In previous podcasts and articles on this site Chris discussed some of the factors to consider when deciding if intermittent fasting is the right approach for you. While the decision to use intermittent fasting as a strategy to improve or optimize health should be considered carefully, it is a powerful tool when used appropriately. In this article, I want to discuss some of the potential benefits offered from intermittent fasting.
Intermittent fasting is a general term used to describe a variety of approaches that change the normal timing of eating throughout a day, with short-term fasts used to improve overall health. In other words, the one consistent theme of intermittent fasting is that individuals periodically fast for a longer duration than the typical overnight fast.
Some approaches to intermittent fasting include skipping one meal of the day, extending the duration of the overnight fast to anywhere from 12 to 20 hours. This may also be referred to as time-restricted feeding because it shortens the feeding window. Some people prefer whole-day fasts that usually involve fasting for 24 to 30 hours, performed anywhere from once to twice per week to just once or twice per month. Most of the research on intermittent fasting more specifically uses alternate-day fasting, where participants fast for 24 hours every other day, alternating days of eating without restrictions (1).
Intermittent Fasting Is Associated with Decreases in Body Weight and Body Fat Percentage
Several studies have shown that intermittent fasting is associated with weight loss (2, 3, 4, 5, 6). While many of the patients I see are more concerned with overall reduction in weight, I also see a lot of patients who want to gain weight, specifically lean body weight or muscle mass. And some of these patients express concern that intermittent fasting may lead to a decrease in muscle mass. Fortunately, research shows evidence that intermittent fasting causes a favorable shift in metabolism that preserves muscle.
Here’s why …
During the most common fasting duration of about 18 to 24 hours, our cells shift from using glucose as their primary fuel source to using fat (7, 8, 9). This means that our fat stores, namely triglycerides, are broken down and used for energy. The breakdown of proteins for fuel does not begin until the third day of fasting. Thus, intermittent fasting remains an option for optimizing health even in those wanting to maintain or gain muscle mass.
Without going into too much of the science here, the shift in metabolism from glucose to fat may be most pronounced after about 18 hours of fasting, suggesting potential benefit from occasional whole-day fasts (8).
Improved Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile
Several studies show intermittent fasting may lead to a reduction of total cholesterol by about 20 percent (7, 2, 4, 5, 10). This becomes even more impressive when we look at the breakdown of the effects on LDL, HDL, and triglycerides.
The following is an over-simplification, and Chris has written extensively about cholesterol and lipids in the past, but for the purposes of this article:
- LDL is the “bad cholesterol” (the worst is small, dense LDL, and the less offensive form is large, fluffy LDL).
- HDL is the “good cholesterol” (we don’t want to see HDL decrease, and most often we would prefer it actually increase).
- Triglycerides are a type of fat used to store excess energy from our diet, and high levels may be associated with cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance (we want low levels of triglycerides).
Since the total cholesterol on a blood panel is derived from a formula including LDL, HDL, and triglycerides, we want to make sure that a decrease in cholesterol comes from reductions in LDL or triglycerides, and not lowered HDL.
So, What Happens to Cholesterol with Intermittent Fasting?
Not only does LDL decrease by about 25 percent after eight weeks on an alternate daily fast, but even better, we actually see a decrease in small LDL particles (10, 11, 12). And remember, small, dense LDL particles are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease when compared with an equal number of large, fluffy LDL particles. (Note: small, dense LDL is best viewed as a proxy for LDL particle number, which, as Chris explained here, is a more significant risk factor for heart disease than total or LDL cholesterol.) Thus, intermittent fasting favorably shifts LDL both by decreasing total LDL and also by decreasing the small, dense LDL particles.
We also see decreases in triglycerides by as much as 32 percent below levels measured prior to implementing intermittent fasting (2, 7, 10, 13).
And, as hoped, with intermittent fasting, there is no significant decrease in HDL (14).
Intermittent Fasting Is Associated with Decreases in Inflammation
A study published this month investigated the effect of intermittent fasting on a marker of inflammation, specifically looking at NRLP3 inflammasome activation (15). The results indicated a decrease in this measure of inflammation with fasting.
Another study evaluated the effect of alternate-day fasting in adults with asthma and found a decrease in symptoms along with striking decreases in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation (7).
