Why You Should Think Twice about Vegetarian and Vegan Diets | Chris Kresser
HCTP Banner

Why You Should Think Twice About Vegetarian and Vegan Diets

by

Last updated on

Vegetarian and vegan diets can’t offer the same nutrients as this grilled meat.
Are vegetarian and vegan diets healthy? If you’re not eating meat, you’re missing out on key nutrients animal products provide.

This is an update of an article I published in 2011. I affirm that animal products are among the most nutrient-dense foods you can eat and that vegetarians and vegans are at risk for multiple nutrient deficiencies. I have included up-to-date research and expanded the list of nutrients that are often lacking in vegetarian and vegan diets.

Maybe you have considered going vegetarian or vegan for the health benefits. Or maybe you know someone who feels strongly about it as an ethical choice, and you wonder if they can really follow the diet in a healthy way. I respect these reasons and appreciate anyone who thinks deeply about the social and spiritual impact of their food choices—even if my own exploration of these questions has led me to a different answer.

But many choose a vegetarian diet because they’re under the impression that it’s a healthier choice from a nutritional perspective. It is this last reason that I’d like to address in this article. For the last 50-plus years, we’ve been told that meat, eggs, and animal fats are bad for us and that we’ll live longer and enjoy superior health if we minimize or avoid them. This idea has been so thoroughly drilled into our heads that few people even question it anymore. In fact, if you asked the average person on the street whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is healthier than an omnivorous diet, they’d probably say yes. But is this really true?

If You Want Nutrient-Dense Foods, You Need to Eat Animal Products

Plant-based diets emphasize vegetables, which are quite nutrient dense, and fruits, which are somewhat nutrient dense. They also typically include large amounts of cereal grains (refined and unrefined) and legumes, both of which are low in bioavailable nutrients and high in anti-nutrients like phytate. Most importantly, vegetarian and vegan diets eschew organ meats, other meats, and fish and shellfish, which are among the most nutrient-dense foods you can eat. (1)

Followers of vegetarian and vegan diets, beware: You could be missing out on B12, iron, calcium, and other key nutrients. Is it time to rethink your diet plan and add meat back to your plate? Find out.

Vegan diets, in particular, are almost completely devoid of certain nutrients that are crucial for physiological function. Deficiencies can take months or years to develop, and many are easily missed because they are not routinely tested for in primary care settings. Several studies have shown that both vegetarians and vegans are prone to deficiencies in:

  • Vitamin B12
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Long-chain fatty acids EPA and DHA
  • Fat-soluble vitamins like A and D

Let’s take a closer look at each of these nutrients.

It’s generally better to get your nutrients from whole foods rather than supplementation. In many cases, that means leaving a vegetarian or vegan diet behind and adopting a Paleo template that includes animal foods. But making that lifestyle shift is difficult. Even in cases where there’s a diagnosed deficiency, it’s hard to leave behind a long-held lifestyle.

That’s where health coaches come in. Health coaches are behavior change experts. They understand how to support their clients, empower them to uncover their true motivation, and facilitate change—especially when it’s hard.

In the ADAPT Health Coach Training Program, we’re teaching the next generation of Functional health coaches how to help people change and meet their health goals. We don’t just teach the ins and outs of motivation and behavior change; we also provide our students with comprehensive course materials on different diet variations, including vegetarian and vegan diets.

Do you want to learn how to help people reach their health goals while embracing a Functional and ancestral health perspective? You can—with the ADAPT Health Coach Training Program. Find out more about our program.

Vegetarian and Vegan Diets Don’t Provide Enough Vitamin B12

B12 deficiency is especially common in vegetarians and vegans. To properly evaluate B12 status, total serum vitamin B12 isn’t enough. A better marker for vitamin B12 is holotranscobalamin II, the biologically active fragment, which should be measured along with total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid. Low B12 is correlated with low holotranscobalamin II, while homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are usually increased in later stages of vitamin B12 deficiency. (2) The most recent studies using more sensitive techniques for detecting B12 deficiency have found that up to 77 percent of vegetarians and 92 percent of vegans are B12 deficient, compared to just 11 percent of omnivores. (3, 4, 5)

Vitamin B12 works together with folate in the synthesis of DNA and red blood cells. It’s also involved in the production of the myelin sheath around the nerves and the conduction of nerve impulses. B12 deficiency can cause numerous symptoms, including:

