin has so many functions not associated with K1 that many researchers insist that K1 and K2 are best seen as two different vitamins entirely.

Differences between Vitamins K1 and K2

A large epidemiological study from the Netherlands illustrates this point well. Researchers collected data on the vitamin K intakes of the subjects between 1990 and 1993. (2) They measured the extent of heart disease in each subject, who had died from it, and how this related to K2 intake and arterial calcification. They found that calcification of the arteries was the best predictor of heart disease. Those in the highest third of K2 intakes were:

  • 52 percent less likely to develop severe calcification of the arteries
  • 41 percent less likely to develop heart disease
  • 57 percent less likely to die from it

However, intake of vitamin K1 had no effect on participants’ heart health.

While K1 is preferentially used by the liver to activate blood clotting proteins, K2 is preferentially used by other tissues to deposit calcium in appropriate locations, such as in the bones and teeth, and prevent it from depositing in locations where it does not belong, like the soft tissues. (3) In an acknowledgment of the different roles played by vitamins K1 and K2, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) determined the vitamin K2 contents of foods in the U.S. diet for the first time in 2006. (4)

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Do We Need K2 in Our Diet?

A common misconception is that human beings do not need K2 in their diet, since they have the capacity to convert vitamin K1 to K2. The amount of K1 in typical diets is generally greater than that of K2, and researchers and physicians have largely dismissed the contribution of K2 to nutritional status as insignificant.

However, although animals can convert vitamin K1 to K2, a significant amount of evidence suggests that humans require preformed K2 in the diet to obtain and maintain optimal health.

The strongest indication that humans require preformed K2 in the diet is that both epidemiological and intervention studies show its superiority over K1. According to the epidemiological study from the Netherlands referenced above, intake of K2 is inversely associated with heart disease in humans, while intake of K1 is not. A 2007 study showed that K2 is at least three times more effective than vitamin K1 at activating proteins related to skeletal metabolism. (5) And remember that in the study on the K2 vitamin’s role in treating prostate cancer, which I mentioned at the beginning of this article, vitamin K1 had no effect.

Foods High in Vitamin K2

All of this evidence points to the possibility that K2 may be an essential nutrient in the human diet. So where does one find K2 in foods? The following is a list of the foods highest in the vitamin:

  • Natto, a soy dish popular in Japan
  • Hard cheese
  • Soft cheese
  • Egg yolks
  • Butter
  • Chicken liver
  • Salami
  • Chicken breast
  • Ground beef

It was once erroneously believed that intestinal bacteria played a major role in supplying the body with this vitamin. However, the majority of evidence contradicts this view. Most of the K2 produced in the intestine is embedded within bacterial membranes and not available for absorption. Thus, intestinal production of K2 likely makes only a small contribution to vitamin K status. (6)

While some foods like natto and hard cheeses are high in K2, many people don’t consume them regularly. This is where smart supplementation can play a role. When supplementing with K2, consider a product that contains a blend of MK-4 and MK-7 forms, which may have unique benefits.

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Fermented Foods Are a Good Source of K2

Fermented foods, however, such as sauerkraut, cheese, and natto, contain substantial amounts of vitamin K2. Natto contains the highest concentration of K2 of any food measured; nearly all of it is present as MK-7, which research has shown to be a highly effective form. One study demonstrated that MK-7 increased the percentage of osteocalcin in humans three times more powerfully than did vitamin K1. (7)

Butter and “Activator X”

It is important to note that commercial butter is not a significantly high source of vitamin K2. Dr. Weston A. Price, who was the first to elucidate the role of vitamin K2 in human health (though he called it “Activator X” at the time), analyzed over 20,000 samples of butter sent to him from various parts of the world. (8) He found that the Activator X concentration varied 50-fold. Animals grazing on vitamin K-rich cereal grasses—especially wheatgrass and alfalfa in a lush green state of growth—produced fat with the highest amounts of Activator X, but the soil in which the pasture was grown also influenced the quality of the butter. It was only the vitamin-rich butter grown in three feet or more of healthy topsoil that showed dramatic curing properties when combined with cod liver oil in Dr. Price’s experiments and clinical practice.

