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Harmful or Harmless: Carrageenan

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Carrageenan is found in non-dairy products such as almond milk and coconut milk. Yuri Arcurs/Hemera/Thinkstock

Carrageenan, a heavily discussed additive in the world of alternative health, is an indigestible polysaccharide that is extracted from red algae, and is most commonly used in food as a thickener or stabilizer. Carrageenan-containing seaweeds have been used for centuries in food preparations for their gelling properties, but the refined, isolated carrageenan found in modern processed foods has raised concerns in the health-conscious online community. (1)

Carrageenan is especially common in non-dairy milks such as almond milk and coconut milk, which means that some people who transition to a Paleo diet might actually be increasing their exposure if they use these products. I discussed carrageenan on a recent podcast, but today I want to give you a more detailed summary of the evidence.

Hold the almond milk… is carrageenan affecting your health?

There are a few distinct types of carrageenan that differ in their chemical properties, but the most important distinction is between degraded carrageenan and undegraded carrageenan. From a chemical standpoint, the difference between these two types is in their molecular weight. From a practical standpoint, undegraded carrageenan is approved for use in food products, while degraded carrageenan is not. (2) Although both substances are often referred to as ‘carrageenan,’ they have very different chemical properties and should really be treated as separate compounds. Degraded carrageenan is also called ‘poligeenan,’ which is how I will refer to it in the rest of this article to avoid any confusion.

Animal Studies

Most of the carrageenan hysteria stems from animal studies that implicate carrageenan in the formation of ulcerations and cancerous lesions in the colon. A thorough review of the approximately 45 available animal studies on carrageenan was published in 2001, and at first glance, these studies seem alarming. However, it turns out that the majority of these animal experiments used poligeenan instead of carrageenan, and as I mentioned before, these are two separate compounds with different effects. Poligeenan is significantly more detrimental to the health of lab animals than carrageenan, so the lack of a clear designation between them has given carrageenan a worse reputation than it deserves.

One important difference is that while poligeenan can cause cancer on its own when given in high enough concentrations, undegraded carrageenan has only ever been shown to accelerate cancer formation when administered with a known carcinogen. (3) In other words, food-grade carrageenan has not been shown to cause cancer in animal models. That doesn’t necessarily mean carrageenan is in the clear when it comes to cancer, but contrary to popular belief, it is not a known carcinogen.

Additionally, poligeenan produces more severe ulceration and inflammation than carrageenan, and at lower concentrations. As an example, a study on rhesus monkeys using poligeenan at 0.5-2% resulted in diarrhea, hemorrhage, and ulcerations, while carrageenan at 1-3% resulted in no colonic changes. (4) (For reference, the concentration of carrageenan in processed food is usually between 0.01% and 1%.) (5)

However, carrageenan has produced intestinal damage in some animal studies. Observed effects in rats include epithelial cell loss, increased intestinal permeability, and diarrhea. (6) In guinea pigs, carrageenan at a 5% concentration in the diet caused ulcers in the colon, although a similar concentration in the diets of rats and hamsters resulted in no difference from controls. (7) In pigs, concentrations of carrageenan between .05 and .5% administered for 83 days resulted in abnormalities in the intestinal lining, but no ulcerations or tumors. (8) Still, a more recent rat study found no ulcerations or lesions in the colon after 90 days of carrageenan administration. (9) These studies suggest that the effects of carrageenan are highly species-dependent, which makes it more difficult to extrapolate these results to humans.

There are a few other important considerations when determining how applicable these results are to humans. Many of these experiments administered the carrageenan through the animals’ drinking water as opposed to their food, which tends to increase the severity of the resulting symptoms. Because carrageenan interacts with protein molecules, consuming it as part of a solid food is much less harmful than consuming it in water. Also, although many of the concentrations administered are comparable to concentrations found in processed foods, many experiments were conducted at concentrations much higher than humans would ever encounter on a normal diet. Remember, these studies are looking at carrageenan as a percentage of the entire diet, not just less than 1% of a small portion of the total diet, as is the case when using milk replacement products.

Human Studies

Experimental evidence on the effects of carrageenan in humans is extremely limited, for obvious ethical reasons. However, a few in vitro experiments have been conducted on isolated human intestinal cells.