  • Fatigue
  • Lethargy
  • Weakness
  • Memory loss
  • Neurological and psychiatric problems
  • Anemia
  • And much more …

It’s a common myth among vegetarians and vegans that it’s possible to get B12 from plant sources like:

  • Seaweed
  • Fermented soy
  • Spirulina
  • Brewer’s yeast

These plant foods don’t contain B12. They contain B12 analogs, called cobamides, that block the intake of—and increase the need for—true B12. (6)

If You’re Vegan, You Might Be Missing out on Calcium

You know that calcium is important for bone health, but did you know it’s essential for muscle and nerve function and that it’s involved in blood clotting? On paper, calcium intake is similar in vegetarians and omnivores (probably because both eat dairy products). Vegans, however, are often deficient. (7, 8, 9)

Calcium bioavailability from plant foods is affected by their levels of oxalate and phytate, which are inhibitors of calcium absorption and thus decrease the amount of calcium the body can extract from plant foods. (10) So while leafy greens like spinach and kale have a relatively high calcium content, the calcium is not efficiently absorbed during digestion.

One study suggests that it would take 16 servings of spinach to get the same amount of absorbable calcium as an eight-ounce glass of milk. (11) That would be 33 cups of baby spinach or around five or six cups of cooked spinach. There are a few vegetables listed in this paper that have higher levels of bioavailable calcium, but it’s important to note that all of the vegetables tested required multiple servings to achieve the same amount of usable calcium as one single serving of milk, cheese, or yogurt.

This suggests that trying to meet your daily calcium needs from plant foods alone might not be a great strategy. For those who don’t tolerate dairy well, fish with edible bones like sardines are great sources of calcium on a Paleo diet.

You’re Also More Likely to Be Iron-Deficient on a Plant-Based Diet

Vegetarians and omnivores often have similar levels of serum iron, but levels of ferritin—the long-term storage form of iron—are lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. (12, 13) This is significant, because ferritin depletion is the first stage of iron deficiency.

Moreover, although vegetarians often have similar iron intakes to omnivores on paper, it is more common for vegetarians (and particularly vegans) to be iron deficient.

For example, this study of 75 vegan women in Germany found that 40 percent of them were iron deficient, despite average iron intakes that were above the recommended daily allowance. (14) Among Australian men, iron intake among vegetarians and vegans was 29 to 49 percent higher than omnivores, but their serum ferritin concentrations were barely half that of omnivores. (15) Despite similar iron intakes, another study published this year showed vegans and female vegetarians having low ferritin levels. (16)

Why would this be? As with calcium, the bioavailability of the iron in plant foods (nonheme iron) is much lower than in animal foods (heme iron). Plant-based forms of iron are also inhibited by other commonly consumed substances, such as:

This explains why vegetarian diets have been shown to reduce nonheme iron absorption by 70 percent and total iron absorption by 85 percent. (17, 18)

Red Meat, Fish, and Poultry Are Your Best Sources for Zinc

Zinc is important for the immune system, cell growth, and wound healing. You won’t usually see overt zinc deficiency in Western vegetarians, but their intake often falls below recommendations, probably because red meat, poultry, and fish are the best sources.

This is another case where bioavailability is important; many plant foods that contain zinc also contain phytate, which inhibits zinc absorption. Vegetarian diets tend to reduce zinc absorption by about 35 percent compared with an omnivorous diet. (19) Thus, even when the diet meets or exceeds the RDA for zinc, deficiency may still occur. (20) One study suggested that vegetarians may require up to 50 percent more zinc than omnivores for this reason. (21) A meta-analysis of 34 studies found that both zinc intakes and serum zinc concentrations were lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. (22)

You Might Be Missing out on the Benefits of Essential Fatty Acids

Plant foods do contain linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3), both of which are considered essential fatty acids. In this context, an essential fatty acid is one that can’t be synthesized by the body and must be obtained in the diet. However, an increasing body of research has highlighted the benefits of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. These fatty acids play a protective and therapeutic role in a wide range of diseases: (23, 24)

While it is possible for some ALA from plant foods to be converted into EPA and DHA, that conversion is poor in humans: between 5 and 10 percent for EPA and 2 and 5 percent for DHA. (25)

Although no official recommendation exists, the daily suggested intake of combined DHA and EPA is around 250 to 500 mg. In theory, this means vegans and vegetarians would need to consume between five and 12.5 grams of ALA per day to obtain 250 mg of DHA. In reality, vegetarians and vegans consume merely 0.97 g/day and 0.86 g/day of ALA, respectively, according to a study of over 14,000 Americans. (26)