Therefore, vitamin K2 levels will not be high in butter from grain-fed cows raised in confinement feedlots. Since the overwhelming majority of butter sold in the U.S. comes from such feedlots, butter is not a significant source of K2 in the diet for most people. This is yet another argument for obtaining raw butter from cows raised on green pasture.

We’re Still Learning about the Health Benefits of K2

New research that expands our understanding of the many important roles of vitamin K2 is being published at a rapid pace. Yet it is already clear that vitamin K2 is an important nutrient for human health—and one of the most poorly understood by medical authorities and the general public.

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Join the conversation

  1. Wow, thanks so much for your prompt and helpful reply, Chris. I had no idea that “google scholar” existed. And yes, it was that sentence that caught my attention: K2 is preferentially used by other tissues to deposit calcium in appropriate locations, such as in the bones and teeth, and prevent it from depositing in locations where it does not belong, such as the soft tissues.(Spronk et al., 2003, pp. 531-537
    Thanks again and best wishes to you in your academic endeavors.

  2. Oh, I hate to be a bother when you’re busy trying to complete your studies, but this is of great interest to me as my husband suffers from DISH – Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis – essentialy calcification of the anterior ligaments of the spine. Although quite rare in a man of his age (he’s only in his late 40’s), his Rheumatologist has told him that dietary changes would not make a difference, but I wonder if K2 supplementation could be of assistance here.

    I’ve been unable to find the original Spronk research article quoted in your post and any assistance in locating it, if at all possible, would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks so much for your terrific blog.
    Kim C.

    • Kim,
      I noticed you mentioned DISH. There is a forum on Facebook for that. If you need support and more info.
      I was wondering how K2 would work with dissolving the calcium from DISH which attaches and flows across the ligaments like melted wax. Do you think this might be a possibility?
      Hoping this might help slow the progression of this long thought rare form of Arthritis.
      Thanks for the info.
      Dee T.

  3. Chris: Re:K2 studies showing reduced prostate cancer risk. But the studies point to dairy sources of K2, e.g.cheeses. Dairy is implicated in prostate cancer. So: Is it good or bad for prostate health to eat cheeses? And what of nattokinase supplements instead of natto? Does miso fit into the K2 picture?

    • from what I understand from my vitamin bottle nattokinase supplements have no vitamin k2 in it but you can buy vitamin k2 easly… the kind I use Now food vitamin k2… $8.28 at Iherb. If you are a first time customer you can get $5 off your order if you spend under $40. or $10 off your first order if you spend over $40….. the coupon code is.. ULO354 they have a lot of other kinds of K2 but I found that one most economical and 100mcg

      • While most good K2 supplements have the K2 removed, it is possible to find nattokinase with the K2 still in it such as the product called Nattovena. think it is a dumb thing to do to remove the K2. K1 is the coagulation vitamin.

  4. Dear Chris,
    I’ve only recently come across the K2 studies. They raise a series of questions for me. My major concern is prostate cancer, and I am intrigued by the studies showing a reduced danger of advanced prostate cancer for men who consume more K2. But the sources for K2 are primarily animal, especially dairy. This finding directly disagrees with many other recent finding that correlate high dairy intake with high risk for prostate cancer. The Japanese, who eat little dairy, have one quarter the prostate cancer that we Americans suffer. In countries with high dairy intake, prostate cancer rates are also high. Colin Campbell in The China Study asserts that diary interferes with the body’s use of vitamin D, and that high dairy intake causes an enormous increase in aggressive and advanced prostate cancer. Campbell recommends a vegan diet–no animal based food at all. He claims that population studies demonstrate that vegan populations do not suffer from the  high incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer that we in the West do with our diets heavy on animal protein. Campbell asserts that it is the protein especially in dairy that makes it so harmful to Western diets. In the recent study of K2, cheeses, especially Gouda and Edam, were recommended as sources of K2. Since this contradicts so directly the findings of Campbell, I am puzzled. But also hopeful. Because of my prostate cancer fears, I have given up nearly all dairy, and the part I miss most is cheese. How I would love to find out that at least some cheeses come in with  a clean bill of health in regards to the prostate. My other questions are these: does miso qualify as a source of K2? What about supplementation with nattokinase? Nattokinase supplements are easy to come by, but natto is scarce in these parts, and I’m not eager to make my own. Sorry to throw so many questions at you. Credit it to your raising important issues.