One study found that in intestinal epithelial tissue, carrageenan exposure increased the expression of two pro-inflammatory transcription factors. (10) This reaction appears to be protective of the intestinal tight junctions, because suppression of either of the inflammatory factors resulted in increased permeability of the isolated epithelial tissue. Unfortunately, it’s unclear whether they used food-grade carrageenan rather than poligeenan in this experiment.

Two similar studies that did use food-grade carrageenan also found that isolated intestinal epithelial tissue responded to carrageenan by up regulating inflammation. (11, 12) Another study on human intestinal epithelium found that undegraded carrageenan reduced the activity of many sulfatase enzymes, with potential negative ramifications for the function and vitality of the cell. (13)

Finally, another study found that exposing human intestinal epithelial cells to undegraded carrageenan in concentrations lower than what would be found in a typical diet caused increased cell death, reduced cell proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. (14)

These studies provide some support for the generalization of the animal studies to humans, implicating carrageenan in the potential for intestinal inflammation. However, it’s important to remember that not only were these studies in vitro (aka not in the human body), they also didn’t administer the carrageenan with any food, so the effects observed may differ significantly from what actually occurs when humans ingest carrageenan in a real-world setting.

Exposure to Poligeenan

Because poligeenan can be produced from carrageenan, many researchers and laypeople have expressed concern that we might be exposed to poligeenan through contamination of the food supply. However, the most recent sources indicate that the poligeenan contamination level of food-grade carrageenan is less than 5%. (15)

Another encouraging data point in this situation is that while carrageenan is an extremely effective thickener and emulsifier at concentrations as low as .01%, poligeenan has no functional effect in food even at concentrations up to 10%. (16) Specific chemical processing is necessary for carrageenan to be degraded to poligeenan, and because poligeenan is of no use in the food industry, it seems unlikely that poligeenan would show up in appreciable quantities in processed foods.

Another concern is whether small percentages of ingested carrageenan are degraded to poligeenan in the digestive tract after consumption, either because of the acidic environment or because of intestinal bacteria. Some experimental evidence indicates that as much as 10-20% of carrageenan could be degraded to poligeenan during digestion, while other researchers (not surprisingly funded by the carrageenan industry) assert that carrageenan is stable throughout digestion. (17, 18) Regardless, the significant differences between poligeenan and carrageenan as evidenced by the reactions of lab animals make it pretty clear that even if some degradation does take place, carrageenan still doesn’t have the potential for harm that poligeenan does.

Conclusion

As with magnesium stearate and soy lecithin, carrageenan has been frequently portrayed as significantly more harmful than is supported by available evidence. Contrary to popular belief, it’s not a known carcinogen, and although some studies implicate carrageenan in ulceration and inflammation, some show no adverse effects.

However, I do still think caution is warranted. If I had to rank additives, I’d say carrageenan is a bit more concerning than the other two additives we’ve discussed so far because of its association with gut issues. Remember, in cases involving modern ingredients, the burden of proof should be on manufacturers to prove that they’re safe, rather than on consumers to prove that they’re harmful. Because the evidence isn’t conclusive either way, I recommend avoiding carrageenan, especially if you have a history of digestive problems.

Personally, I adhere to the “precautionary principle” for anything I eat; in other words, in the absence of proven safety, I choose to avoid foods that have questionable adverse effects. Carrageenan fits this description, as there’s still some doubt about its safety and no evidence has convinced me that there isn’t a potential for harm if consumed regularly.

Occasional exposure is likely nothing to worry about, but for most people reading this, avoiding carrageenan is probably as simple as making your own nut milk or coconut milk, so I would encourage you to give that a shot. Also, if you follow the links to those two posts, some commenters have shared brands of almond and coconut milk that don’t contain carrageenan (although watch out for other additives that may be present).

427 Comments

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  1. Chris,

    Your article on carrageenan / polygeenan failed to mention that there is well known and much-used research mouse model of colitis, that is created just by feeding mice polygeenan.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6468767

    I do have Crohn’s and am extremely sensitive to carrageenan. As you did mention, all carrageenan contains a certain amount of low molecular weight carrageenan aka degraded carrageenan, aka polygeenan (an industry coined term, to make degraded carageenan sound better).