Vegetarians have 30 percent lower levels of EPA and DHA than omnivores, while vegans have 50 percent lower EPA and nearly 60 percent lower DHA. (27, 28) Moreover, the conversion of ALA to DHA depends on zinc, iron, selenium, and pyridoxine—nutrients that vegetarians and vegans are less likely than omnivores to get enough of. (29303132) Eating 12 to 16 ounces of cold-water fatty fish per week remains the best way to get adequate EPA and DHA. The fish will also provide bioavailable protein and selenium.

Vitamins A and D: What You’re Missing

Perhaps the biggest problem with vegetarian and vegan diets, however, is their near total lack of two fat-soluble vitamins: A and D.

Fat-soluble vitamins play numerous and critical roles in human health. Vitamin A promotes healthy immune function, fertility, eyesight, and skin. Vitamin D regulates calcium metabolism, regulates immune function, reduces inflammation, and protects against some forms of cancer.

These important fat-soluble vitamins are concentrated, and in some cases found almost exclusively, in animal foods like:

  • Seafood
  • Organ meats
  • Eggs
  • Dairy products

Some obscure species of mushrooms can provide large amounts of vitamin D, but these mushrooms are rarely consumed and often difficult to obtain. This explains why vitamin D levels are often low in vegetarians and even lower in vegans. (33, 34, 35, 36)

The idea that plant foods contain vitamin A is a common misconception. Plants contain beta-carotene, the precursor to active vitamin A (retinol). While beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in humans, the conversion is inefficient. (37, 38) For example, a single serving of liver per week would meet the RDA of 3,000 IU. To get the same amount from plant foods, you’d have to eat two cups of carrots, one cup of sweet potatoes, or two cups of kale every day.

Moreover, traditional cultures consumed up to 10 times the current RDA for vitamin A. It would be nearly impossible to get this amount of vitamin A from plant foods without juicing or taking supplements. And if supplements aren’t consumed with a fatty meal, the actual absorption will be low. (39)

Vegans and Vegetarians, You Could Be Missing These Key Nutrients

If you don’t eat meat or other animal products, you could also be missing out on:

  • Choline
  • Creatine
  • Taurine
  • Methionine
  • Glycine
  • Selenium

Choline

Vegetarian and vegan diets, along with the Standard American Diet, pose risks of choline deficiency. (40) Choline is required for:

  • Healthy cell membrane function
  • Methylation
  • Cognitive development in children

It’s so important that the FDA recently set a daily recommended intake of 550 mg for men and 425 mg for women, which should increase to 450 mg during pregnancy and 550 mg during breastfeeding. Recent research suggests that only 8.5 percent of women meet the daily choline requirement. (41) With egg yolks and organ meats as the most potent sources of choline, it’s not surprising that even omnivores are not getting enough. This is another reason I encourage giving organ meat dishes another try.

Creatine

Creatine plasma and muscle levels are usually lower in vegetarians than in omnivores, as meat provides the richest source of creatine. (42) Creatine may play an important role in cognitive function. A randomized controlled trial found that six weeks of oral creatine supplementation significantly improved vegetarians’ performance on tests of fluid intelligence and working memory. The difference in scores between groups was enormous. (43)

Another study found that creatine supplementation in vegetarians improved memory, while having no effect on fluid intelligence or working memory in meat-eaters. (44) These results suggest that vegetarians’ baseline scores may have been impaired due to low creatine intake.

Taurine

Taurine has a central role as a neurotransmitter, promotes the development of the central nervous system, and upholds the structure of cell membranes. Although the body can synthesize small amounts of taurine, vegetarians and vegans often still have low plasma and urinary taurine levels because taurine is found primarily in animal products. (45, 46) Low plasma taurine in newborns is associated with lower scores on mental development and arithmetic tests at age seven, suggesting that dietary taurine aids in neural development. (47)

Methionine

Methionine is another amino acid that is restricted on a plant-based diet. Low methionine intake has been linked to longevity in scientific research. However, methionine is still an essential amino acid, and too little methionine may impair detoxification and reduce fertility. (48, 49) After being activated using ATP, methionine becomes the universal methyl donor.