    • the chinese make fuyu which is fermented soya bean paste… after trying the Japanese frozen natto for 3 serving $4.50 and the Chinese… several servings $2. in a jar I do like the fuyu best… Also from what I understand any excess k2 the body gets rid of in 24 hours.

      • Pat ,
        This is a old post, but you say K2 leaves the body in 24 hours. You need to say what K2 you are talking about.
        K2 MK-4, or K2 Mk-7.

        That only happens with K2-Mk4 and that leaves the body in about 4 to 5 hour. I should be taken with food, and A little healthy fat.. every few hours.

        K2 Mk-7 is a whole different bred so to speak of k2.
        Mk- 7 can stay in the body for a couple of days, and it also can give you a rapid heard beat, depending on how much you take!..
        You really do not need Mk7 everyday..

    • Hi Ben,
      Please read Denise Minger on the China Study. Campbell has been cherry picking. Denise put all the data together and came to very different conclusions than Campbell.

    • I had same questions.. Read Devil in the Milk an all your questions are solved.. Now i have a different question (hours an months of study an attempts to purchase u will understand why)… Is aged goat cheese an cow cheese all same when talking K2 ?? Help

  5. hi again chris, i have another question for you. what do you think of bragg’s liquid amino’s?    thanx.

  6. hi chris,  thank you for this information! until recently i was unaware of the research findings on k2.  i wonder if you have any idea what a good amount of k2 per day is, and what is the designation for it? units? micro or miligram?  and lastly, any idea of the amount of k2 in trader joe’s organic low fat yogurt?  does the lower fat content lower the k2 level?
    thanx for your reply.

  7. Both natto and sauerkraut can be purchased at health food stores.  It’s important to get organic natto made from non-GMO soy.  See the posts earlier in this thread for more info.

  8. Does this have to be made or can it be purchased somewhere like whole foods markets, etc.  How do you prepare it?

  9. As a strict vegan where would I get the most benefit from K2 vitamin.  I don’t consume meat or dairy.

    • YOur best choice would be natto which is the organic soya fermented from Japan, I found it in the freezer section of the Oriental grocery store… however the Chinese make a fermented soya also organic non gmo called fuyu .. It seems a better buy… Little squares like cheese comes in a jar…$2 for several servings… I did it with rice and kale..

      • Many times you get what you pay for. Proper natto has been made with Bacillus natto and has much more K2 than fermented foods.

  10. Carl,

    It is a common misconception that Asians eat “a lot of soy”.  In fact, that’s not true.  Soy has traditionally been used as a condiment in Asia, and even then it was carefully prepared (through long fermentation) to destroy the phytates found in soy that inhibit nutrient absorption.

    Many vegetarians in the USA, and Europe and Australia would think nothing of consuming 8 ounces (about 220 grams) of tofu and a couple of glasses of soy milk per day, two or three times a week. But this is well in excess of what Asians typically consume; they generally use small portions of soy to complement their meal. It should also be noted that soy is not the main source of dietary protein and that a regime of calcium-set tofu and soymilk bears little resemblance to the soy consumed traditionally in Asia.

