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Is Depression a Disease or a Symptom of Inflammation?


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The idea that depression and other mental health conditions are caused by an imbalance of chemicals (particularly serotonin and norepinephrine) in the brain is so deeply ingrained in our collective psyche that it seems almost sacrilegious to question it. 

A depressed person
Depression and inflammation are linked. Find out how. iStock.com/AntonioGuillem

Of course, Big Pharma has played a role in perpetuating this idea. Antidepressant drugs, which are based on the chemical imbalance theory, represent a $10 billion dollar market in the U.S. alone. According to the CDC, 11 percent of Americans over 12 years old take antidepressants, and they are the second-most prescribed medications (after cholesterol-lowering drugs). Doctors wrote a staggering 254 million prescriptions for antidepressants in 2010. (1)

Research suggests that depression may be primarily caused by inflammation. Check out this article to find out more about the depression–inflammation connection. #MentalHealth

Yet as popular as this theory has become, it is riddled with problems. For example: 

  • Reducing levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine does not produce depression in humans, even though it appears to do so in animals.
  • Although some depressed patients have low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, the majority do not. Several studies indicate that only 25 percent of depressed patients have low levels of these neurotransmitters.
  • Some depressed patients have abnormally high levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, and some patients with no history of depression have low levels of them. (2)

What if depression isn’t caused by a “chemical imbalance” after all? More specifically, what if depression itself is not a disease, but a symptom of an underlying problem? 

That is exactly what the most recent research on depression is telling us. A new theory called the “Immune Cytokine Model of Depression” holds that depression is not a disease itself, but instead a “multifaceted sign of chronic immune system activation.” (3)

To put it plainly: depression may be a symptom of chronic inflammation.

The Connection between Depression and Inflammation

A large body of research now suggests that depression is associated with a low-grade, chronic inflammatory response and is accompanied by increased oxidative stress. 

In an excellent review paper by Berk et al, the authors presented several lines of evidence supporting the connection between depression and inflammation: (4)

  • Depression is often present in acute, inflammatory illnesses. (5)
  • Higher levels of inflammation increase the risk of developing depression. (6)
  • Administering endotoxins that provoke inflammation to healthy people triggers classic depressive symptoms. (7)
  • One-quarter of patients who take interferon, a medication used to treat hepatitis C that causes significant inflammation, develop major depression. (8)
  • Remission of clinical depression is often associated with a normalization of inflammatory markers. (9)

During an inflammatory reaction, chemicals called “cytokines” are produced. These include tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-1, interferon (IFN)ɣ, and interleukin (IL)-10, among others. Researchers discovered in the early 1980s that inflammatory cytokines produce a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological symptoms which perfectly mirror the defining characteristics of depression. (10)

Interestingly enough, antidepressants (particularly SSRIs) have been shown to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1, interferon IFN-ɣ and increase the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-10. (11, 12) They also change the gene expression of some immune cells that are involved in inflammatory processes. This suggests that SSRIs are anti-inflammatory, which would explain their mechanism of action if inflammation is a primary driver of depression.

The research on this topic is robust, and the connection between depression and inflammation is now well-established. But if depression is primarily caused by inflammation, the obvious question that arises is, “What is causing the inflammation?”

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Nine Common Causes of Inflammation and Depression

If you’ve been following my blog for any length of time, you know that inflammation is at the root of nearly all modern disease, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, allergies, asthma, and arthritis. So perhaps it shouldn’t come as much of a surprise that depression is also caused by inflammation

The downside of this connection is that our modern diet and lifestyle are full of factors that provoke inflammation—and thus cause disease. The upside is that if we address these factors and reduce inflammation, we can prevent and even reverse the chronic, inflammatory diseases that have become such a fixture of industrial civilization.

According to the authors of the Berk et al review paper I referenced above, the following are the most common causes of inflammation that are associated with depression. 