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Intermittent Fasting May Improve Brain Health
One interesting study published earlier this year investigated the effect of intermittent fasting on motor coordination skills, protein, and DNA damage in specific regions of the brain in middle-aged rats (16). This study also measured markers of cell metabolism, cell survival pathways, and synaptic plasticity (you can think of synaptic plasticity as a measure of the ability to learn).
The findings indicated that intermittent fasting was associated with improved motor coordination and learning response and a decrease in oxidative stress (think of oxidative stress as what we often consider “normal” age-related change). So, intermittent fasting may improve healthy aging of the brain and decrease the cognitive decline that is generally considered a normal part of aging.
Intermittent Fasting May Be Associated with Decreases in Neuroinflammation
Chronic neuroinflammation is increasingly associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and mood disorders such as depression. One study published earlier this year looked at the role of intermittent fasting on markers of neuroinflammation in rats and found that this dietary approach actually changed gene expression to allow for an adaptive response (17). These results suggest that intermittent fasting may have a beneficial role in conditions associated with neuroinflammation.
While there are even more potential benefits to intermittent fasting, like improving insulin sensitivity and promoting a normal migrating motor complex (important in preventing SIBO as discussed here), I’ll have to save further discussion for another post to prevent this one from becoming too long. But hopefully at this point it’s clear that intermittent fasting can provide a number of measurable benefits.
Intermittent Fasting Is Not for Everyone
There can be risks associated with intermittent fasting, and I would strongly recommend that it be pursued with the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider or nutritionist who understands the risks and benefits and can help determine if it’s right for you.
Intermittent fasting should always be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding and should generally be avoided during times of increased stress that contribute to Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome, or more precisely, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction.
Additionally, there are health risks associated with diets that are too low calorie, including concerns of nutritional deficiencies, electrolyte abnormalities, and potentially more serious risks if extreme diets are undertaken without appropriate supervision. Intermittent fasting can be a great strategy for weight loss and overall health during the right time for you and when approached cautiously.
About Amy: Amy Nett, MD, graduated from Georgetown University School of Medicine in 2007. She subsequently completed a year of internal medicine training at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital, followed by five years of specialty training in radiology at Stanford University Hospital, with additional subspecialty training in pediatric radiology.
Along the course of her medical training and working through her own personal health issues, she found her passion for Functional Medicine. She works with patients through a Functional Medicine approach, working to identify and treat the root causes of illness. She uses nutritional therapy, herbal medicine, supplements, stress management, detoxification and lifestyle changes to restore proper function and improve health.
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I IF’d while in ketosis (after 3 or 4 wks) but was calorie restricted also so that I wasnt full after my meal and wanted to eat again rather quickly. I actually got to the point where I wanted more of the meal I was eating. I would try telling myself, just wait for the fat to kick in n you ll be ok. Well then I finally wasnt. IFing got too hard the more I did it, supposed to get easier, rite? I wasnt losing weight, hence the not eating to full. So I just slowly gave up becuz not IFing made no difference. I wasnt super lowcal, did no exercise burning tons of cals. Im pretty sedentary n old so 1600-1800 cal should have been fine. The more I ate as I gave up didnt kick my body into wgt loss either.
I liked IFing as Im not a brkfst eater but wanting the final meal of the day at 3:30 when youve just eaten a good lchf meal at noon is maddening. Waiting till 5:30 would make me scarf it down and then just be hungry (wanting SUMthing to *chew*) the rest of the day.
Once in my late 30s I went raw for a number of months, inadvertently going vlc, and quickly didnt eat till 2pm. Then I would stop eating around 7pm. I ate ALOT so i was content I guess, always chewing lol. But the cal count was quite low, as it was all raw, no dehydrated denser stuff, too low in protein Im sure, consciously very lowfat. I just love to eat is my problem I guess.
But that raw diet put me into fat burning as I could IF and be happy with little fat. Ketosis (lchf) IFing did not.
Im such a weirdo but maybe someone else, older woman, will see themselves n not feel so ashamed n frustrated with their bodies.
What does ichf and vic mean?