    Perhaps the best survey of what types/quantities of soy eaten in Asia comes from data from a validated, semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire that surveyed 1242 men and 3596 women who participated in an annual health check-up program in Takayama City, Japan.  This survey identified that the soy products consumed were tofu (plain, fried, deep-fried, or dried), miso, fermented soybeans, soymilk, and boiled soybeans. The estimated amount of soy protein consumed from these sources was 8.00 ± 4.95 g/day for men and 6.88 ± 4.06 g/day for women (Nagata C, Takatsuka N, Kurisu Y, Shimizu H; J Nutr 1998, 128:209-13). 

    According to KC Chang, editor of Food in Chinese Culture, the total caloric intake due to soy in the Chinese diet in the 1930’s was only 1.5%, compared with 65% for pork.

    Compare that to the 220g that the average American consumes in a single 8 oz. glass of soymilk.  What’s more, almost all processed food these days has some form of soy in it, whether in the form of soybean oil, soy protein, soy flour or soy lecithin.  The reality is that most Americans – especially those who are “health conscious” – are consuming far more soy than Asians ever have, and far more than it is healthy to eat.

    Did you read any of the information I linked to?  I’d really recommend you do that before making up your mind one way or the other.  Here’s a direct link to the study which demonstrated a significant decrease in sperm count in males consuming as little as one cup of soy milk per day.  It was published in a major, peer-reviewed journal by a reputable researcher working at the Harvard School of Public Health. 

    I’ve written about other dangers of soy consumption on this blog (I provided the link in my previous post).  There is overwhelming evidence that soy is harmful too our health in the quantities we’re consuming it in.  This is true whether the soy is organic or not. 


    • I absolutely do not believe that 4-5 servings of soy a day is dangerous. It sounds like you have been reading the drivel served up by the Weston Price people. Soy has in fact been shown to help prevent breast cancer.

      Also, what modern Japanese eat has little do to with what was previously consumed. Even now, edadmame is eaten frequently and it is no mere 8 grams that are eaten either.

        • LOL Soy is NOT a hormone, you mean that Soy contains phytoestrogens- weak plant estrogens that have no real effect on human hormone profiles. Stop the BS.

    • No idea about where you got your information on people in Asia not eating much soy but it is totally wrong. Next you will be saying the Japanese do not eat natto.

      The Japanese and Chinese have a large amount soy at least weekly, which is much more than the Western Diet, and a small amount daily. Not only is tofu popular in both countries but Kikkoman Soy Sauce popular in Japan is made from soybeans.
      Neighborhood food markets in China have large slabs of fresh tofu which customers cut and place in a bag to be weighed at the counter.

  11. That is hard to believe as they eat a lot of soy in China and it doesn’t look like they have problems with feritlity as it is the world’s most populus country; my soy yogurt is organic soy;

    • I came here looking for the answer to this exact question. But I was wondering about K2 in other fermented soy products, specifically kefir.

  12. Rose:

    I’m not aware that K2 has any specific effect on blood pressure.  While I can’t provide any medical advice, as I’m not a doctor, I can tell you that there are several ways to lower blood pressure naturally, including stress reduction, meditation, acupuncture, and dietary therapy.  Meditation is particularly effective, and is completely non-invasive – not to mention free!

    • From my understanding, Vit K2 deposits calcium where it belongs, such as bones and teeth. It does work with Vit D and magnesium to do this. With the absence of Vit K2, it is also my understanding (from much research) that calcium is deposited in the arteries…. aka arteriosclerosis.
      Apparently, Vit K2 assists in the repair of arteriosclerosis.
      Therefore… it is easy to conclude, that given enough time (how long is a piece of string) that K2 may indeed improve blood pressure BUT for a more immediate effect, you cannot go past Hawthorn Berry syrup. This dilates the arteries and veins (most people on the SAD diet will have hardened arteries, also a cofactor in heart disease and High Blood Pressure).
      Hope this information is helpful.