On the flip side, too much methionine can also pose problems. After methyl donation, methionine becomes homocysteine and must be recycled back to methionine by B12, folate, or betaine (derived from choline). Because meat is high in methionine, diets heavy in muscle meats but low in connective tissues can result in increased homocysteine levels, a risk factor for CVD.

That said, studies have shown that vegetarians and vegans have significantly higher homocysteine levels on average than omnivores. (50) In one study, the average homocysteine level among vegetarians was 13.9 nmol/L and among vegans, 16.4 nmol/L, compared to 11.3 nmol/L for omnivores. (51) This puts most vegetarians and vegans in a range that carries significant risk of CVD. In fact, according to one study:

The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia among vegetarians may actually be higher than that among non-vegetarians already diagnosed with heart disease. (52)

Glycine

Vegetarians and vegans don’t consume as much glycine as meat-eaters, as the richest sources are the “odd bits” of animal foods, like: (53)

  • Skin
  • Bones
  • Collagen
  • Gelatin

Glycine is one of the building blocks of collagen, found in our connective tissues. In addition to its structural role, glycine can also act as a neurotransmitter, plays a role in blood sugar regulation, and stimulates the production of glutathione, the body’s master antioxidant. (5455, 56, 57)

Some Paleo dieters can be susceptible to low glycine intake, too, if they are eating tons of muscle meat and ignoring the “nose-to-tail” philosophy. Glycine helps balance out methionine levels, in part by acting as a buffer for excess methyl groups. Low choline and glycine intake, common in vegetarians and vegans, can further contribute to high homocysteine levels and increased risk of CVD. Eating bone broth regularly can help balance glycine/methionine levels.

Selenium

While a few studies show no difference in selenium status among diet types, most research shows lower intake and/or levels in vegetarians and vegans compared to omnivores, including one study that measured glutathione peroxidase, a selenium-dependent enzyme and an excellent marker of active selenium status. (58, 59, 60, 61) Selenium has a role in immune function, supports thyroid hormone synthesis, and protects the thyroid from excess iodine damage. (62, 63) Selenium also helps prevent mercury toxicity. (64)

Selenium deficiency is also common in those with digestive health issues like Crohn’s disease or celiac disease. (6566) The best sources of selenium include:

  • Brazil nuts
  • Crimini mushrooms
  • Some sea foods
  • Chicken
  • Eggs
  • Lamb
  • Turkey

I recommend getting selenium from whole foods instead of supplementing, as selenium supplementation can be dangerous.

Eating Animal Products Could Also Help Your Thyroid Health

Thyroid hormone synthesis requires iodine, a nutrient that can be lacking from omnivore and plant-based diets alike. Most iodine comes from the sea; the soil—and therefore vegetables grown in soil—usually contains very little. In a typical mixed diet, the highest sources of iodine are iodized salt and animal products like:

  • Dairy products
  • Eggs
  • Seafood

Vegetarians and vegans are at risk for low iodine intake. (67)

In the Boston area, urinary iodine levels in vegans were barely half that of vegetarians, and vegans were at high risk of iodine deficiency. (68) Several studies of Scandinavian populations confirm that vegans finished last in iodine intake and/or urinary iodine levels. (69, 70, 71) To make matters worse, isoflavones found in soy products, which are sometimes consumed in large quantities in vegan and vegetarian diets, may exacerbate iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. (72)

But even those following a Paleo template can be at risk for iodine deficiency if they are not regularly consuming seafood. (73) Sea vegetables, especially kelp, are the highest sources of iodine ounce for ounce.

Your Kids Need Nutrient-Dense Foods to Thrive

Because of the prevailing idea in our culture that vegetarian and vegan diets are healthy, more and more children are being raised from birth (and even from conception!) on meat-free diets. Both the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) and USDA have said that vegetarian and vegan diets are safe during pregnancy, but critical analyses by several researchers have questioned whether these recommendations are based on sufficient evidence. One review remarked that “the evidence on vegan–vegetarian diets in pregnancy is heterogeneous and scant,” suggesting that more research is needed to answer the question of whether they are, in fact, safe during pregnancy. (74)

Vegetarian and vegan diets for children carry significant risks of nutrient deficiencies that can have dire health consequences. (75, 76, 77)

Studies have shown that kids raised until age six on a vegan diet are still B12 deficient years after adding at least some animal products to their diet. One study found an association between B12 status and measures of intelligence and memory, with formerly vegan kids scoring lower than omnivorous kids. (78) Devastating case studies have reported B12 deficiency in young vegan children that have led to neurological damage and developmental delays. (79, 80)

Low nutrient intake extends beyond vitamin B12. Other case studies have attributed hypothyroidism in young children to a maternal and/or childhood vegan diet. (81, 82) Compared to omnivores, breast milk from vegan mothers had lower levels of DHA and EPA, which are vital for brain development, especially in the first year of life, when a baby’s brain literally doubles in size. (83) In short, just like adults, children on vegetarian and vegan diets often have lower intakes of iron, iodine, vitamin A, zinc, and more.