I have not intentionally fasted but not infrequently I’ve gone without food from one evening meal to the next. This is usually due to an outdoor hunting trip or a long day of field dog training without time for a break. Since I normally eat a low carbohydrate diet I think this may be why I feel no urgency to eat during such times because my metabolism is able to use body fat for fuel immediately glucose becomes in short supply. I do suffer typical reactive hypoglycemia and remember getting light headed as one person stated if a meal were missed, but this was many years ago when I ate the typical high carbohydrate diet. As speculation I suspect that eating more protein and fat together with an intermittent pattern of eating may provide necessary exercise to the metabolism. Its only recently that food became instantly available to the human population so we must have evolved for millions of years in an intermittent food regime. Since evolution adapts the organism to suit the environment we should be mighty suspicious that a change in the nutrition environment would not be detrimental to the metabolism, entirely without evidence. It seems that the benefits of the mythical Mediterranean diet were actually based upon data from the island of Crete. However the data was not valid for the purpose claimed for the diet. It was collected during Lent. Crete is a place of devout Greek Orthodox Church members. Such people fast particularly intermittently and usually eat a particularly high fat and protein diet and not what is recommended as a Mediterranean diet. Perhaps it is the fasting which imparts their unusually long and healthy lives. I was recently in Sparta at the conclusion of Lent and the diet then was spit roasted lamb, visible roasting outside in their front yards. I suspect the archaic origin of lean times followed by feasts continued into biblical times when food became more reliably available, but the pattern persisted because anecdotally those who followed it were simply healthier and longer-lived. If we wish to replace archaic belief with science then the science has to be right and we have done an astoundingly poor job in this area, particularly in nutrition science. After a hundred years how could we still be unsure as to whether fasting is good for us? Its left to the few, like those producing this site, to scramble and pick up the pieces.
I think becuz IF results in different things for different ppl, even at different times FOR those ppl. The n=1 rules. Always.
I practice intermittent fasting for about a year now. I have lost about 40 lbs (combining with Paleo diet), lover my cholesterol and cut by half a dose of insulin for type 2 diabetes. The only negative side effect of fasting is that my blood pressure goes up, probably because of the stress, I put on my body, during fasting. I don’t know, if anyone else have noticed higher blood pressure. I would like to avoid it, as my pressure is already higher then it should be.
I noticed my blood pressure goes up also, I am wondering the same thing.
Just a quick question…and I hope I am not repeating something that has already been addressed! But WHAT and WHY exactly are the reasons people, say a friend of mine, 🙂 suffering from Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome should not practice IF? Great article! Thanks!
Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome (or as those of use who love being more precise about these things like to call it, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, or HPA, axis dysfunction) is essentially due to too much stress on the body. Sources of stress can be internal and external, whether from inadequate sleep, poor diet, feeling overwhelmed at work, etc. And yes, fasting is also a source of stress. This is where the concept of hormesis comes in. Hormesis implies that at low doses we can receive benefit from something that at higher doses would be toxic or lethal. Fasting too has to be done with some moderation. If the body is already overwhelmed by working 90 hours a week, dealing with a chronic GI infection or heavy metal toxicity, fasting is going to further tax the adrenal glands and potentially worsen the HPA axis dysfunction. IF is best done when you’re able to listen to your body well enough to know when it’s okay to add that additional dose of stress to receive the benefit. Hope that helps!
This is the take home, guys!
IF should not be stressful. It should aid in recovery, not hinder it. Starvation is not energy building. I tell my clients to pick a day they are feeling great, continue to blow sunshine up your butt and fast for as long as you feel comfortable. If it’s stressful then don’t do it!
Also, gearing IF for fat loss all one needs to do is drastically reduce caloric intake. You don’t have to eat 0 calories. If you need to eat fewer carbs then do that too but you’ll still shred body fat on rice and potatoes (or candy for that matter) if you’re only eating 400calories during the “fast”.
I like to schedule a fast and still have people be able to eat unlimited greens, water and sodium. Add whatever protein and fat yiu need to keep your sanity but understand the goal is decreased calorie intake and decreased use of ingested glucose for fuel.
I’ve exercised intensely on a day where I only ate a banana, salty bone broth, and 6 eggs. I had a scoop of whey and another banana after the workout. Very few total calories consumed but I did have adequate (previously filled) glycogen stores to do the workout). You could do this on varying levels of macros and calories. Getting the requisite fitness levels is usually a good idea BEFORE starting IF for fat loss.
Must read for women:
I have used IF in the past using a 16hour fast (including over night) and 8 hour feeding window. The first time I did it all I would do was skip breakfast. Then have lunch a snack and dinner. I was not eating Paleo at the time but I would watch my macros a lot so on workout days I would eat more carbs and on my off days I’d eat more fats and protein.