  13. I have been on HBP medication which includes calcium chanel blockers (admittedly a small dose) for nearly 3 years -monitoring shows blood pressure now well controlled but I hate taking pharmaceutical drugs. Dr is very loathe to give me info on this drug and I have always wondered what would be the natural alternative. With your info it seems to become a bit clearer and I would lke to take a little K2 or at least eat sauerkraut and more cheese & egg yolk. What do you think?

    • Hi,
      This is not a Vit K2 solution but for your information some essential oils are good for cardiovascular health. The essential oils of Basil, Marjoram, Lemon, Lavender, Frankincense, etc. are good to control hbp. If you’re interested, email me at [email protected]..

      Good luck,

    • dash dieit is for people with blood pressure problems my husband was taking medicaion for his blood pressure now he only takes 1 pill and lost 25 lbs he didnot need too he has pulmonary high blood pressure so his doctor was very impressed how his blood pressure came down

    • Endocrinologist Dr. Diana Schwarzbein says high blood pressure is not a sodium-management issue, but rather part of the “accelerated metabolic aging” caused by too much blood sugar & insulin. Some of the foods/beverages that cause an insulin release: sugar of any kind, artificial sweeteners, alcohol, caffeine, fruit, carbs, grains, starchy vegetables, processed foods and lowfat/nofat dairy. When the fat is removed from dairy, the body “sees” it as a sugar due to the lactose milk sugar & causes an insulin release. The fat that occurs naturally in dairy slows-down the sugar absorption.

  14. Hi, I have bone spurs on my heals. It would be great if vk2 worked to heal them. I quit my job as a PE teacher becuase of the pain. I am just hoping to find some that isn’t made from gentically modified soy beans.

    • I did B12 injections. It worked great the only thing is you have to give yourself injections every day. I went to a functional medicine doctor.

    • Jean,
      I realize these posts are old, and by this time your heel spur is gone (I hope).

      K2 MK4 did not take my spurs away, but “Acid A Cal” took my heel spurs away, and a spur in my throat.
      It can be bought at Amazon…

      I have nothing to do with Acid A Cal or Amazon…
      Just wanted to share this with you, and hope it can help other people..
      Btw it is a vitamin, and why this combo works , I have No idea, but it has for me, and others that I have told about it..

      Take Care,…

      • Jean, spurs in your throat and in your heel…sounds like DISH Arthritis to me. I have it, Can you tell me more about Acid A Cal? If you would like to know more about DISH, do a search then if you chat with your doc, (s)he may or may not be familiar with it. If you want to know more, contact the DISH forum on facebook.

    • Hi ,Jean. I removed bone spurs in my shoulder and rist. I STOPED EATING GRAINS and COMSUMING SUGAR, MEATand DAIRY .That is a Vegan lifestyle. princibly a diet of fruits , berries , and melons. Clean your lymph system through movment , massage , sweating , tone the kidneys flush the bowels. link on to robertmorsend / utube videos.

      • I wonder how vegiterians get enough vitamin q10 , b12 , vitamin k2 mk4&mk7 collegen glucosamine. I have wondered about going vegetarian.

      • Bob, because you stopped consuming grains is not related to a vegan diet, which does include grains if desired.

  15. So grateful for the info on K-2.  I’m just discovering this and have just discovered at the age of 67 from a cat scan that I have minimal calcification and minimal calcium deposits in my main aeorta in the stomach area.  It is so satisfying to have an answer and unfortunately most doctors don’t seem to offer this as they are more of a reporter and less of a problem solver or researcher.                                                  Thanks so much!                                 Carol 

  16. I have found an organic natto at our local Japanese market, Nijiya Market, a chain in CA. They also feature several non-GMO versions. You could also make your own (Gold Mine carries the starter, as does Nijiya Market). The food is the best way to go if you can eat it. Then you also get nattokinase benefits (helps dissolve clots) as well as the K2. About 1/4 of a 100gm pkg eaten every other day should protect you well enough due to the MK-7 long lasting form of K2. BTW, natto can be frozen and re-frozen without significant loss several times.