1. Diet

There are several problems with the modern diet. It is high in foods that provoke inflammation, such as refined flour, excess sugar, oxidized (rancid) fats, trans fats, and a wide range of chemicals and preservatives. And it is low in foods that reduce inflammation, like long-chain omega-3 fats, fermented foods, and fermentable fiber. Numerous studies have associated the Western diet with major depressive disorder. (13)

2. Obesity

One of the most harmful consequences of the modern diet has been the dramatic increase in obesity. Obesity is an inflammatory state. Studies have shown higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese people, and weight loss is associated with a decrease in those cytokines. (14) Obesity is closely linked with depression, and while that relationship is likely multi-factorial and complex, inflammation appears to play a significant role. (15)

3. Gut Health

Disruptions in the gut microbiome and leaky gut (i.e. intestinal permeability) have both been shown to contribute to inflammation and correlate with depression. For example, a leaky gut permits endotoxins called lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to escape the gut and enter the bloodstream, where they provoke the release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1 and COX-2. (16) And numerous studies have linked unfavorable changes to the bacteria inhabiting our gut with major depressive disorder. (17

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4. Stress

Stress may be one of the most obvious causes of depression, but the link between stress and inflammation is less well-known. Research has shown that psychosocial stress stimulates the pro-inflammatory cytokine network, including increases in TNF-α and IL-1. (18) These increases in inflammatory cytokines are in turn closely related to depressive symptoms, as described above. 

5. Lack of Physical Activity

There’s a huge amount of evidence indicating that exercise is an effective treatment for depression—in many cases as effective or more so than antidepressant drugs. It has also been shown to prevent depression in healthy people with no pre-existing symptoms. (19) Interestingly enough, while exercise initially produces the same inflammatory cytokines that are associated with depression, that is quickly followed by induction of anti-inflammatory substances. (20) This is known as a hormetic effect, where an initial stressor provokes a compensatory response in the body that has positive, long-term consequences. 

6. Sleep Deprivation

Chronic sleep loss has been shown to increase inflammatory markers even in people that are otherwise healthy. (21) And although temporary sleep deprivation has been used to therapeutically improve depression, chronic sleep loss is a well-known contributing factor to developing depression in the first place. (22

7. Chronic Infection

Chronic infections produce ongoing inflammation, so it’s no surprise to see that depression is associated with Toxoplasma gondii, West Nile virus, Clostridium difficile, and other pathogens. (23, 24, 25

8. Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease

Dental caries and periodontal disease are another source of chronic inflammation, and thus a potential cause of depression. According to one large study of over 80,000 adults, researchers found that people with depression were more likely to have tooth loss even after controlling for several demographic and health factors. (26

9. Vitamin D Deficiency

Low levels of vitamin D are common in Western populations, and there is growing evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to depression. Vitamin D modulates immune responses to infection, including reducing inflammatory markers like TNF-α and IL-1 that are associated with depression. (27) Supplementation with vitamin D to normalize serum 25D levels has been shown to to reduce inflammatory markers in some, but not all cases. (28)

The Biggest Problem with the Chemical Imbalance Theory

The early 1980s discovery that inflammatory cytokines produce all of the characteristic signs and symptoms of depression should have made a big splash. For the first time ever, scientists had discovered a class of molecules that were tightly and consistently associated with depression, and, when administered to healthy volunteers, produced all of the symptoms necessary for the diagnosis of depression. 

Unfortunately, the “chemical imbalance” theory continues to be the dominant paradigm for understanding depression nearly 30 years after this profound discovery, despite the weak correlation between serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine and depressive symptoms. There are probably several reasons for this—and you’d be correct if you guessed that some of them are financial—but I’ll leave that discussion for another time.

The significance of this finding is huge—both for patients and clinicians. It shifts our focus from viewing depression as being a disease caused by a chemical imbalance, which often requires medication to correct, to being a symptom of a deeper, underlying problem. It also leads to entirely new avenues of treatment—many of them more effective and safer than antidepressant drugs.

Understanding the physical roots of depression can have a profound effect on people who are suffering from it. Although the stigma surrounding depression has decreased in recent years, many who are depressed still carry the burden of thinking that there’s something wrong with them, and the depression they experience is “their fault.” When my patients with depression learn that theres an underlying physiological cause of their symptoms, they often feel a tremendous sense of relief and empowerment. Whats more, when we address this underlying cause, their mood improves dramatically and they quickly realize that the self-judgment and shame they felt about being depressed was misplaced and unwarranted.  

I don’t mean to suggest that emotional and psychological factors don’t play an important role in depression. In many cases they do, and I’ve written on that topic before. However, the assumption in mainstream medicine that depression is exclusively caused by those factors is obviously not true, and too often these other potential underlying causes go unexplored. The doctor prescribes an antidepressant, the patient takes it, and thats the end of the discussion.