My body responded very well fat loss wise but my adrenals did not.
Now I am doing really well with it but I have changed my approach. I eat very high quality real foods. Follow a Paleo diet (once in a while I will add some legumes). But the MOST important thing I have changed is:
I drink a cup of bonebroth every morning with coconut oil. It’s like my Bulletproof coffee without the coffee. (Coffee really fries my adrenals even top quality) but bonebroth is so healing my body welcomes it with open arms.
This is what I recommend to my clients. Another option for women is to do IF everyother day. So you’d skip breakfast (or dinner) every other day.
Bulletproof coffee or coconut oil – it is a MEAL – not a fasting.
in my opinion, If you do so, you cannot consider yourself being on IF regimen.
Amy, I regularly fast from 8 am to Noon the following day (16 hours), then a 24 hour fast from dinner Thursday to dinner Friday. It has been wonderful for weight loss, relieving symptoms of depression, and keeps me more alert. One Problem: I had to stop taking a Vitamin C supplement in the morning because I was getting nauseated. Now I take it at lunch and am back on track!
Thanks for the information and support!
Amy will you marry me? 🙂
Thanks for posting this article!
I have found skipping dinner once or twice/week to be the only “diet” I’ve ever pursued that has actually resulted in weight loss. The difficulty with this is the inevitable hunger pangs I’ve felt in the middle of the night when skipping dinner. But if one can handle that, it’s appears to be a great way to take off some weight, not to mention the cholesterol lowering effects mentioned by Chris.
I’ve found skipping breakfast and possibly lunch to be much easier for me when I fast. By the time I wake up in the morning it seems much easier to continue the fast as you are usually already about 10 hours or so hours into it and my stomach has adjusted. Hunger pangs (if any) usually don’t start until late morning or right before lunch so they are not disturbing your sleep at night.
When you are doing the IF, do you drink juice, or just water
There are many different approaches to intermittent fasting. Some people do prefer water only fasts, but some people prefer including fats during the fast. For example, you can add cream or coconut oil to your coffee for some calories and still receive the benefits of intermittent fasting. I don’t generally recommend drinking juice since it’s most often high in sugar.
Thanks, I drink coffee with coconut oil and raw cream in the morning and eat again at noon. Would I get the benefits of an alternate 24 hour fast by including this coffee on fast days, or do bbc I have to skip the coffee of those days?
The article clearly states to use with caution if you’re under high stress.
Morbidly obese, poor nutrition, lack of fitness, high stress and lack of sleep and low levels “happy energy” (positive outlook) are all reasons not to employ intermittent fasting aggressively.
I’ve seen it work great with overweight people who are prepared and I’ve seen it turn into a disaster for overweight people looking for a quick fix. Get everything else lined up. Eat some healthy food for a month while slowly improving aerobic fitness(walking YES, Crossfit and interval training NO), Lower social stressors etc.
Don’t continue on ultra low carb for “normal” days while fasting. Eat some healthy carbs and avoid binging on junk.
Fasting can be a great tool if you use it correctly. Most people who fail with it are using something that would be labeled as starvation. Starvation and high stress is not a good tool.
I have been fasting intermittently for over three years now. I have lost 40 pounds and feel amazing. I continue to fast when I begin to feel toxic or sluggish. If the right nutrients are provided, it’s incredibly beneficial for optimal health.
I have attempted to do longer fasts of 18-20 hours; however, I have only gotten to 17 hours before feeling VERY light-headed and rather nauseous. I was then forced to eat since I was at work and could not just lay down and take a nap.
What do you all suggest for this issue? I’d LOVE to not eat for a day — that freedom of not having to make choices, prepare, etc would be a nice break, and allow me to get other things done.
It’s so nice waking up knowing I am fasting for the day. My day is usually jammed packed and I am MORE productive because I know what I am putting (and not putting) into my body!