Childhood is the critical time for proper nutrition. Kids can be notoriously “picky eaters,” so we should be sure that each bite counts by providing the nutrients they need to thrive.

Your Best Choice for Optimal Nutrition Isn’t a Vegetarian or Vegan Diet, but a Paleo Template

With care and attention, I think it’s possible to meet most of your nutrient needs with a vegetarian diet that includes liberal amounts of pasture-raised, full-fat dairy and eggs, with one exception: EPA and DHA. These long-chain omega fats are found exclusively in marine algae and fish and shellfish, so the only way to get them on a vegetarian diet would be to take a microalgae supplement or bend the rules and take fish oil or cod liver oil as a supplement. (84) Still, while it may be possible to obtain adequate nutrition on a vegetarian diet, it is not optimal—as the research above indicates.

I don’t think it’s possible to meet nutrient needs on a vegan diet without supplements—and quite a few of them. Vegan diets are low in:

  • B12
  • Bioavailable iron and zinc
  • Choline
  • Vitamins A and D
  • Calcium
  • EPA and DHA
If you’re intent on following a vegan diet, make sure you’re supplementing.

It’s worth pointing out that there are genetic differences that affect the conversion of certain nutrient precursors (like beta-carotene and alpha-linolenic acid) into the active forms of those nutrients (like retinol and EPA and DHA, respectively), and these differences may affect how long someone will be able to follow a vegetarian or vegan diet before they develop nutrient deficiencies. This explains why some people seem to do well for years on these diets, while others develop problems very quickly.

Is It Time to Rethink Your Diet?

From an evolutionary perspective, is difficult to justify a diet with low levels of several nutrients critical to human function. While it may be possible to address these shortcomings through targeted supplementation (an issue that is still debated), it makes far more sense to meet your nutritional needs from food.

This is especially important for children, who are still developing and are even more sensitive to suboptimal intake of the nutrients discussed in this article. Like all parents, vegetarians and vegans want the best for their children. Unfortunately, many are not aware of the potential for nutrient deficiencies posed by their dietary choices.

I hope this article can serve as a resource for anyone on a plant-based diet, whether they choose to start eating meat (or animal products, in the case of vegans) again or not.

1,873 Comments

Join the conversation

  1. What a load of ***** to start off. While you can certainly go vegan and vegetarian wrong, (I have been vegan, vegetarian AND just a normal person), if done correctly you get all of the nutrients needed. While I do take calcium and a multivitamin pill, most of the nutrients I get is from nuts and seeds. It is beneficial for both the individual in the long run and the environment. Think about how much water, feed, gas, and forestry that you are saving by going vegan? And if someone dares to tell me that one person can’t make a difference, how about a couple million?

  2. You made a point in Rogan debate that Mormons live as long as Adventists and are meat eaters but I do not think this is true. Mormons live as long as all Adventists but when you drill down to Veg Adventists they beat Mormons by over 2 years. You also make a point that outcomes trump mechanisms and yet you switch to mechanisms when it suits quoting nutrients at length. Data shows that WFPB live long and healthy lives, yes maybe Nutriomnis could but we dont know that for sure. Thought you gave Kahn a bloody nose in the debate but he made the mistake of trying to prove meat eating is the elephant in the room

  3. It is good to see articles like this, it just shows how many people enjoy keeping their head in the sand lead by people who enjoy keeping their head in the sand!

    Once people had a hard time convincing the world that the earth was not flat, once more you would get killed off if you tried to teach others this fact.

    Surgeons never cleaned their hands before surgery, look what happened when they pulled heir head out of the sand.

    In the later half of 2018 the world got conned into believing coconut oil is total poison, it was claimed that there had been no research done to show the benefit of coconut oil, the person who promoted this claim had absolutely no qualifications in health heeling, the person had a PhD in bio-statistics, it seems strange for the qualifications this person had, there is lots of information available on Internet to show coconut oil research.
    Once more coconut oil is the only known antidote for aluminum phosphide poisoning many hospitals around the world use it, without coconut oil death is certain. How can it be “total poison”? Pacific Islanders had great health eating coconut products, until they where introduced to the western diet, now their health is rubbish.