    • I began researching carrageenan when I resolved to discover what ingredient in cottage cheese made my stomach feel queasy. I avoid it now, but was surprised to see how many products list it as an ingredient.

      What the article fails to mention is that digestive enzymes and bacterial action convert high molecular weight carrageenans to dangerous low molecular weight carrageenans and poligeenans in the human gut. And you may get more than the .006 grams if you ingest several products with carrageenan as an ingredient. Say, for instance, you have a meal with deli meats (which are injected with carrageenan), a glass of your soy or almond milk, a salad including cottage cheese, and then ice cream for dessert. Later, because it’s hot, you have a Popsicle…yes, a lot of Popsicle have carrageenan, too. Other processed foods may contain carrageenan without it being on the ingredient label, too, because it isn’t required to list the ingredients of ingredients.

      Anyway, Dr. Joanne Tobacman’s studies showed that extremely low doses of carrageenan disrupt the internal cellular architecture of healthy breast tissue. With the huge increase of breast and colon cancer in recent years, I do not doubt carrageenan is complicit. Today, 42% of the population is projected to get cancer. Compare that with 10% in the seventies! Granted, there are more environmental carcinogens, but with regards to an industry ready to bribe a corrupt FDA and a genocidal government, I wouldn’t trust anything that is reported to a gullible public willing to put their trust in those who are only interested in their money so they can eat their favorite snackies without a second thought.

      • Comments:

        SO are we just ignoring that the scientific community, far and wide, believes carrageenan is safe? It’s not even 50/50, or 60/40. It’s more like 98% believe it’s safe.

        One could draw correlations between the anti-carrageenan thought (*or any non-proven stance) and climate-change deniers. Climate change is real… and probably carrageenan IS safe to eat…. because the large majority of scientists who have studied it believe this.


        I read about people blame carrageenan for making them sick after eating products such as cottage cheese and lunch meats… Anyone else see something wrong with this? Maybe there are larger dietary issues here?


        Cornucopia Institute has a white paper stating that Carrageenan is on the World Health Organization’s “possible carcinogens list”. I looked and IT is NOT. Degraded carrageenan (poligeenan) is on there, as we know, but not carrageenan itself. I understand that PGN comes from CGN, but that’s a slippery slope… If we do that, then we must also say that gluten-free bread is a carcinogen because it has naturally occurring acrylamide in it. I’m not ready to stop eating bread.

        What is on the WHO’s “possible carcinogens” ?
        The alcohol in alcoholic beverages (beer and wine!) and tobacco are, unsurprisingly, on this list. More surprisingly though: aloe vera extract, coffee and pickled vegetables ARE on this list! Thus, shouldn’t more “anti” attention be towards getting aloe vera, coffee and pickles removed from stores? Has anyone seen the list?

        Further, the list is POSSIBLE carcinogens. I don’t drink or smoke, but I really don’t want to give up coffee, bread, or putting aloe vera on sun burn.


        Carrageenan being replaced by Gellan Gum: There are people on the internet who don’t trust gellan’s safety… Does anyone feel like there’s going to be a big non-science based backlash to gellan as well in a few years? It’s a slippery slope!


        Gums, like carrageenan, are fiber and insoluble.. these can cause problems for people with fiber issues. I’d hate for someone to think carrageenan is causing them problems when it’s actually ANY fiber that’s causing issues.


        Again, I’ve been eating carrageenan-containing foods for 23 years with no problems. I’m sure there are also plenty of sea animals that eat red seaweed on a daily basis that are okay as well.

        I think I’m almost done spending time trying to talk science into the religious-types… because it’s generally a losing battle.

        • Unfortunately, Ryan, it is how it is in the food science community. We do our best to educate people about what actually goes on within Food Science, but people would rather listen to the whistleblowers than the education. It’s a harsh reality I’ve grown to accept as well.