Laura, The reason you might be feeling light headed is that you might be going into Ketosis. Ketosis is a state your body enters when you stop eating any food at all or stop eating carbs and sugars. When your body uses up all the readily available carbs/sugars it “thinks” that you’re staving. If your body thinks it’s staving it will (as an emergency) go into Ketosis. During Ketosis your body will start to burn body fat thinking that you can not get any food. Ketosis is an emergency back up system to keep you from dying when you go without food for many hours/days/weeks. During the transition from normal carb/sugar existence into Ketosis your body will feel “funny” , some people will get a headache some feel sick. But these conditions are temporary because once your body completely enters the state of Ketosis it can burn body fat just as efficiently as carbs/sugar and you will feel normal again if you don’t eat ANY carbs or sugar!! As soon as you eat any carbs or sugar in any form your body will exit the state of Ketosis (thinking that your getting regular food again) and you’ll feel normal again. I have been in Ketosis for well over a year and actually had to stop exercising because I was losing too much weight.
Once you get past the headaches and light headedness you can basically live forever in Ketosis. But you do have to eat!! You just have to avoid carbs and anything sweet. Your body will always burn carbs and sugar FIRST if given the chance. When the body is denied carbs/sugar it will automatically “switch” to Ketosis for survival.
Ketosis is not recommended for Diabetics. However, one of the great benefits of Ketosis is that it floods the body with Ketones! The medical community has determined that Ketones reduce inflammation. On the other hand, the same medical community has determined that “sugar” increases inflammation in the human body!!
I don’t know why my username Ryry was auto filling as Johnny t lol.
I doubt you’re going into ketosis inside of 1 day. It’s most likely low blood sugar and low sodium combo (exacerbated by drinking too much water).
If you’re bonking because of low blood sugar just make sure you have adequate liver glycogen to get you through the fast. In other words, eat plenty of carbs the day before the fast ir dont fast too often.
Increased sodium is also a boon while fasting as you’ll excrete it more rapidly on low/no carbs.
Drink a cup of salty broth (or salt your water) and see if you come back “on line”. If you do them you now know to increase sodium.
If the sodium alone doesn’t work within an hour then eat about 10gms carbs from some whole food. Berries are great as they are high in fiber too. I
If you do bonk and want to keep fasting you can restore blood sugar via some quick acting protein like whey or simply have a bite or 2 of fruit. It usually takes very little carbs to get your blood sugar back to normal.
If you’re going crazy after 8 hrs then you are either way to stressed (eat/sleep/relax more) or most likely need to learn , experience and then rationalize (with a positive outlook) what being hungry really is. It’s ok to feel hungry. It’s not ok to feel like crap.
I have been practicing intermittent fasting everyday for about three months. I never eat anything after 18:00 until 13:00 next day, then I eat a single full meal between 13:00 and 16:00 and a light snack between 17:00 and 18:00. I also exercise everyday using intermittent walking technique (1 minute, all out speed, 2 minutes slower speed) for about 20 minutes/day.I also do exercises every second day with light weights for about 15 minutes/day.
I find no difficulties with this lifestyle except that I am not losing much weight at all.
I am not diabetic, have no high blood pressure or heart problems of any kind, and my annual lab results are normal.
Why am I not losing more weight? I weigh 75 kg, and am 81 years old.
Hi Ian you sound one fit kind of guy a man after my own heart. The body is incredibly adaptable and yours has adapted to your routine and functions accordingly. I respectfully suggest to change your routine and fast from 1800 to 1800 once a week or twice once on Tuesday then Thursday the other thing you might consider is looking up urine therapy to apply during your whole day fast. This may sound off the wall but a little research will appraise you of the benefits of this ancient and scientifically proved therapy.
I practiced intermittent fasting for about a year during which time my health declined substantially, esp markers for thyroid dysfunction. My fatigue became so bad that I had to leave my job. Like so many others, I dove into it on the recommendation of a health blogger who did not consider the endocrine system. I now believe that IF might be appropriate for women with thyroid or endocrine problems maybe once or twice a week, no more than that, and I would strongly argue against it without caveat.