    Today cancer is going rampant due to modern 21st technology living style Electrical & now Electronics, The American Amish community just dont have cancer like the rest of the world, how strange! It is because they have not got into modern technology. See more from youtube by Dr. Samuel Milham M.D. M.P.H.

    My city library has a wealth of information from non-fiction books to keep ones health in tip top condition, so why is poor health going rampant?

    I am sure one could write a book on how ignorance is wrecking our health, loved by those who get great warmth keeping their head in the sand, by just looking at history and using it for example.

  4. Why not look at Dr. McDougall?
    Dr. Michael Greger?
    Dr. Neal Barnard?

    Have you been to Nutritionfacts.org? -the most up to date nutrition information in the world…
    What about PCRM.org?

    Why does this need to say these things? How many people are clearly deficient in these nutrients anyways? This is not very well done as you’re not comparing appropriately the most well nourished of either side. You have a bias and it’s very disappointing. With so many confusing articles floating around I wish you would have at least been unbiased about this.

    • the “bias” is based in experience…it is what kressor and so many others see in their practice………and what I have seen in many long term vegan/vegetarians…..and my wife..

      I think of vegan/ vegetarianism like I think of ketosis…..perhaps a very valuable as a tool, but very difficult and potentially unhealthy to do long term. There are a ton of former vegan/vegetarians gone towards an ancestral style of eating (many of whom registered on the autoimmunity spectrum to such a point – like Terry Wahls – that they had to change )……and I would bet that it is rare for a true healthy paleo eater to go to vegan/vegetarian……and stay there. And although I cant prove it I would be very surprised if many of the paleo enthusiasts that are doing it properly are having the problems with autoimmunity as compared to vegan/vegetarians. This is nothing personal….not bias….just obvious evidence that is near universal in our(ancestral health folks) experience.

  5. Just the high levels of gluten, lectins,and phytates resultant from high grain, legume, and nut diet seems to set up long term vegans and vegetarians for leaky gut and auto-immunity(the research seems to be piling up daily in this area) ….as well as the deficiencies documented above. Then there is the fat problem….anyone who has experimented with a healthy higher fat diet(lower carb) will tell you how their brain smoothed out. Maybe that is why so many in the vegan/vegetarian groups seem so sensitive?…lol…(actually I am serious)…..ask Terry Wahls how a vegetarian diet worked out for her and how she was healed from MS.

    • I agree with your statement. I was strict vegetarian for 14 years. I thought that my diet was very healthy. Unfortunately, I was diagnosed with Grave’s disease and had lupus antibodies as well. I changed my diet to paleo and within 4 months, I was in remission from Graves. It turns out, I cannot diegest cow dairy, beans (peanuts, green beans, soy, and peas included), and most grains. I have to be cautious to not eat too much broccoli, kale, or cabbage as well. I really only enjoy eating fish and venison. I totally avoid beef and most pork products. While I love veggies and fruits, humans are homivores and we need some animal protein in our diet. Also, I think heritage has to do with ability to digest these things. I am primarily Northern European and I think our guts just do not have the enzymes to break these things down.

  6. Studies do show however that Pescitarians live the longest of all sub groups although I do hate this simplification of Vegan V non vegan subgrouping. As one doctor said veganism focuses on what we should leave out of the diet whereas a whole food plant based diet focuses equally on what should be in the diet. In my opinion a whole food plant based diet with some wild fish is the healthiest diet.

  7. What the Health movie was very one sided…compared SAD diet with healthy vegan…there are many varieties and depends on where you are coming from as to how healthy you will get ….that said…grass fed organic animal products have a more nutritionally dense calorie stamp than vegetables. It is something to consider. I prefer whole plant food diet with some organically grass fed and wild protein animal products and high quality dairy. I think it is the best way for me

  8. ..I mean this children argument is double edged since because meat eating 40000 children daily die of starvation )so why not use them in considering ‘preferable diet’ .Ask them what would they rather have..

  9. Thank you for sharing the post! After reading this article, I think I will eat vegan once a week. For a non-vegetarian like me, I think it’s enough for a start.

[if lte IE 8]
[if lte IE 8]