        • There was once a time when scientists all agreed that DDT was safe. One time they all thought Thalidimide was safe. That doesn’t mean it IS safe. It also doesn’t mean that even if it IS safe, it can still make some people sick who are sensitive to it. Because you have eaten it for years without ill effect doesn’t mean everyone else can without ill effect as well. I also ate and drank it in foods for years, but guess what? One day my body said enough and it started making me sick. It may not affect large numbers of people who consume it, but does that mean it’s ok to ignore those people who ARE aversely affected by it, and simply brush off their concerns? One day you may also be one of those people, if your body also says enough.
          There was a time when these products didn’t contain carrageenan. What were they using instead back then? Why not go back to it?

          • Laurie B,

            Many people are allergic to nuts and must avoid them. I think the point is that while some people may have issues with this ingredient, the majority don’t, and it shouldn’t be represented as an ingredient that is harmful across the board that shouldn’t be used at all.

            It’s good to know this ingredient can cause or exasperate certain health issues so that people can read the labels and make their own decisions. I just find it ironic that people are so shocked about finding this ingredient on their labels, and this automatically becomes the “obvious” culprit in all of their ailments… before they even bother to test it.

            Then again, many of the people on health food kicks likely aren’t eating a well balanced diet, and getting all of the nutrients they need… because, alas, the things with the nutrients have been found to be unhealthy in some way… I love when people tell me stories about their super healthy cleanse that resulted in them going to the hospital…

            We can only conclude that every person is different, and hence it’s important to label ingredients on packages so that people can make their own decisions. Hopefully those decisions are based on real / factual information, rather than myth and conspiracy alone.

            One other point; Yes, humans used to be hunter / gatherers, eating only natural non-processed foods. No one knows if they ever had health problems from the foods they ate. Did they ever have acid reflux / heartburn? Did they ever get diarrhea? Did they ever get ulcers in their intestines? Maybe. We do, however, know that their lifespans were much shorter than ours today, and often times they may have even starved to death.

            That doesn’t mean we should just be happy with what we’ve got. Obviously if our diets are causing problems and we can improve the ingredients we eat, we definitely should. We shouldn’t, however, assume that there is ever going to be a perfect set of ingredients out there that both allows us to store food longer, allows us to thicken food to make it taste right, and doesn’t cause any ill effects to anyone ever. If there was an ingredient like this, and it was cheap enough that people were willing to pay the premium for it, producers would most certainly use it!

            The problem is, everyone thinks there is some great big conspiracy going on, and each time it’s found that some ingredient may have negative health impacts to a small subset of the population, people yell and scream to remove the ingredient altogether, rather than looking for alternative products that don’t use it. Trust me, if enough people refuse to buy a product unless there are alternative ingredients used, someone will produce them and make that money!

            • Thank you I was getting mixed messages on this ingredient. My child love cheese but is allergic and there was a vegan cheese that had this in it and just heard bad things but I guess I have been eating it all along. I will see how his body reacts and hoping he can enjoy it. I don’t really like soy however. Just my opinion

  2. I want to be removed from getting subscription comments. I’ve tried to use your manage subscription thing and it didn’t work or it’s too difficult to figure out. Please make it easy to remove oneself from getting continuous follow up comments, such as a simple click. Irritating.

  3. Chris Kresser, you said in your article, “carrageenan- containing seaweeds have been used for centuries” ! Do you want to document that……….or re state the truth ???

    • Here in Ireland Carrageen Moss seaweed is a traditional coastal food (in the form of a jelly) and folk medicine for coughs and colds and as a general tonic- possibly due to its high iodine content.

      • Do you know of any good web resources for identifying, harvesting, and preparing Irish Moss/Carrageen (as opposed to carrageenan)? I live on the coast of New England, and I understand that it grows in abundance along our shores. My Irish Nana spoke of foraging and eating it as a regular part of her diet, seeing as she grew up on the shores of Clew Bay.

  4. I make my own but milk, so much tastier! However, I noticed recently that my toothpaste, which is more natural and rated well on ewg, has carrageenan in it. Since you aren’t swallowing tooth paste, would it matter or would it be wise to find another option?