What to Do If You’re Suffering from Depression

With this in mind, what can you do if you’re suffering from depression? Follow these two steps:

1. Adopt an Anti-Inflammatory Diet and Lifestyle

This means eating a nutrient-dense, whole foods diet, getting enough sleep, managing stress, engaging in appropriate (not too little or too much) physical activity, and nourishing your gut. For more on how to do this, see my book, The Paleo Cure.

2. Investigate Other Underlying Causes of Inflammation

On your own or with the help of a good Functional Medicine practitioner, explore other possible causes of inflammation that could be contributing to depression. These include gut issues (SIBO, leaky gut, dysbiosis, infections, etc.), chronic infections (viral, bacterial, fungal), low vitamin D levels, dental caries and periodontal disease, exposure to heavy metals and mold or other biotoxins, obstructive sleep apnea, and more.

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Join the conversation

  1. I was happy to stumble across your article via FB. Very late to the conversation I see! However, I feel like I have lived my life as a guinea pig when it comes to depression. I became clinically depressed at age 28, but suffered from chronic depression since age 12ish. I am now 64. When I was first treated with anti-depressants – Norpramin – I believed it to be a wonder drug. It did what therapy could not do. These are the only 2 alternatives at that time and even they were new to most. I was told at the time that I only needed to take them for awhile and that the meds would jump start my brain and then I’d be good to go. Of course, that was not reality. I have been on and off them ever since – hand in hand with therapy. I’ve spent a fortune over the years trying to stay out of the mud and misery of depression. Five years ago after a serious car accident I developed PTSD. The medical profession is so far behind in all of this as to be laughable — although it’s not a bit funny to the person suffering. The only thing my doctor offered me was more drugs for the anxiety. I was given Klonopin. The best thing I ever did was reach out to a Naturopath. She told me I had PTSD. She told me about chronic inflammation. She gave me the tools of meditation, deep breathing, EFT and guided imagery. She put me on herbal supplements and helped me change my diet. My PTSD is gone, my digestion is more regulated, my depression has lifted. I am not yet to the point of being resilient — When I have a period of illness or stress overload I crash hard, but now I know how to get back up again and I am hopeful that I will one day be able to relinquish my anti-depressants. As it is I have cut them in half. My blood pressure has dropped from 140 to 120, my weight has dropped without dieting, my brain has cleared. I agree 110% that it is the power and force of the drug industry and doctors who because of insurance limit visits to one topic and 15 mins. Their solution is ALWAYS more tests or drugs. Never anything else. The medical community and the wholistic health community must get together! And get big business out of the middle of our health and well-being!

    • I would argue that business needs to get out of the way of health. Or, one should consider the ramifications of paying someone else to feed you and tell you what’s wrong with you and sitting back to enjoy the show.

      Life never worked that way for humans for millennia before the industrial revolution and doesn’t now. The difference is that we know better now. We know that inflammation is a sign of brain distress. How many of you are distracted by the symptoms of your brain distress (depression, anxiety (any “behavioral problem”), gut problems, fertility problems, skin problems, hair problems, energy level problems, immune system problems…

      The only thing these things have in common is (diagnostically speaking), is your head. It’s great you’re aware you get inflamed and when and the factors that worsen it…but how many of you have taken to the time to ask “why is my brain so pissed off all the time?”

      Only you will find your true answers, but I’ll give you some clues. A real “first world” problem is to not address root causes and to casually overlook injuries that are not casual. For example, the human skull is approx 6.5 mm thick. It’s also comprised of many bones with some that are meant to articulate (most) with each movement of the face/mandible. Others are more fixed (as adults, top of the head, coincidentally some of the strongest bones in the skull are up top). In other words, the human skull moves, naturally, and easily-which means that forces enacted against it will cause damage. Always. For every action, there is an equal reaction.

      This means that almost all of us are walking around with unaddressed skull deformities/brain injuries unaddressed for lifetimes (hence why our populations are dying younger, getting sicker in their 30’s and up despite “advances”).

      Forces that commonly cause skull deformities/brain injuries:

      Birth (natural and c-section)-lots of brain/pituitary problems because of nose/mid face structure compression.

      Injury such as falls as children, bicycles, ladders, vehicles, motor vehicle accidents, fights, wars, sports, etc

      These are all violent acts to the human body requiring gentleness to let go and recover from.