    • Regarding freezing natto, do you have any information as to whether freezing reduces the content of K2? I believe I’ve read that freezing does significantly lower the amounts of some vitamins, like B6.

  17. Hi, Does any one no where I can buy vitk2 Natto that is non gmo and certified organic? I just read an article stating that many of the soy beans grown in the US that have been sold to Japan have tested positive for gmo even though they were organic. I would like to buy the food instead of the suppliment in hopes that it is cheeper but also pure. 

  18. Bryan,

    Thanks for your comment.

    Kefir definitely has more K2 than milk, as K2 is a product of bacterial fermentation. Natto, a fermented soy product, is the highest natural source of K2.


  19. Excellent article! I’d be interested to find out if kefir has more K2 than the milk it is made from. I would not be surprised if it did.

    I added the little bit of K2 data for food that I could find to my Excel dietary nutrition calculator. Most of what I found came from Chris Masterjohn’s WAPF article on K2 in Wise Traditions.

    • Anybody have any idea ,at all, where one can “obtain” ( purchase) vitamin K2!!?? And, by the way folks, be careful where you purchase “natto.” Natto is a product that contains a lot of vitamin K2. Avoid “Doctor’s Best” nattokinase ( concentrated natto .) The “FOOLS” removed all the vitamin K2 from the product!!! Why they did that, I’ll never know!! It’s the Vitamin K2 that makes the stuff “effective” when it comes to clearing blocked arteries!!!!! Nattokinase without vitamin K2 is like a car with NO BATTERY!!!! Don’t buy “Doctor’s Best” nattokinase. You’ll waste your money.

      • I buy my k-2 from iherb.com. They have a lot of different brands, etc. They are very fast and very reasonably priced as well.

        • Just be careful when ordering from iHerb.com. If you click on the “address verification” button they give your information to Experian, the credit reporting agency.

          That’s right! Despite their promise not to give your info to any other party, they do it every day with Experian.

            • They use Experian to do address checking, but, of course. in the process, they are supplying Experian with the address that you provide.

      • They are not the fools….you do not know what nattokinase is otherwise you would know it does not contain any K2…

        • nattokinase does contain K2 but the manufactureres removed it because they think it will interfere with the blood thinning qualities of nattokinase. Nattokinase is a metabolite of Natto, the fermented soybean food product and it too is a good source of K2 as the articled states.

          Chris DOES know what he is talking about. Contrary to popular belief, studies actually show that persons taking drugs to thin their blood do better when they take K2 along with their drugs.

          You can purchase nattokinase with or without K2 in the formula. The more expensive products have K2 removed but I believe this is a huge mistake. I therefore take k2 with my nattokinase. K1 is used more for clotting than K2 is.

      • I purchased Cardio Assurance from Nature’s Sunshine which contains K2(MK-7) and Googled it and found this wonderful article! 🙂

      • I just bought some the other day from Amazon: both the Thorne K2 (liquid) and the the Life Extension Brand of Super K2 (capsule) and I will soon buy the highly touted book “Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox: How a Little-Known Vitamin C…” — Happy shopping!

      • I get mine online http://tinyurl.com/q8fjc93
        It is made in USA; head office is in California. That’s why delivery and handling is free in USA. Delivery took about 3 to 7 days. It has Omega 3+ as well as CoQ10 and Vitamin K2 and it is Extended release(long-term effect).

      • Puritan’s Pride is a great online resource for vitamins and minerals including K2 which is a tan gel small like D or E.

      • While obviously the best source of vitamin K2 (Mk-4 and Mk-7) is from whole foods. There is a supplement I take that contains both types in it called the Daily Multi Nutrient. I think it’s a good option, especially considering some of the preliminary research behind supplemental K2.

      • There is a difference between K2-MK-4, and K2-MK-7

        That said, when you refer to K-2, you all need to say which one, since there is a Big difference.

    • Sauerkraut does not have a large amount of K2…nor does miso.

      Natto is head and shoulders above any other food item…