  5. So Delicious Coconut Milk coffee creamer is now Carrageenan (and silicon dioxide) free. I want to give them kudos for listening to the public and changing their formula. However, I am bummed when I read dozens of reviews on Amazon with people thrashing them for the product changing. Complaints about how it isn’t as thick, or that it separates some unless stirred/shaken. Go back to coffee mate if you want some laboratory created creamer!

    • Except now, the Soy Delicious Coffee creamer doesn’t whiten the coffee! It just dilutes it and barely sweetens. It’s not a good product anymore. Just overpriced, thin soymilk with a bit of dipotassium phosphate in it to prevent coagulation.

      No Kudos to them for making a worse product.

      Vegans are bummed!

      • Would be nice if this vegan could stop trolling and purporting their vegan crusade and blaming just dairy products and meat for causing problems instead of carrageen or along with carrageenan. I don’t want it in my almond or cashew milk (which is a vegan item). If it causes inflammation in the gut I don’t want it because that only makes my diverticulosis worse, and could contribute to a life threatening infection. What a luxury for someone to be able to put the consistency of their food product over the health of the intestines. Not all of us can do that still or easily find alternatives for purchase (or have time and strength to make an alternative). Like a lot of other people I was fine with a lot of ingredients until I wasn’t. Probably a paid employee by some carrageenan corporate office, because who else would refuse to care about the health of others above product consistency?

        • This should have been the first AND LAST sentence of that post: “Like a lot of other people I was fine with a lot of ingredients until I wasn’t. ”
          it adds a valuable perspective and reality to how health and the world operate.
          The rest is ad-hominem fallacy.

      • yes, its indicative of trends/memes to ignore the vast scientific evidence to pursue a trend/meme. L
        In this case, ignoring the american heart association and WHO, both who currently, clearly, and strongly identify coconut and its saturated fats as VERY BAD FOR HEALTH.

        It IS a good think in general, that folks are interested in longer term health issues like chronic disease and acting on purportedly scientific information. If only the gov’t would give some more priority on resolving health and longevity scientific discrepancies QUICKLY and UNDENIABLY and VIGOROUSLY via well conducted science/experimentation. epidemiology, for example is useful input, but generally NOT well conducted scientific studies.

        its sickening to see people argue over what amounts to a common interest but often with uncertainties and confusion due to the fragmented, unfocused approach to science today.

  6. “Simple Truth” brand Almond Milk by the Kroger Company does not contain carrageenan.

  7. I found out years ago that carrageenan caused me to get severe headaches. One taste of most hard ice creams, whipped cream, etc., my head would immediately tighten up in pain. No wonder I always had a severe headache at Thanksgiving after using evaporated milk in the pumpkin pies. And now most, if not all, vegetarian capsules cause the same reaction. So it was no surprise when I found these companies add carrageenan to their capsules. I have no problem with the gelatin capsules, but unfortunately it is harder and harder to find medication using those. I know anytime I see microcrystalline cellulose on a supplement label, I will also get the same headache. I don’t know if microcrystalline cellulose contains carrageenan or if they add carrageenan to it, but there definitely is a connection.

  8. I’m taking a supplement for my hormones which has carrageenan inside – as prescribed by my GP. It’s a good supplement and I presume the amount inside is so small, but I wonder if it could be causing reactions like itchy skin.

    • Concerning Itchy skin and Carrageenan. I have suffered with Itchy skin and very painful at times, without a rash for several years. Through process of ilimination , found that Carrageenan in my food mainly my Coffeemate creamer was causing the problem. I now read ingredient labels and will not buy anything with it listed. But there are other foods that have it hidden under other names.

  9. Why would I eat this if it is even questionable? It’s not necessary in any true sense of the word. And even when it comes to the supposedly less harmful form (I can’t call it non-harmful based on the above), if 10-20% of it could be broken down in my gut into the harmful form, that’s not acceptable in any respect, not if you use something frequently or consider lifetime effects. I sure wouldn’t give that to a child either. Nor do I trust manufacturers at this point, since they often say “distributed by” themselves on the label with a US address, which probably means it is made in China, and no one knows what they are putting in our food really. If we trust them, I think that’s naïve.