      We are great at adapting, hence why we still walk the planet. But if you care about living the ways humans are meant to, then start living like they used to. Eat whole foods grown how those foods evolved to grow (ice cream!!). Exercise regularly-gentle and easy walking is all that is necessary to be healthy-mixed with real manual work of course. Be outside more. Keep your inflammation in check. Go see a cranial sacral therapist about your head, acupuncture for inflammation and speedy healing, atlas orthogonal chiro for your spine. Naturopath for your nutrient deficiencies. Massage, sauna, other blood stimulating activities are encouraged as well. Quit neglecting hydration-of your inside and out! Magnesium in all forms is your friends while on your healing journey.

      Leave big pharma back where they came from and trust that only you know your body, not someone who is practicing at what used to be (and still is if you look for it) healing arts vs. medicine. You choose.

      Make a difference. Change your life, then pass on the word.

      • I should add that ice cream doesn’t grow-but it’s hot here as I type this and it’s can be a whole fatty delicious food, so you could see why I typed it.


        • Two last thoughts (my apologies!)

          1. Learn to stretch. Move your body in all the ways it can and should, but gently. This will make you stronger.

          2. We now know trauma can be passed on genetically. Thus, by not addressing these injuries we’ve created a host of fun new symptoms (aka diseases) and humans with behavioral/physical dysfunction, throw in some environmental physical stress and learned/made-up physical and mental stress…that sounds like a kitchen and recipe for gun powder.

          Sound familiar?

    • I believe it. These are some of the interventions Bessel Vander Kolk, a leading voice on the treatment of PTSD recommends – NOT meds.

  2. I found out my depression, anxiety and my ruddy mood swings were a direct result to being subjected to a moldy environment.

    • This is interesting. I have suspicions of this for myself. How did you determine that?

      • There is a test you can have done called a ‘hair-bio profiler’ which can pick up all kinds of things, problematic foods, parasites, deficiencies, radiation, viruses etc. I had it done at a naturopath for two of my sons who had completely unrelated health issues and it was the best money I ever spent. We discovered one of them had a build up of mould which we have since cleared and he is finally symptom free.

  3. I have a history of depression and candida overgrowth. I started taking Prescript Assist in the fall of 2015. I experienced some detox/ die-off symptoms but those dissipated. In February of 2016 I started taking Mercola’s MSM and Lipoic Vitamin C. Again, I experienced severe die-off symptoms so I had to start extra low with the MSM and build up to 2000mg/day. Two months later I feel lighter, I have more energy, and my memory has gotten better! I also supplement with Great Lakes Gelatin and done one month of an anti-inflammatory diet. I’m not any any particular diet now but I have more energy now that I’m 36 than I did in high school! I just started incorporating regular exercise and I feel really great! I really believe now that depression is inflammation of the brain. I recently stopped taking the Prescript Assist and started a lactic based one from Mercola but it spiked my candida so I’m going back onto the SBO probiotic because it manages the candida better.

  4. Speaking of depression, the latest news is about a drug Ketamine, also a street drug known as Special K, being used in suicidal patients with remarkable results. From what I understand Ketamine is a glutamate receptor blocker and there can be bad side effects. But NIH sponsored study in Journal Nature shows that it is a metabolite produced by the breakdown of Ketamine that has the anti-depressant effects without side effects. What do you think of this? Could you explain the Journal Nature research in layman’s terms?

  5. I was suspecting that greatly. I’ve just been healed of anxiety and the like by drinking cold water with turmeric-an anti inflammatory medicine. It was miraculous and a very long time coming. Thank you for your research. I believe you are right.

  6. It must be true about inflamation linked with depression because sometimes just ibuprophen will knock out that bad dark tired feeling

  7. This theory was presented in 1991, so nothing new about it. (Smith RS. The macrophage theory of depression. Medical Hypotheses 35:298-306, 1991.) As far as the chemical imbalances go, cytokines have been shown to produce the various neurotransmitter imbalances. It’s amazing the medical community has been ignoring this plethora of research!

  8. I have Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, with depression and chronic fatigue. I rely heavily on turmeric to help control depression, (along with some other natural products). Turmeric has an anti-inflammatory effect, so I knew that inflammation is a big part of my problem. But I haven’t discovered how to permanently reduce inflammation, despite a multi-pronged effort to address my issues: paleo diet, vitamin/mineral supplementation, high quality probiotics, removing chemicals. Wondering if a long course of antibiotics would remove the inflammation?