Hi my two cents:
It seems that you are not keto-adapted. When your body is used to burn fat/ketones as the primary, fuel long intervals without food are a piece of cake (eh, I mean, a piece of bacon!)
back in 2012 I tried IF. What a revelation! Pounds lost. No issues. Ended up doing 2 x 36 hr fasts per week. Fast forward 2015….not a hope! Menopause has set in & nothing works! I can physically still do it but not an ounce will shift! 🙁
I think it is crucially important to note that intermittent fasting can be more difficult for women and lead to serious hormonal imbalnces and problems. Women’s bodies have different fuel needs in the context of a healthy reproductive system, and if the body thinks there is not enough food, problems may develop rapidly. I actually have successfully practiced Dave Asprey’s version and suggestions/biohacks regarding intermittent fasting on most days of the week for quite some time; however other women close to me, my sister included, have had a lot of difficulty with fasting, even with high fat hacks in the morning. While it is clear there are some awesome benefits for many people, I have seen that it is certainly not a one size fits all approach. There is lots of information available to those who are interested online. Dave Asprey is very clear that women need to proceed with caution, and has a great post entitled A Bad Combination for Women: Intermittent Fasting and Paleo. He cites Stefani Ruper of Paleo for Women and I found the article she wrote to be very helpful!
Thanks for pointing this out and suggesting additional reading. I was surprised that, given how much I generally appreciate Kresser’s blog, there wasn’t more information about women-specific issues with IF. I understand he needs other people to write content to keep his page views up, etc. but hopefully increased content can happen without decreased quality.
I also am very cautious about recommending IF to anyone who has struggled with disordered eating in the past.
Amy, you stated, “(Note: small, dense LDL is best viewed as a proxy for LDL particle number, which, as Chris explained here, is a more significant risk factor for heart disease than total or LDL cholesterol.) ” Did you mean, “…elevated LDL cholesterol was more of a proxy marker for elevated LDL particle number….,” which is a quote from Chris’ article which you cite?
Hopefully I can clarify this a bit more here…
There remains some controversy as to which measures of LDL can best identify people at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). At one point it was generally accepted that small, dense LDL particles are inherently more atherogenic than large, buoyant LDL particles. But now several studies have shown that small, dense LDL particles lose their predictive value when adjusted for LDL particle number. This means that LDL particles don’t have to be small and dense to increase CVD risk.
Here’s one study that discusses this in a bit more detail:
Fasting works, I’ve done it myself, family and patients. The only time I run into trouble is with very obese people especially women, when they fast, the toxin release and stress can get them violently ill. They have to do it on a very gradual level with lots of support, especially from the family and probably under the guidance of a naturopath, as they do need lots of adrenal support.
Does anyone know how we can tell if our adrenals are under stress? My naturopath does a test with a string that she slides down your throat. I cannot do that!
She believes I needed adrenal support, so I took the remedy she suggested, but I noticed no change at all.
I just started IF a few weeks ago. My energy level has plummeted. Physically, I’m very healthy, but lately, my depression has been at an all time low. Today, during my weight training, I felt dizzy, fatigued and out of breathe. Not sure if it’s because I hadn’t eaten for about 18 hours or not.
You could have methylation issues so you can’t clear toxins released from fat when fasting or there’s always heavy metal toxicity. A good naturopath should be able to figure it out. I’m just a simple medical doctor, we don’t train in this stuff unfortunately. I had to learn all on my own.
Kudos to you Dr. Jeff you’re a smart man! I wish I had a Dr. who would do a bit of research outside of prescribing me medications. I’ve been on asthma meds for a few years now with no hope in sight 🙁
Hey maybe you can help me with something.. I’ve been doing the ketogenic diet for a couple months now and have also been taking the cutting stack supplements from http://legalsteroidresearch.com and I’m down to about 6% body fat. I’m wondering if it’s healthy to stay that lean? If I go off the supplements I think my body would go back to 8% or 9%.. what is the ideal “healthy” range for my body fat levels?
PS – I’m trying to stay quite aesthetic since I want to compete in fitness modeling.
Thanks for your time sir!
So I have all the symptoms of HPA axis dysfunction except for one – I am morbidly obese. Should I try intermittent fasting? Could there be ways I could modify it so that it would work better for someone with adrenal issues? Like the bulletproof coffee method, and maybe adding some collagen protein to it. I realize that’s not technically fasting but do you think I would still reap some of the benefits?
Amy, you wrote,
“A study published this month investigated the effect of intermittent fasting on a marker of inflammation, specifically looking at NRLP3 inflammasome activation (15). The results indicated a decrease in this measure of inflammation with fasting.
Another study evaluated the effect of alternate-day fasting in adults with asthma and found a decrease in symptoms along with striking decreases in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation ”
Did the study consider whether the decrease in inflammation was a result of Ketosis (Ketones in the body that fight inflammation) or a result of not eating foods that are inflammatory to the test subjects??