    These processed non-dairy milks are not necessary for life. To be healthy, it is worth giving up some of our favorite ways of eating, like cereal with milk. If you want the benefits of almonds or beans, just eat them, and drink something else! Plus it costs less. I do best without dairy milk, but I can live just fine without any substitutes.

  10. To add my own experience with carrageenan:

    I had used to drink hemp milk containing carrageenan (Tempt Unsweetened Vanilla) and then feel very tired afterward. I similarly feel tired whenever accidentally eating anything gluten-contaminated, since I have Celiac, and many medical professionals would agree that this is due to damage to the intestinal lining from the immunen reaction. Was carageenan irritating my colon, causing inflammation, in turn causing tiredness while the tissue is healed? I don’t know, but I was diagnosed with lymphocytic colitis (a mild form of colitis). Recently, Tempt has replaced carrageenan with gellan gum, and when I drink their hemp milk now I don’t feel tired afterward.

  11. I had sudden onset of atrial fib. Could been hundred reasons,but i was drinking lots of almond milk which was new to me. Cardiologist thought i was crazy. Recently been using lots of can milk, havinf difficulty getting to store for cow milk. Atrial fib n dysrhytmia back even with my meds.
    New is the carigeen in can milk. I have immune problems already. I think i have an alergic reaction, n my heart goes nutty…. could i be right

  12. Thank you for the insight. It should be noted that carrageenan is also one of the most acnenic ingredients in the market, causing severe cystic acne in those who are already predisposed to breakouts. While largely cosmetic in effect, it can be socially debilitating and a cause of depression, given the severity of the symptoms. For those folks who avoid dairy for its potential to cause skin distress, non-dairy beverages containing carrageenan are often no better solution.

  13. @ Mike: Peanuts are poison to me. They cause all kinds of histamine issues including anaphylactic shock. Run from that crap.
    Long version: When a person has an allergy to a substance, it isn’t correct or fair for them to suggest that it’s harmful in the same way to everyone. I have gluten intolerance, but I wouldn’t say that no one should eat spelt or couscous, just as somebody with an allergy to eggs would never say I shouldn’t eat omelettes.
    Disclaimer: I don’t actually have a peanut allergy, I was just using it as an example because it’s the type most people have heard of.

  14. I was having some real gut pain due to carrageenan in my almond milk. The only milk I found without carrageenan is Whole Foods 365 Almond milk. No gut pain anymore. I Also advise eliminating anything (like most stevia) with silica in it for the same reason. Sweet Leaf stevia is minus silica.

      • Silk is one of the Monsanto companies. Even if it doesn’t contain it, I’d avoid any and all products that fall under the Monsanto umbrella.

        • I looked up Silk brand and found they are owned by Dean Foods. There appears to be a link between Dean and Monsanto. While Silk is supposed to be part of the non-GMO project, Dean has contributed a substanstantial amount of money to get the DARK act passed.
          Dean Foods owns the nation’s largest diary factory, owns Land O’ Lakes and Horizon Organic brands, too.

    • Silk is free of C. but did not know Monsanto.
      I’m allergic to cilantro. It tastes like soap to me. Sadly everyone I know loves and grows it. Eating is awful for me when it’s prominent in a dish

  15. Im always quite careful what I am eating…. I check ingredients on everything and yesterday I had some MACARONI SALAD and it tasted pretty good……. THANKFULLY I DIDNT HAVE ALOT!!!

    IT HAS THIS GARBAGE IN IT!!! (This morning I am all achy,etc)

    NO REASON TO PUT THIS CRAP IN ANYTHING!!!!! (This and aspartame)

    I SWEAR THEY WANT TO HARM PEOPLE!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • This stuff is poison to me. Causes all kinds of histamine issues including anaphylactic shock. Run from this crap.

  16. thank you for the article!! I have been trying to research carrageenan recently because a vitamin supplement I take uses carrageenan to make their gel capsules. From the article I got the feeling that it is okay to take them since there is such a small amount of carrageenan in a single capsule. Is that a safe assumption? Or should I try to avoid them?