    • I’ve had great success with the GAPS (Gut and Psychology Syndrome diet-terribly named I must admit-it’s more aptly named End Inflammation Caused by Poor Diet/Gut problems). I also supplement heavily with Vitamin d, magnesium (a lot and many kinds as there are benefits to absorbing through skin vs gut and only one type passes blood brain barrier), l-glutamine (to aid in gut repair faster), bioavailable zinc (zinc ororate) and bioavailable b complex (to address long term deficiencies-Jarrow’s B-right or Jigsaw’s Bcomplex with SRT are the best I’ve found), and benedryl (to keep immune response in check, I have chronic asthma, allergies and celiac and I want to give the pro system as much of a fighting chance as possible).

      Also, I completely agree with this article and am glad someone took the time to correlate all the research culminated over the last 20 years on facets of this subject. I too, wish the medical community had more incentive to pay attention. Would have saved me lots of time, anguish and money.

    • You might check out the Andy Cutler protocol. Thyroid issues, fatigue, depression and are symptoms of mercury toxicity, which causes inflammation.

      • I have all of these , graves disease ( thyroid ) depression , tired , weak muscles , could inflammation be underlying ?

    • Have you considered that you may have poor methylation (detoxification) in the liver? This will affect the immune system causing toxicity. Maybe some of the things your eating and drinking are inflammatory to your gut? GMO’s and gluten?

  9. Ok, so far I’ve heard words. Are there any references to scientific studies available to support this Inflammation Theory of Depression. Why does the author of this article did not provide any?

    • There are 28 scientific references in the article. The numbers in parentheses after sentences are links to the studies.

      • I’d like to know what you think of the mood cure by Julie Ross. Using a primal diet and amino acid supplements for anxiety depression etc. It seems to tackle the inflammation and prov ides natural medications to improve moods and behaviors.

        • This book sounds awesome! Have you had personal success, do you follow it? Im going to look for it right now!

    • Being in the medical field consider that it may not be politically & financially beneficial for the pharmaceutical industry to find a rational reason that could improve this huge problem that we the public experience as a result of modified food, pollution, fluoride, etc have created. Think of it as healthfield job security. There are few grants provided to encourage research to support this information. Just a suggestion that you may consider .

  10. Prolonged exposure to external stress from 2010 when job loss, declining jobs/low pay and at age 62 caused spiraling anxiety and depression. Living on social security income, inflationary cost of living makes it impossible to afford the fresh/organic nutrient rich and toxin free diet that I need to have a strong immune system and minimal inflammatory response. What specialist might be helpful?

    • Eating a nutrient-rich diet can be cheaper, as your body is satisfied with less real food than junk.

    • Choosing the diet will surely be more cost effective than a specialist now or the many specialists you will be forced to seek out later as chronic problems arise. There are budget friendly options. Some of them include buying the “better” option instead of the “best” but leave the “worse” options behind whenever possible. Your fuel will change your life.

    • It might be beneficial to consider growing your own veggies. Its easy even for inexperienced gardeners.
      It’s astonishing how very little soil can produce so much!

      Wishing you an improved health and wellness!

  11. I’m curious with how this theory fits in with commonly suggested supplements for treating depression? My nutritionist recently suggested 5-htp for my depression, because of it being a precursor to serotonin. I have also seen L-tryptophan suggested by other Paleo writers. Would either of these be a wise choice, or pointless if serotonin isn’t the actual problem of depression?

    I suffer a lot of bloating, constipation, fatigue, hair loss and anxiety as well – soon to be tested for SIBO. Any advice on the usefulness (or not) of supplements would be much appreciated.

  12. i am very depressed with taking medication some pills can make you this way so i try do without i suffer with inflammation ibs arthritis back problems knee problems and believe you me i have tried everything and nothing works from coconut oil garlic pills primrose oil and stuff off internet

  13. Everyone look up Dr. John Sarno, 20/20 interview; Howard Stern Dr. Sarno interview; as well as other interviews relating to his work. He has helped so many with the same issues you are all talking about without all the meds and their side effects.

    • It’s funny that you mention Dr. Sarno because it was one of the first things I thought about when reading the article. I started believing in his anger theory after it cured my chronic back pain for about 90% in 2011. I definitely recommend anyone with a depression to look up some videos on Dr. Sarno.

      I must say that it also worked for my depression but not completely. If you deal with your emotional issues but still decide to eat unhealthy or live an unhealthy lifestyle it’s kinda counterproductive. I think most of us agree that the mind and body are somewhat intertwined. That if one is out of balance, the other is as well.

      After reading an review on feelgoodreviews.com I decided to start a depression self-help program. A lot of the program dealt with exposure therapy and CBT and it worked wonders for my depression, in addition to starting a paleo diet with a lot of fermented foods.

      I still have my moments from day to day but it’s in no way comparable to the constant burden of a heavy depression. At the moment I dealt with the depression all hope was lost. So I can relate to anyone suffering and I hope this helps somebody suffering from it. It’s not as overcomable as it feels 🙂

  14. I haven’t heard much discussion about the use of amino acids to rebuild neurotransmitter function. Sometimes depleted NTs really are the cause of the issue, and rebuilding them using precursors works within minutes! Feeding the brain before tweaking the brain!!! And sometimes we still need to tweak by using antidepressants and other meds. In response to a previous post, liposomal curcumin (from turmuric) is a good brain anti-inflammatory. But start with a low dose. Also, keeping blood sugar absolutely stable by eating protein every 3-4 hours is crucial. Christina

    • Always get your amino-acids from foods, not tablets. An over abundance of one amino-acid can disrupt the bodies protein balance.

    • I have to agree with Doug.

      Your attitude to food will change your life, and if your attitude changes, then you might become closer to finally rid yourself of depression.

      Anyone had experience with mediterreanean diet? I have found a website, http://www.mydepressionreview.com/a-review-of-destroy-depression-by-james-gordon/ that mentions a Destroy Depression System book which has information about this kind of diet. Apparently, it works and helps you live your life better.

      Does it really work?

  15. This article clarified for me why I seem to respond so poorly to exercise. I’ve suffered from depression on and off since my osteoarthritis became and issue about 15 years or so ago, and I’ve been diagnosed with fibromyalgia and IBS (symptoms of IBS eliminated with the Paleo diet). My depression and body aches have been really bad this past week since I renewed my commitment to exercise. Understanding how this response works will help me plan for it and see it through.

    • I used to have diagnosed Osteoarthritis and Deputry’s Contractures but I looked up the involved cytokines Like Cox 2, LOX 5, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and started taking Boswellin ( a frankinsence product) nettle tea, chinese scullcap( can take tea or pills-made my own) turmeric with a little black pepper, safflower petals and a few raisins soaked in Gin with juniper berries added and evaporated to remove the alcohol. The pain, in joints all over, stopped , the contractures disappeared, I could flex my hands without getting stuck, the shiny finger-joint lumps almost completely disappeared and I can flatten my left hand and almost flatten my right hand. Glad that is done. But I still got a diagnosis of bi-polar which greatly improved eliminating gluten. Off psych meds, no more fog or forgetfulness or flat personality. Working on my Hashimoto’s, might get to take Lugol’s to address that. Cooking/draining my goitrogenic foods. Good health to you!

  16. Thanks Chris. Your work has been life changing for me. Went gluten free 3 years ago and most of my issues went away. Eliminating gluten, adopting an anti-inflammatory and paleo diet , getting enough sleep and eliminating stress factors plus making my own food have yielded results beyond any reasonable expectations. I am so thankful for all you have done and for freely sharing your knowledge.

  17. Mental health is not less important than the physical!
    Do not forget about psychosomatic illnesses and other dangerous effects of depression.
    I had been suffering because of depression for a long time after divorce and one day I realized how close to suicide I was…
    But then I reversed my behaviour with an anti-depression system (I wrote my full story in here http://style4u.me/depressioncures, hope this help), and now I am a happy woman always in a good mood =)

  18. is there a drug that is effective for treating inflammation on my brain even if it is drug that is already used for something else in the body. I had said for year that my depression is about inflammation. Please let me know if you know names or have experience”
    Thank you


  19. I am 61 and am finally convinced that chocolate is THE direct link to my depression. When I eat it, I feel like I am being drug into a very deep pit that I cannot get out of. When I abstain, I am more energetic and have hope.

    • That may be histamine-induced depression. I’m pretty sure that’s where most of my depression stems from as well. It could also be copper overload, as chocolate has a lot of bioavailable copper.

        • From what I’ve read sugar is very inflammatory as its highly refined. It also up regulates your stress response by up regulating the stress hormones cortisol and adrenaline. Sugar also feeds your pathogenic bacteria which disrupts your bacterial balance and gut lining.

    • I have the same reaction. It is a result of amines in the chocolate. (histamine/tyramine etc) Aged foods and a number of other things have it too.