  17. Wow, great article. When I learned of this issue, I started researching it because I am 17 weeks pregnant and nervous about how a fragile baby would process such an ingredient, as a fetus doesn’t even have a way to properly metabolize caffeine. I felt alarmed about the rat studies linking lung birth defects with carageenan “only slightly above normal human daily intake.” However, I was never able to find any info on whether researchers used degraded or undegraded carageenan, and whether they were giving tiny rats human-sized quantities, or if they adjusted for the rat’s size. So I really hated reading all the alarmist articles that never clarified any of these important details and just kept raising my anxiety. Your article however made me feel much calmer, and synced with my gut feeling that 1 to 2 cups a day of my almond milk is not the end of the world. That said I have given up my favorite brand of almond milk for now due carageenan content and still feel nervous about the 16 weeks I ignorantly consumed it while pregnant. I would rather be safe than sorry. Going to check out your other articles. Thank you for being a voice of both health AND reason. That is the kind of science I’m looking for and will come back to read your articles again and again.

    • No need to be nervous about the other 16 weeks that you consumed carrageenan. Any issues with carrageenan are isolated to the gut (intestines). This would not affect the baby in any way.

    • Thanks for that info – good to have an option that is carrageenan-free (and made in Canada-wonderful!). Still have to try making my own almond milk, though.

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<div class='gf_browser_unknown gform_wrapper qc_box_container_wrapper gform_legacy_markup_wrapper' id='gform_wrapper_9' ><form method='post' enctype='multipart/form-data' id='gform_9' class='qc_box_container gform_legacy_markup' action='/harmful-or-harmless-carrageenan/comment-page-7/' novalidate> <div class='gform_body gform-body'><ul id='gform_fields_9' class='gform_fields top_label form_sublabel_below description_below'><li id="field_9_1" class="gfield field gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_9_1' >Email<span class="gfield_required"><span class="gfield_required gfield_required_asterisk">*</span></span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_email'> <input name='input_1' id='input_9_1' type='email' value='' class='large' placeholder='Your Email' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> </div></li><li id="field_9_2" class="gfield health-concern field field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_9_2' >I want to improve my...</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_select'><select name='input_2' id='input_9_2' class='large gfield_select' aria-invalid="false" ><option value='' selected='selected' class='gf_placeholder'>I want to improve my...</option><option value='Weight' >Weight</option><option value='Energy' >Energy</option><option value='Digestion' >Digestion</option><option value='Brain' >Brain</option><option value='Overall Health' >Overall Health</option><option value='All of the Above' >All of the Above</option></select></div></li><li id="field_9_4" class="gfield gform_hidden field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_4' id='input_9_4' type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' aria-invalid="false" value='5784' /></div></li><li id="field_9_5" class="gfield gform_hidden field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_5' id='input_9_5' type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' aria-invalid="false" value='Food Additives' /></div></li></ul></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_9' class='gform_button button' value='Download eBook' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_9"]){return false;} if( !jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity || jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity()){window["gf_submitting_9"]=true;} ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_9"]){return false;} if( !jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity || jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity()){window["gf_submitting_9"]=true;} jQuery("#gform_9").trigger("submit",[true]); }' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='is_submit_9' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_submit' value='9' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_unique_id' value='' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='state_9' value='WyJbXSIsIjVkYTAyNjYxOTg4ZDNhZGQwOTU0Yzc4NDcyNDk5YmM4Il0=' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_target_page_number_9' id='gform_target_page_number_9' value='0' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_source_page_number_9' id='gform_source_page_number_9' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_field_values' value='popup_name=Food+Additives' /> </div> </form> </div>
[gravityform id="9" title="false" description="false" field_values='popup_name=Diet-Heart Myth']
<div class='gf_browser_unknown gform_wrapper qc_box_container_wrapper gform_legacy_markup_wrapper' id='gform_wrapper_9' ><form method='post' enctype='multipart/form-data' id='gform_9' class='qc_box_container gform_legacy_markup' action='/harmful-or-harmless-carrageenan/comment-page-7/' novalidate> <div class='gform_body gform-body'><ul id='gform_fields_9' class='gform_fields top_label form_sublabel_below description_below'><li id="field_9_1" class="gfield field gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_9_1' >Email<span class="gfield_required"><span class="gfield_required gfield_required_asterisk">*</span></span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_email'> <input name='input_1' id='input_9_1' type='email' value='' class='large' placeholder='Your Email' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> </div></li><li id="field_9_2" class="gfield health-concern field field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_9_2' >I want to improve my...</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_select'><select name='input_2' id='input_9_2' class='large gfield_select' aria-invalid="false" ><option value='' selected='selected' class='gf_placeholder'>I want to improve my...</option><option value='Weight' >Weight</option><option value='Energy' >Energy</option><option value='Digestion' >Digestion</option><option value='Brain' >Brain</option><option value='Overall Health' >Overall Health</option><option value='All of the Above' >All of the Above</option></select></div></li><li id="field_9_4" class="gfield gform_hidden field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_4' id='input_9_4' type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' aria-invalid="false" value='5784' /></div></li><li id="field_9_5" class="gfield gform_hidden field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_5' id='input_9_5' type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' aria-invalid="false" value='Diet-Heart Myth' /></div></li></ul></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_9' class='gform_button button' value='Download eBook' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_9"]){return false;} if( !jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity || jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity()){window["gf_submitting_9"]=true;} ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_9"]){return false;} if( !jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity || jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity()){window["gf_submitting_9"]=true;} jQuery("#gform_9").trigger("submit",[true]); }' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='is_submit_9' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_submit' value='9' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_unique_id' value='' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='state_9' value='WyJbXSIsIjVkYTAyNjYxOTg4ZDNhZGQwOTU0Yzc4NDcyNDk5YmM4Il0=' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_target_page_number_9' id='gform_target_page_number_9' value='0' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_source_page_number_9' id='gform_source_page_number_9' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_field_values' value='popup_name=Diet-Heart+Myth' /> </div> </form> </div>
[gravityform id="9" title="false" description="false" field_values='popup_name=B12']
<div class='gf_browser_unknown gform_wrapper qc_box_container_wrapper gform_legacy_markup_wrapper' id='gform_wrapper_9' ><form method='post' enctype='multipart/form-data' id='gform_9' class='qc_box_container gform_legacy_markup' action='/harmful-or-harmless-carrageenan/comment-page-7/' novalidate> <div class='gform_body gform-body'><ul id='gform_fields_9' class='gform_fields top_label form_sublabel_below description_below'><li id="field_9_1" class="gfield field gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_9_1' >Email<span class="gfield_required"><span class="gfield_required gfield_required_asterisk">*</span></span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_email'> <input name='input_1' id='input_9_1' type='email' value='' class='large' placeholder='Your Email' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> </div></li><li id="field_9_2" class="gfield health-concern field field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_9_2' >I want to improve my...</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_select'><select name='input_2' id='input_9_2' class='large gfield_select' aria-invalid="false" ><option value='' selected='selected' class='gf_placeholder'>I want to improve my...</option><option value='Weight' >Weight</option><option value='Energy' >Energy</option><option value='Digestion' >Digestion</option><option value='Brain' >Brain</option><option value='Overall Health' >Overall Health</option><option value='All of the Above' >All of the Above</option></select></div></li><li id="field_9_4" class="gfield gform_hidden field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_4' id='input_9_4' type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' aria-invalid="false" value='5784' /></div></li><li id="field_9_5" class="gfield gform_hidden field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_5' id='input_9_5' type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' aria-invalid="false" value='B12' /></div></li></ul></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_9' class='gform_button button' value='Download eBook' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_9"]){return false;} if( !jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity || jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity()){window["gf_submitting_9"]=true;} ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_9"]){return false;} if( !jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity || jQuery("#gform_9")[0].checkValidity()){window["gf_submitting_9"]=true;} jQuery("#gform_9").trigger("submit",[true]); }' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='is_submit_9' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_submit' value='9' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_unique_id' value='' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='state_9' value='WyJbXSIsIjVkYTAyNjYxOTg4ZDNhZGQwOTU0Yzc4NDcyNDk5YmM4Il0=' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_target_page_number_9' id='gform_target_page_number_9' value='0' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_source_page_number_9' id='gform_source_page_number_9' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_field_values' value='popup_name=B12' /> </div> </form> </div>
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